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      • KCI등재

        Medieval European Studies in Korea Today

        이동춘,안선재 한국중세근세영문학회 2008 중세르네상스 영문학 Vol.16 No.2

        Medieval studies in Korean universities are limited by the perceived difficulty of the subject. Few universities offer courses on medieval topics, even at graduate school level. Yet there are a number of scholars whose main area of research is centered in the Middle Ages and a number of academic associations devoted partly or fully to that. Doctoral dissertations are written on medieval topics, at least occasionally. The number of books on medieval topics translated into Korea or written in Korean suggests a much wider potential interest, while the use of medieval setting in computer games indicates the enduring imaginative power of the period.

      • KCI등재

        Dryden’s Topographical Imagination in Marriage à la Mode: Spacing, Privacy and Theatricality

        최재민 한국중세근세영문학회 2010 고전·르네상스 영문학 Vol.19 No.1

        In an attempt to challenge the conventional understanding of Restoration tragicomedy, this paper explores discursive and spatial constructions of privacy in John Dryden’s Marriage à la Mode. Noting the uneasy juxtaposition of the two concepts of privacy in Dryden’s comedy, this paper calls attention to Restoration court culture of 1670s in which Dryden had to strike an uneasy balance act between the receding pastoral world and the emerging libertinism. By placing pastoral lovers and libertine couples in the same royal court, Dryden vividly captures the precarious cohabitation of two opposing (private) worlds. To illustrate the significance of this topographical structure, this paper draws upon Freudian reading of human psyche, in which the ego has to put a rein on two unruly assertions both from the superego and the unconscious. While trying not to lose sight of the fact that Dryden was apparently unfavorable to the emergence of libertinism and its subversive use of pastoral/heroic language, this paper concludes that the significance of Dryden’s Marriage à la Mode lies in its faithful dramatization of the historical moment in which the private started to establish its association with the sexual.

      • KCI등재

        근대 초기 항해 모험 드라마가 전유하는 기사도 로맨스의 현재적 의미

        임정인 한국중세근세영문학회 2013 중세르네상스 영문학 Vol.21 No.1

        This paper aims to read closely how John Fletcher’s The Island Princess (1619-21) tunes up such motifs as knight-errantry and courtly love from medieval romance, as he dramatizes the contemporary social aspirants engaged in oversea exploitations. The paper first examines the ways in which medieval romance, with its inherent connection between personal achievement and courtly membership, provides a rich tradition for early modern English plays, and then introduces the specific ways in which The Island Princess utilizes the generic features of chivalric romance in order to renegotiate the contemporary social mobility in proto-colonial terms. The paper in doing so pays particular attention to how the play offers one of the most revealing examples where a knight errant bound for a sacred quest in an enchanted forest is changed into a vagabond merchant looking for profits on South Asian islands. The paper then goes on to conclude that the play’s fantasy about Armusia’s adventure in fact means a downright promotion of mercantile empowerment, in which one could foresees the imperial nationhood in making from outside of England.

      • KCI등재

        스펜서의 프로테스탄티즘: 프로테스탄티즘과 문화의 역동적 관계

        김호영 한국중세근세영문학회 2005 중세르네상스 영문학 Vol.13 No.1

        This essay tries to define how Spenser views the complex relationship between the claims of Protestantism and culture. It first introduces Reinhold Niebuhr's insightful analysis of the development and breakdown of the medieval Thomistic synthesis of Christianity and culture, not so much to provide Spenser's intellectual milieu as to illuminate the kind of synthesis of Protestantism and culture Spenser seeks in The Faerie Queene, in which both man's obligation to fulfil his/her cultural potentials and the inevitable sinfulness of his/her pretensions to perfection are equally emphasized. Next, the question of the relationship between the English Reformation and Elizabethan culture offers a concrete testing ground for whether Niebuhr's suggestion can be validly applied to Spenser's case. A concept of iconoclastic Protestantism prevalent during the Elizabethan age helps define Spenser's dynamics of Protestantism and culture. The third section of the essay criticizes three types of the synthesis of Christianity and culture frequently employed by Spenserians as intellectual frames of reference in studying Spenser's masterpiece. Both Spenser's ardent efforts to tackle the pressing moral and social issues of his time and his deeply pessimistic view of man's cultural achievements make it very hard to define his Protestantism statically. Only a dialectic interplay of Protestantism and culture does justice to Spenser's dynamic mode of thinking that constantly searches for feasible moral and social visions in the context of sin and Grace.

