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김경덕 ( Kyoung Duck Kim ), 배기민 ( Ki Min Bae ), 한현섭 ( Hyon Sob Han ), 김강웅 ( Kang Woong Kim ), 이봉주 ( Bong Joo Lee ), 김성삼 ( Sung Sam Kim ), 박기영 ( Kie Young Park ), 권오남 ( O Nam Kwon ) 한국수산과학회(구 한국수산학회) 2016 한국수산과학회지 Vol.49 No.1
This study investigated the effects of dietary inclusion of sea mud on growth and body composition of juvenile sea cucumber Apostichopus japonicus. In experiment 1, three experimental diets containing sea mud at the level of 0, 30 and 60% were prepared. After feeding trial for 7 weeks, survival was not significantly different among groups. Final mean weight of sea cucumber fed the experimental diet without sea mud supplementation was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the diet containing 30 and 60% sea mud. In experiment 2, three experimental dietscontaining sea mud at the levels of 0, 15 and 30% were prepared. After feeding trial for 19 weeks, survival was not significantly different among groups. Final mean weight of sea cucumber fed the diet without sea mud supplementation was not significantly different from that of 15%, but was significantly higher than that of sea cucumber fed the diet containing 30% sea mud. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of sea mud may inhibit growth of sea cucumber.
Microalgae are functional foods because they contain special anti-aging inhibitors and other functional components, such as ecosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Many of these functional dietary components are absent in animals and terrestrial plants. Thus, microalgae are widely utilized in human functional foods and in the feed provided to farmed fish and terrestrial livestock. Many marine organisms consume microalgae, often because they are in an appropriate portion of the cell size spectrum, but also because of their nutritional content. The nutritional requirements of marine organisms differ from those of terrestrial animals. After hatching, marine animals need small live forage species that have high omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid contents, including EPA and DHA. Euglena cells have both plant and animal characteristics; they are motile, elliptical in shape, 15-500 μm in diameter, and have a valuable nutritional content. Mixotrophic cell cultivation provided the best growth rates and nutritional content. Diverse carbon (fructose, lactose, glucose, maltose and sucrose) and nitrogen (tryptone, peptone, yeast extract, urea and sodium glutamate) supported the growth of microalgae with high lipid contents. We found that the best carbon and nitrogen sources for the production of high quality Euglena cells were glucose (10 g L.1) and sodium glutamate (1.0 g L.1), respectively.
This study investigated the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fish paste containing red snow crab Chionoecetes japonicus leg-meat powder (RMP) in 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12% concentrations. The moisture contents of fish paste with RMP ranged from 56.7 to 60.2% and the pH ranged from 7.0 to 7.7. The L values decreased as the RMP concentration increased, and a and b increased. The folding test for all of the fish paste samples scored AA, which indicates good flexibility. The hardness, springiness, gumminess, and cohesiveness increased with the RMP concentration. In the sensory evaluation, the fish paste prepared with 6% RMP was the most preferred. These results suggest that RMP can be added to fish paste to achieve high quality.
Total mercury (TM) is a hazardous element that is of particular concern to human health. Due to the diversity of dietary habits among fishes, tissue-specific analysis of hazardous elements is necessary. In this study, the tissue-specific TM in cultured fish was analyzed to conduct risk assessment. The highest concentrations of TM were found in the farmed marine fish Pagrus major (0.111 mg/kg) and in the farmed freshwater fish Channa argus (0.162 mg/kg). TM concentration was significantly correlated with total fish length (P<0.01). Significant differences in TM were found between three types of fish tissue, with the concentration in fish muscle being significantly higher than those of gill or liver (P<0.01). Moreover, the tissue-specific TM concentrations of farmed freshwater fish were significantly higher than those of farmed marine fish (P<0.01). According to the risk assessment, the TM body exposure rate of muscle and liver in cultured fishes ranged from 0.001 to 0.389% of the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake. Therefore, these results showing the tissue-specific TM contents of cultured fish could be useful to assess the health risks of Koreandietary habits.
This study provides a detailed morphological description of larvae obtained from Urocampus nanus and Syngnathus schlegeli male brood fish over 20 days of culture in the laboratory. In both species, mating takes place when several males each spread their brood pouch like a wing to attract a female's attention. When the female begins to swim upward, the males follow her and receive her eggs in their brood pouches. Newborn larvae of U. nanus and S. schlegeli had already completed formation of dorsal and caudal fin rays, but not of pectoral fin rays. Pectoral fin rays were completely formed 15 days after release in S. schlegeli and 20 days after release in U. nanus. The ratio of caudal fin length to standard length increased until 8 days and decreased thereafter in S. schlegeli, while in U. nanus this ratio declined continuously after hatching. The larvae of the two species were very similar in external morphology, but well distinguished by the number of dorsal fin rays (15-16 in U. nanus vs. 39-43 in S. schlegeli), the presence of a membrane under the tail (absent in U. nanus vs. present in S. schlegeli), and the presence of melanophores in the dorsal fin (present in U. nanus vs. absent in S. schlegeli). Based on this study, U. nanus appears to be evolutionally more similar to pipefish than to seahorse.
Seaweeds are composed of a variety of bioactive substances, including polysaccharides, pigments, minerals, peptides, and polyphenols. Among these substances, the arsenic content of seaweeds has been a significant cause for concern. The present study evaluated the toxicity of arsenic from three species of seaweed using a zebrafish Danio rerio model. The arsenic-rich extracts were obtained from Ecklonia cava (ECAE), Undaria pinnatifida (UPAE) and Hizikia fusiformis (HFAE) using a solvent of 50% methanol and 1% HNO3. We investigated the toxicity of the arsenic-rich extracts in zebrafish embryos through survival rate, heart rate, yolk sac edema size, cell death, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The hepatotoxicity of arsenic-rich extracts was assessed in the liver of adult zebrafish through real-time PCR and histopathology. The survival rates of embryos and adult zebrafish showed no significant changes at any concentration. At 100 ppm, embryos did not exhibit significant differences in heart rate, yolk sac edema size, cell death or ROS production. In addition, apoptosis-related genes in larvae and liver tissue were unaffected by treatment with arsenic-rich extracts. These data will help clarify that developmental changes, hepatic oxidative stress, and apoptosis are not associated with toxicity from arsenic-rich seaweed extracts in a zebrafish model.
A feeding experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional value of various dietary protein sources without a vitamin premix supplementation in juvenile black rockfish, Sebastes schlegeli. Diets containing similar quantities of lipid and carbohydrate with 50% crude protein from fish meal (FM)/soybean meal (SBM)/corn gluten meal (CGM), FM only, casein/gelatin, high FM/low casein and low FM/high casein were fed to rockfish along with a commercial rockfish diet. The diet containing only 65.6% FM and the commercial rockfish diet produced significantly greater weight gain (WG) and feed efficiency (FE) than all other semipurified diets (SPDs); the economical diet with 52.8% FM, 10% SBM and 5% CGM produced lower WG than the diet containing FM and commercial rockfish diet, but FE and survival were similar both diets. Intermediate responses were observed for rockfish fed the SPD containing 32.8% FM and 27.4% casein, while SPDs containing 10% FM and 41.8% casein and 38.5% casein and 10% gelatin yielded the lowest WG and FE. Some differences in tissue indices and body composition of rockfish were induced by the diets containing various protein sources and levels without the vitamin premix supplementation.