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The data used in this study includes guarantee-related data from January 2007 to September 2014, as well as data of search volume provided by Naver Trend. As a result of the hierarchical regression analysis, it turned out that in step 1, the volume of credit guarantee searching affected guarantee supply while the default amount did not. In addition, it is expected that as the volume of credit guarantee searching increases, guarantee supply will also be expended. In step 2, it turned out that the amount of default normalization affected guarantee supply. It is expected that as the amount of default normalization increases, guarantee supply will also be expanded. Finally, in step 3, it turned out that both the volume of credit guarantee searching and the amount of default normalization affected guarantee supply while the default amount did not. As for the explanation power of the three models, that of step 1 was 8.3%, that of step 2 was 13.7%, and that of step 3 was 19.3%. As the default amount affected guarantee supply, Sobel Test was conducted to measure the mediation effect of the volume of credit guarantee searching and the amount of default normalization. As a result, it turned out that the volume of credit guarantee searching had mediation effect while the amount of default normalization did not. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of guarantee accidents of the Regional Credit Guarantee Foundation, which provides public finance service on guarantee supply. This indicates the necessity of examining the causality through another regression analysis after a Granger Causality test. In terms of demands for guarantee supply, further research may be necessary on referring to the volume of credit guarantee searching.
This study examines the effects of perceived value among smart phone users on customer satisfaction, brand trust, brand loyalty, and switching intention in order to analyze the process of purchasing smart phone in China. To this end, a survey was conducted among Xiaomi and Galaxy smart phone users in Shanghai, China. The results show that perceived value had no direct effect on brand loyalty and switching intention, but it turned out that perceived value had indirect effect on brand loyalty through brand trust when the mediating effect was measured. In addition, it turned out that customer satisfaction had direct effects on brand trust while it had no direct effect on brand loyalty and switching intention. Brand trust had direct effects on brand loyalty and switching intention, and it also had indirect effects on switching intention through brand loyalty. It also turned out that brand loyalty had direct effects on switching intention, and that perceived value in the general model of this study had direct effects on brand trust. The mediating effect through customer satisfaction indicates the function of a partial mediating model. Since perceived value had no direct effect on brand loyalty, the mediating effect through brand trust indicates the function of a complete mediating model. Since customer satisfaction had no direct effect on brand loyalty, the mediating effect through brand trust indicates the function of a complete mediating model. It is thought that the findings of this study will contribute to establishing marketing strategies to secure competitive edge among smart phone competitors in China. In addition, if smart phone suppliers in the Chinese market desire basic materials for the establishment of marketing strategies differentiated from those of competitors, the findings of this study can be utilized and helpful for such strategies.
This note is concerned with a saturating composite disturbance-observer-based control (DOBC) and H∞ control for a class of discrete time-delay systems with nonlinearity and disturbances. The disturbances are supposed to include two parts. One in the input channel is generated by an exogenous system with uncertainty, which can represent the harmonic signals with modeling perturbations. The other is supposed to have the bounded H₂norm, which can represent parametric uncertainties and external disturbance existing in the controlled object. The design approaches of reduced-order disturbance observer are presented for the estimation of the disturbance. By composite control law with saturation, the disturbances can be rejected and attenuated, simultaneously, the desired dynamic performances can be guaranteed for discrete time-delay systems with known and unknown nonlinear dynamics, respectively. Simulation for a flight control system is provided to show the effectiveness of the proposed scheme compared with the previous schemes.
Microtextures were successfully fabricated on the rake face of the cemented carbide (WC/TiC/Co) tools through inductively coupled plasma etching technology. Two types of microtextured tools were designed and fabricated. Their performance in cutting the AISI 1045 medium carbon steel was tested and compared to that of conventional non-textured tools. The comparison involved cutting forces, cutting temperature, friction coefficient, tool wear, chip adhesion, and machined workpiece surface roughness. The results show that microtextures on the rake face of the cutting tool can make the cutting process more stable than a conventional non-textured tool, and different textures may be suitable for different ranges of the cutting speed. In the latter range 100–200 m/min, microtextures significantly reduce the cutting force, cutting temperature, friction coefficient at the tool–chip interface, while the anti-adhesion property of textured tools and the surface quality of machined workpieces attain their maximal values. The effectiveness of textures is shown to be affected by chip adhesion and blockage resulting from derivative cutting, which appears at high cutting speeds. Moreover, the violation of the structural integrity of textures and their damage can strongly deteriorate the cutting process at low cutting speeds.