      • KCI등재

        양날의 포르노그라피

        김순원 한국중세근세영문학회 2013 중세르네상스 영문학 Vol.21 No.1

        This essay aims at re-illuminating The Monk (1796) which has been notoriously criticised for its lewdness and obscenity within the frame of recent debates on pornography. One big branch of the debates is firmly built on the belief that misogynous pornography is in complicity with patriarchy in subordination and objectification of women through sexually explicit and servile representation of women. On the other hand, some critics maintain that pornography can be used as an effective way of expressing not only female sexuality but various ‘different’ sexual identities that have been marginalized in a patriarchal society. Given the ambivalence for which The Monk is so famous, it is not unexpected that the text seems to accomodate both arguments. If one reads the text focusing on Antonia and other main characters who gain a happy conclusion at the price of accepting the dominant sexual ideology, The Monk becomes a women-hating and women-belittling pornographic text, where female bodies are simply either objects of male sexuality or a disgusting, corrupting and mangled mass. However, if one focuses on Matilda, who transgresses all fixed categories of sexual identity, gender identity, and even human/non-human identity, The Monk becomes a subversive, obscene, and pornographic text, where female desire for liberty can be fully gratified. Besides, The Monk as a pornographic text also contains the unspeakable crime of homo-eroticism safely repressed in the depth of the Ambrosio-Rosario story, from which it flees into a hyper-heterosexual relation of Ambrosio and Matilda before readers detect the latent homo-eroticism of Lewis himself.

      • KCI등재

        John Bunyan as a Dissenter: A Study of Dissenting Literature in the Restoration

        최재민 한국중세근세영문학회 2014 중세르네상스 영문학 Vol.22 No.1

        Only in recent years, Dissenters in the Restoration have been receiving overdue attention, consequently challenging the conventional view of Restoration literature as a prelude for the age of Neo-classicism that would blossom in the works of Alexander Pope. While criticizing the linear historiography of Restoration literature and the often overemphasized role of royal courts in it, this article attempts to focus on and describe the cooperative aspects between Bunyan and his sympathetic companions, a group of Dissenters who influenced or helped Bunyan to gather his thoughts and publish them in print. The mutual relationship between Bunyan and his publishers such as Francis Smith, George Larkin and Nathaniel Ponder is described in detail not only to show how closely and within what circumstances Bunyan worked with these Dissenting publishers but also to illustrate another way of portraying Bunyan’s authorship and time period.

      • KCI등재

        여성의 사회학: 셰익스피어 4대 비극의 여성 주인공들 중심으로

        임은정 한국중세근세영문학회 2015 고전·르네상스 영문학 Vol.24 No.1

        The purpose of this study is to examine the sociology of the subversiveness in female characters of Shakespeare’s four tragedies. Shakespeare’s tragedies deal with ordinary matters as well as explore the reasons why modern man is referred to as universal. The “invisible hand”(3.2.48) and “unknown power”(4.1.68) in Macbeth are connected with Cultural Materialism and New Historicism. This could be extended into the sociology of subversiveness, as in “How to be a King”. The sociological analytical approach is appropriate for tragedies which have a unity of themes and which not only represent the social history of that era, but also a series of connections or possibility which are not much different from today’s social history. Hamlet, which is the initial tragedy, covers the images of the new man and the sociology of young men and women. Women were the focus of the ruling discourse and were the target of satire in those times. Ophelia’s song, ‘Saint Valentain’s Day’, is her unconscious revolt against society. In Othello, Desdemona and Emilia experience solidarity and freedom of speech in the willow scene, and the women’s friendship in this scene is an implied rebuke of relationships between men in this text. King Lear is a subversive play insofar as it calls into question the ideology of the divine right of kings. Macbeth deals with weak king and the sociology of women. The sociology of an authentic woman-centered character is represented in this text. Lady Macbeth is portrayed as a malicious character from the beginning of the text. Also, the line between an evil human being and a scheming witch is not hard to find, in that Lady Macbeth could easily be either. In this context, we could substitute Lady Machiavelli for Lady Macbeth. Over times, the subjects of the four major tragedies adopt the sociological changes of democratization or social equality among members of society in England and the Renaissance era.

