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We performed three sets of feeding trials to establish the optimal feed size (Exp-I), stocking density (Exp-II), and dis-solved oxygen level (DO) (Exp-III) for olive flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. In Exp-1, four replicate groups of fish (53.6±0.9 g) were fed commercial diets with three particle sizes (small, medium, and large). In Exp-II, fish (30.0±0.1 g) were reared at four stocking densities (1.8, 3.5, 5.3, and 7.1 kg/m3). In Exp-III, fish (187±1.48 g) were reared under two different DO levels (2-3 and 6-7 mg/L). In Exp-I, fish fed the large-particle diet gained significantly more weight and had a lower feed conversion ratio than fish fed the small- and medium-particle diets. In Exp-II, fish reared at 1.8 and 3.5 kg/m3 gained slightly more weight and had lower feed conversion ratios than fish reared at 5.3 and 7.1 kg/m3, although these differences were not significant. In Exp-III, negative effects were observed in the low DO groups. Therefore, under our experimental conditions, the optimal feed particle size, stocking density, and DO level for olive flounder were 9-9.4 mm, 3.5 kg/m3, and 6-7 mg/L, respectively.
The mass production of fertilized eggs of the convict grouper Hyporthodus septemfasciatus was studied from 2013 to 2020 for industrial aquaculture. The experiment was divided into two groups. Group 1 broodstock was raised from wild-caught fry and used from 2013 to 2020. Group 2 broodstock was raised from artificially propagated fry and used from 2019 to 2020. Males used to collect sperm for artificial insemination weighed more than 7 kg. The effects of various hormones on artificial ovulation were investigated from 2013 onward. Among these, luteinizing hormonereleasing hormone analogue (LHRHa) at 100 μg/kg body weight showed the most effective results and was used for artificial egg collection from 2014 onward. In Group 1, the average total egg production per year, average egg production per individual, fertilization rate, and hatching rate were 26,143 mL, 609.7 mL, 93.3%, and 91.8%, respectively, and in Group 2, were 2,750 mL, 316.5 mL, 92.1%, and 90.4%, respectively. Based on these results, we showed that a large number of fertilized eggs for artificial seeding could be produced consistently. Moreover, the mass production of fertilized eggs in Group 2 establishes a foundation for the complete aquaculture cycle of H. septemfasciatus.
We report the first occurrence of a tailless Girella leonina, collected from Jeju Island, Korea, in July 2016. This specimen has 10 scales below the median spinous portion of the dorsal fin, a black posterior margin of the operculum, and no pale vertical band on the body, and is therefore similar to the normal species, except that it has no caudal peduncle or caudal fin. The posterior parts of the dorsal and anal fins are gathered vertically at the posterior end of the body. A radiograph indicates that this abnormal specimen is lacking the vertebrae after vertebra 20.
The seawater adaptability of land-locked masu salmon Oncorhynchus masou masou via acclimation was examined for aquaculture purposes. The survival, blood chemistry, and histological changes of masu salmon (150 g) were measured after 7-, 15-, and 30-day acclimation periods. After a total of 60 days in seawater cultures that incorporated the various acclimation periods, survival was 83.5, 87.2, and 91.0% for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day periods, respectively; thus, survival increased with longer periods of acclimation. Feeding efficiencies were 32.1, 52.0, and 40.6% for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day periods, and specific growth rates were 0.14, 0.26, and 0.23%, respectively. Generally, masu salmon appeared to exhibit better growth performance after an acclimation period of 15 days. Cortisol concentrations [mean ± SD] for 7, 15, and 30 days of acclimation were 21.0 ± 6.5, 17.8 ± 4.8, and 21.2 ± 5.4 μg/dl, with the lowest values occurring with 15 days of acclimation. Osmolarities were 359.2 ± 26.1, 350.4 ± 29.2, and 354.6 ± 29.3 mOsm/kg, and glucose concentrations were 60.7 ± 20.7, 72.9 ± 17.3, and 76.6 ± 14.1 mg/dl for the 7-, 15-, and 30-day acclimation periods, respectively (P < 0.05). The histological study revealed that both gills and both kidneys of the masu salmon exhibited middle- to end-stage and middle-stage lesions in the 7- and 15-day groups, respectively, whereas these organs only had early-stage lesions in the 30-day group in the final experiment. Therefore, the seawater acclimation of masu salmon should involve more than 30 days in seawater.
To produce cupped oyster sprat consistently, we investigated the efficiency of nine settlement substrates using selective breeding of Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, with the goal of popularizing off-bottom culture on the west coast of Korea. We also compared the growth and survival of selectively bred sprat (diploid) with triploid sprat from an off-bottom culture system. Considering, the attachment rate and detachment efficiency, producing cupped oyster in a polypropylene gunny bag proved to be the most effective method. There were no differences in shell growth or total weight between the diploids from selective breeding and triploids from off-bottom culture for 5 months. However, the survival rate was 8 times higher in the diploids than the triploids. Transplanting sprat from selective breeding is one way to restore oyster farms and nurture off-bottom culture along the west coast.