A new dry cutting tool named WS2 soft coated Micro-Nano textured self-lubricating dry cutting tool (WTT tool) is developed and tested. Dry turning tests have been carried out on 45# quenched and tempered steel with a WTT tool and three other types of alternative tools. The machining performance was assessed in terms of the cutting forces, cutting temperature, friction coefficient at the tool-chip interface, chip deformation, tool wear, and the surface roughness of the machined workpiece. The results show that the WTT tool has the best cutting performance among all the tools tested under the same cutting conditions. Through theoretical analysis and experimental results, the mechanisms of the WTT tool in improving cutting performance were put forward. Meanwhile, the effect of Micro-Nano texture and WS2 soft coating on the cutting forces and the cutting temperature is analyzed. It can be concluded that the WTT tool can effectively improve the anti-adhesion and wear-resistance properties and increase the tool life.
Purpose: To investigate the clinical value of serum miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expressionlevels in the diagnosis and prognosis of gastric cancer. Materials and Methods: Serum samples from 141 gastric cancer cases (gastric cancergroup), 110 gastric polyps (gastric polyp group), and 75 healthy people (healthy control) wereused to detect miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression using real-time reverse transcriptionpolymerase chain reaction. Results: Serum miR-221-3p expression was significantly higher in the gastric cancer groupthan in the gastric polyp group, and it was significantly lower than that before operation. The miR-221-3p expression was significantly higher in the death group than in the survivalgroup. The proliferation and migration ability significantly increased and the apoptosis ratesignificantly decreased by miR-221-3p transfection in gastric cancer cells. In contrast, thefunction of miR-122-5p in gastric cancer cells was opposite of miR-221-3p. Serum miR-221-3p expression was negatively correlated with that of miR-122-5p in gastric cancer. SerummiR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expressions were significantly correlated with the degree ofdifferentiation, tumor, node, metastasis stage, lymph node metastasis, and invasion depth. miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression levels were independent prognostic factors forpostoperative gastric cancer. In the diagnosis and predicting prognosis of gastric cancer,receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed that the area under curve of combineddetection of serum miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p expression had a greater diagnostic effectthan either single maker. Conclusions: The miR-221-3p and miR-122-5p are involved in the development of gastriccancer, and they have important clinical values in gastric cancer diagnosis and prognosis.
Ectopic expression of 14-3-3ζ has been found in various malignancies, including lung cancer, liver cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), and so on. However, the effect of 14-3-3ζ in the regulation of interactions between tumor cells and the immune system has not been previously reported. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether and how 14-3-3ζ is implicated in tumor inflammation modulation and immune recognition evasion. In oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) cell lines and cancer tissues, we found that 14-3-3ζ is overexpressed. In OSCC cells, 14-3-3ζ knockdown resulted in the up-regulated expression of inflammatory cytokines. In contrast, 14-3-3ζ introduction attenuated cytokine expression in human normal keratinocytes and fibroblasts stimulated with interferon- ζ (IFN-ζ) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Furthermore, supernatants from 14-3-3ζ knockdown OSCC cells dramatically altered the response of peritoneal macrophages, dendritic cells and tumor-specific T cells. Interestingly, Stat3 was found to directly interact with 14-3-3ζ and its disruption relieved the inhibition induced by 14-3-3ζ in tumor inflammation. Taken together, our studies provide evidence that 14-3-3ζ may regulate tumor inflammation and immune response through Stat3 signaling in OSCC.
The near real-time speckle masking reconstruction technique has been developed to accelerate the processing of solar images to achieve high resolutions for ground-based solar telescopes. However, the reconstruction of solar subimages in such a speckle reconstruction is very time-consuming. We design and implement a new parallel speckle masking reconstruction algorithm based on the Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA) on General Purpose Graphics Processing Units (GPGPU). Tests are performed to validate the correctness of our program on NVIDIA GPGPU. Details of several parallel reconstruction steps are presented, and the parallel implementation between various modules shows a significant speed increase compared to the previous serial implementations. In addition, we present a comparison of runtimes across serial programs, the OpenMP-based method, and the new parallel method. The new parallel method shows a clear advantage for large scale data processing, and a speedup of around 9 to 10 is achieved in reconstructing one solar subimage of 256$\times$256 pixels. The speedup performance of the new parallel method exceeds that of OpenMP-based method overall. We conclude that the new parallel method would be of value, and contribute to real-time reconstruction of an entire solar image.