      • KCI등재

        파쿼의 『신병모집관』 읽기: 명예혁명 이후 지배가치관의 변화를 중심으로

        서영윤 한국중세근세영문학회 2009 고전·르네상스 영문학 Vol.18 No.1

        In early modern England, the nation-building process consists of the power struggle between the landed aristocracy and the newly-rising middle class. The latter gradually gained more power even during the Restoration though the hierarchy was seemingly firm. After the Glorious Revolution, the power had transferred from the monarch to the Parliament. This transition had an effect on theatre audiences and productions. Restoration Comedies tried to represent the aristocratic values such as the divine right of kings, patriarchism and classical education. After the Glorious Revolution, however, comedies positively began to depict the transition from an aristocratic to a bourgeois hegemony. The publication of Collier’s A Short View accelerated the ideological change in drama. While wit as the quality that distinguishes superior characters was declined, moral qualities became more important. In his early work Farquhar was often squeezed between the conflicting demands of two ideologically divided audiences, but in The Recruiting Officer (1706), one of his final great plays, he tried to unite them by shifting the setting from London to a country. This is obviously the innovative and influential aspect of this play. Before him, countries had been despised on the stage. There are two plots of recruiting in this play: ‘the recruitment for the army’ and ‘the recruitment for the marriage’. The two are united by Silvia. She disguises herself as a young man in order to test Plume's love and intrinsic worth. At first Plume seems to be an immoral rake. But his love for Silvia is sincere and not influenced by a financial consideration. Finally disguised Silvia finds the intrinsic value of Plume and receives her father’s blessings for their marriage. Farquhar represented the marriage of Plume and Silvia as the ethical basis of the world both classes could accept each other’s values. The chief weakness of The Recruiting Officer is that the playwright did not extend his social consciousness beyond the class interests between the aristocratic and the newly-rising middle class and so glossed over the fates of the lower class characters such as Rose and unfortunate recruits for the foreign and bloody war. In early modern England, the nation-building process consists of the power struggle between the landed aristocracy and the newly-rising middle class. The latter gradually gained more power even during the Restoration though the hierarchy was seemingly firm. After the Glorious Revolution, the power had transferred from the monarch to the Parliament. This transition had an effect on theatre audiences and productions. Restoration Comedies tried to represent the aristocratic values such as the divine right of kings, patriarchism and classical education. After the Glorious Revolution, however, comedies positively began to depict the transition from an aristocratic to a bourgeois hegemony. The publication of Collier’s A Short View accelerated the ideological change in drama. While wit as the quality that distinguishes superior characters was declined, moral qualities became more important. In his early work Farquhar was often squeezed between the conflicting demands of two ideologically divided audiences, but in The Recruiting Officer (1706), one of his final great plays, he tried to unite them by shifting the setting from London to a country. This is obviously the innovative and influential aspect of this play. Before him, countries had been despised on the stage. There are two plots of recruiting in this play: ‘the recruitment for the army’ and ‘the recruitment for the marriage’. The two are united by Silvia. She disguises herself as a young man in order to test Plume's love and intrinsic worth. At first Plume seems to be an immoral rake. But his love for Silvia is sincere and not influenced by a financial consideration. Finally disguised Silvia finds the intrinsic value of Plume and receives her father’s blessings for their marriage. Farquhar represented the marriage of Plume and Silvia as the ethical basis of the world both classes could accept each other’s values. The chief weakness of The Recruiting Officer is that the playwright did not extend his social consciousness beyond the class interests between the aristocratic and the newly-rising middle class and so glossed over the fates of the lower class characters such as Rose and unfortunate recruits for the foreign and bloody war.