Herein, two experiments were performed to determine the appropriate pH range and immersion time for organic acidactivating treatment (OAT) in a Pyropia farm. The effects of pH (0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.25, 1.50, 1.75, and 2.00) on the cell mortality of Pyropia yezoensis and Ulva linza thalli were tested after 20 sec of immersion under OAT. In addition, the cell mortality of the two species was estimated under various combinations of immersion time (30, 60, and 120 sec) and pH (1.00, 1.50, and 2.00). Upon 20 sec of immersion under OAT conditions, the cell mortality of P. yezoensis did not differ at any pH but that of U. linza exceeded 90% at a pH range of 0.50-1.00. P. yezoensis showed little cell mortality upon 30 sec of immersion, but its mortality exceeded 55% upon 120 sec of immersion at a pH range of 1.00-1.50. U. linza showed 67.9-100% mortality at a pH of 1.50 and 100% mortality at a pH of 1.00, regardless of the immersion time (30-120 sec). These results indicate that for the effective removal of U. linza, the optimal pH range is 1.00-1.50 and the optimal immersion time is 20-30 sec.
On March 13, 2018 two postflexion larval specimens (18.28 mm and 16.80 mm in standard length) belonging to the family Cryptacanthodidae, suborder Zoarcoidei were collected from Sokcho and Gangneung in Gangwon Province. The family Cryptacanthodidae comprises 4 species worldwide: 3 in the North Pacific Ocean and 1 in the western North Atlantic Ocean. As a result of analyzing 620 bp of the mtDNA COI region, the two postflexion larvae collected in this study were identified as Cryptacanthodes bergi by 99.5% agreement with C. bergi adult registered in NCBI. Postflexion larvae of C. bergi are compressed with large eyes and radial pectoral fins and the anus located in front of the center of the body. Melanophores were intensively distributed along the dorsal midline, except for caudal peduncle, and sporadically distributed on the back of the anus. In addition, there were limited star-like melanophores on the back of the gut. This species showed 0.058 genetic distance when compared mtDNA COI region of C. aleutensis, and it was well distinguished in the distribution pattern of black vesicles of the head, count and measurement traits. Considering the morphological and ecological characteristics of this species, we suggest a new Korean name, " Gwi-sin-jang-gaeng-i ".
Two specimens of Scomberoides tol (99.0 mm and 124.5 mm in total length), belonging to the family Carangidae, order Perciformes were collected from Korean waters using a gape net with wings and a hand net between 2014 and 2017. These specimens are characterized by having the origin of the soft-rayed portion of the dorsal fin just above the origin of the soft-rayed portion of the anal fin, dorsal spines not connected by fin membranes and posterior end of the maxilla and upper jaw not extending beyond the posterior margin of the eye. A comparison of mitochondrial DNA cytochrome c oxidase subunit I sequences indicated that these specimens matched Scomberoides tol (K2P distance, d = 0.002), but differed from other Scomberoides species (6.9-9.1%). This is the first reliable report of Scomberoides tol from Korea.
This study investigated the survival rates and physiological responses of Korean rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli, in live fish containers (8℃, 33 psu) for 18 days. The survival rate was 99% and 97% in the control and experimental groups, respectively. Hematocrit and hemoglobin did not differ significantly between the control and experimental groups. Glucose and cortisol rose immediately on the first day of containment, but both gradually normalized. Aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase did not differ significantly between the two groups after recovery. NH3 continued to rise after the first day, but decreased to a level not significantly different from that of the control group during the recovery period. Plasma ions and osmolality did not change abnormally. The hemocyte population was not significantly different from that of the control. The ratios of apoptotic and necrotic cells indicated no specific variation in hemocyte viability. The histological changes in the skin and gills were not significantly different from those seen in the control. The experimental data obtained in this study suggest that live fish containers may be used to transport Korean rockfish without significantly affecting their physiology or survival.
This study investigated survival rates and physiological responses in Pacific abalone (Haliotis discus hannai) to 18 days of containment in live fish containers (8℃, 34 psu). The investigation was divided into three periods: before, during, and recovery after transportation. The overall survival rate was greater than 99%. Glucose, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) rose immediately on the first day of containment, but then gradually returned to normal levels. NH<sub>3</sub> continued to rise after the first day, but during the recovery period it decreased to a level not significantly different from that of the control group. Na<sup>+</sup> and osmolality did not show any abnormal changes. After recovery, superoxide dismutase (SOD) was not significantly different from control. Abalone in the experimental group had lower glutathione reductase (GR) than control. The hyalinocyte ratio fell immediately after confinement, but then gradually increased until it reached a normal level. The ratios of apoptotic and necrotic cells indicated no specific variations in hemocyte viability. Histological changes in the epidermal layer and muscle layer of the foot were not significantly different from those seen in the control group. The experimental data obtained in this study suggest that live fish containers may be used for transport of Pacific abalone withouts ignificantly impacting their physiology or survival rates.