      • KCI등재

        『나니아 연대기』와 「쾌활한 사람」, 「사색하는 사람」에 구현된 세례받은 상상력

        이인성,한유준 한국중세근세영문학회 2008 고전·르네상스 영문학 Vol.17 No.2

        Regardless of time difference of three hundred years, John Milton and C. S. Lewis share a similar literary code in their ideas and philosophy on the issue of “myth.” As Milton who lived in the English Renaissance period focused on the ideas of history, culture, and nation, Lewis as one of the twentieth century famous writers and scholars also taught the same topics in the Medieval and Renaissance literature at the Cambridge and Oxford University. Furthermore, they both acknowledged their identity as Christian writers whose aim is to produce and spread the discourse of Christianity. Among several similarities, their fascination with the Greek-Roman mythology and the use of pagan elements in their literary texts are worthy of attention, not because they are regarded themselves as Christian writers, but because they employed the Greek-Roman myth as fictitious elements in comparison with Christian ideas as the factual truths. Thus, this paper aims at analyzing the literary aspects of the “myth” embodied in both Milton’s “L’Allegro” and “Il Penseroso” and Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia in order to understand the in-depth meanings and insights about these writers’ ideas of Christianity. This paper also shows that a classical text like Milton’s could be reincarnated in a popular literature like Lewis’s works in the contemporary times. The first part examines how Milton and Lewis represent the real world the Renaissance and World War II respectively. The second part analyses how Milton and Lewis discover the limitations of the mythical world. These limitations lead them to search the ultimate imaginative mythical world. The third part explores Miton and Lewis’s understandings of the “Baptized Imagination” that is the knowledge of Reality which could help human beings avoid the “human dilemma,” the knowledge about Reality, and introduce to the ultimate imaginative mythical world. The final part investigates the concepts of the “Baptized Imagination” and the “Myth became Fact” that are represented in the texts of Milton and Lewis. As Milton and Lewis embody the progress of the “Myth became Fact,” the conclusion discusses how they achieve their goals in which the readers experience complete and ultimate mythical world. Regardless of time difference of three hundred years, John Milton and C. S. Lewis share a similar literary code in their ideas and philosophy on the issue of “myth.” As Milton who lived in the English Renaissance period focused on the ideas of history, culture, and nation, Lewis as one of the twentieth century famous writers and scholars also taught the same topics in the Medieval and Renaissance literature at the Cambridge and Oxford University. Furthermore, they both acknowledged their identity as Christian writers whose aim is to produce and spread the discourse of Christianity. Among several similarities, their fascination with the Greek-Roman mythology and the use of pagan elements in their literary texts are worthy of attention, not because they are regarded themselves as Christian writers, but because they employed the Greek-Roman myth as fictitious elements in comparison with Christian ideas as the factual truths. Thus, this paper aims at analyzing the literary aspects of the “myth” embodied in both Milton’s “L’Allegro” and “Il Penseroso” and Lewis’s The Chronicles of Narnia in order to understand the in-depth meanings and insights about these writers’ ideas of Christianity. This paper also shows that a classical text like Milton’s could be reincarnated in a popular literature like Lewis’s works in the contemporary times. The first part examines how Milton and Lewis represent the real world the Renaissance and World War II respectively. The second part analyses how Milton and Lewis discover the limitations of the mythical world. These limitations lead them to search the ultimate imaginative mythical world. The third part explores Miton and Lewis’s understandings of the “Baptized Imagination” that is the knowledge of Reality which could help human beings avoid the “human dilemma,” the knowledge about Reality, and introduce to the ultimate imaginative mythical world. The final part investigates the concepts of the “Baptized Imagination” and the “Myth became Fact” that are represented in the texts of Milton and Lewis. As Milton and Lewis embody the progress of the “Myth became Fact,” the conclusion discusses how they achieve their goals in which the readers experience complete and ultimate mythical world.

      • KCI등재

        이아고의 극에 잠식된 극중 관객 오셀로

        방승희 한국중세근세영문학회 2009 고전·르네상스 영문학 Vol.18 No.2

        This study focuses on the on-stage audience beholding the play-within-a-play in Othello. The on-stage audience plays a double role serving as the audience and actors. The actors’ double roles have substantial influence upon audiences in the theatre. Especially, the on-stage audience affect theatre-audiences who are watching the play on the stage. The actor/audience’s double acting is reflected on their double perceptions: one is that they are seeing the play, and the other is that they are seen by someone. They think about their identities through their double perceptions which are caused by watching the play like on-stage audiences beholding the-play-within-a-play. My point is that actor's double acting is a reflection and an amplification to audience. I consider Othello as an on-stage audience who watches the play-within-a-play acted by Iago. Iago manipulates several plays for Brabantio, Cassio, and Othello in order to achieve his target, the ruin of Othello. Iago presents the palpable proof which Othello desires to be Desdemona’s infidelity to Othello. Like a dumb show Iago sets up a situation in which Cassio and Bianca’s conversations are heard by the eavesdropping Othello. He believes Iago's dissembling plot to be a reality, and then mistakes the manipulated situation for the real thing. The illusion of the on-stage audience, Othello, watching the play-within-a-play as Iago’s manipulations, reflects the confusion of theatre-audiences watching the play. Shakespeare intends to blur the lines between illusion and reality. He makes the theatre-audiences believe that the on-stage audience’s experience of watching the play is a mirror of their own experiences in effect creating a stronger sense of reality. Theatre-audiences’ recognition of illusion from reality is made to deconstruct the recognition produced by the on-stage audience’ confusion. Iago’s play-within-a-play is constructed by repeating his manipulations. The On-stage audiences for Iago’s plays are Brabantio, Cassio, and Othello. In front of the audiences in the theatre he plots his plays, showing his duplicity. His soliloquies are a kind of “breaking the fourth wall” intended to induce sympathy from the audiences in the theatre and an illusionary invasion to the reality of the theatre-audiences. Iago attracts the theatre-audiences to communicate with him and to conspire over his plot together. He presents what is real and what is illusionary to the theatre-audiences representing both of his plots and results side by side. However, while the theatre-audiences watch Iago's plays following his intentions, they find themselves to be the deceived ones like Othello by Iago’s manipulation. Apparently they can recognize Iago's play as the false plots like illusions and probably they enjoy themselves watching Othello who is trapped in this illusion and destroys himself. Their enjoyment is a form of deception, acting as an illusion ruled by Iago to deceive the audience. They forget their reality as much as Othello does. Othello, an on-stage audience and on-stage actor of Iago’s play, destroys himself engulfed in his illusion created by Iago’s plots. Othello’s tragic death is a sort of shame for his jealousy and murder. His killing himself results from his confusion between reality and illusion and the change of perception to face the real thing. He could accept the reality which he has believed Iago’s illusions as a real thing by “breaking the illusion.” He could escape from Iago’s play, and he would leave the stage outside of his role as an actor playing Othello. The theatre audiences who watch Othello also have the same changes of perception back to their reality after the play finishes. They would be immersed in Iago’s play, and they can hide their guilty conscience, caused by enjoying the destruction of Othello and continue with their everyday lives. They lose themselves while watching the play, and they have believed t... This study focuses on the on-stage audience beholding the play-within-a-play in Othello. The on-stage audience plays a double role serving as the audience and actors. The actors’ double roles have substantial influence upon audiences in the theatre. Especially, the on-stage audience affect theatre-audiences who are watching the play on the stage. The actor/audience’s double acting is reflected on their double perceptions: one is that they are seeing the play, and the other is that they are seen by someone. They think about their identities through their double perceptions which are caused by watching the play like on-stage audiences beholding the-play-within-a-play. My point is that actor's double acting is a reflection and an amplification to audience. I consider Othello as an on-stage audience who watches the play-within-a-play acted by Iago. Iago manipulates several plays for Brabantio, Cassio, and Othello in order to achieve his target, the ruin of Othello. Iago presents the palpable proof which Othello desires to be Desdemona’s infidelity to Othello. Like a dumb show Iago sets up a situation in which Cassio and Bianca’s conversations are heard by the eavesdropping Othello. He believes Iago's dissembling plot to be a reality, and then mistakes the manipulated situation for the real thing. The illusion of the on-stage audience, Othello, watching the play-within-a-play as Iago’s manipulations, reflects the confusion of theatre-audiences watching the play. Shakespeare intends to blur the lines between illusion and reality. He makes the theatre-audiences believe that the on-stage audience’s experience of watching the play is a mirror of their own experiences in effect creating a stronger sense of reality. Theatre-audiences’ recognition of illusion from reality is made to deconstruct the recognition produced by the on-stage audience’ confusion. Iago’s play-within-a-play is constructed by repeating his manipulations. The On-stage audiences for Iago’s plays are Brabantio, Cassio, and Othello. In front of the audiences in the theatre he plots his plays, showing his duplicity. His soliloquies are a kind of “breaking the fourth wall” intended to induce sympathy from the audiences in the theatre and an illusionary invasion to the reality of the theatre-audiences. Iago attracts the theatre-audiences to communicate with him and to conspire over his plot together. He presents what is real and what is illusionary to the theatre-audiences representing both of his plots and results side by side. However, while the theatre-audiences watch Iago's plays following his intentions, they find themselves to be the deceived ones like Othello by Iago’s manipulation. Apparently they can recognize Iago's play as the false plots like illusions and probably they enjoy themselves watching Othello who is trapped in this illusion and destroys himself. Their enjoyment is a form of deception, acting as an illusion ruled by Iago to deceive the audience. They forget their reality as much as Othello does. Othello, an on-stage audience and on-stage actor of Iago’s play, destroys himself engulfed in his illusion created by Iago’s plots. Othello’s tragic death is a sort of shame for his jealousy and murder. His killing himself results from his confusion between reality and illusion and the change of perception to face the real thing. He could accept the reality which he has believed Iago’s illusions as a real thing by “breaking the illusion.” He could escape from Iago’s play, and he would leave the stage outside of his role as an actor playing Othello. The theatre audiences who watch Othello also have the same changes of perception back to their reality after the play finishes. They would be immersed in Iago’s play, and they can hide their guilty conscience, caused by enjoying the destruction of Othello and continue with their everyday lives. They lose themselves while watching the play, and they have believed the ...

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