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      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Electrical and structural properties of Pd/V/<i>n</i>‐type InP (111) Schottky structure as a function of annealing temperature

        Naik,,S.,Sankar,Rajagopal,Reddy,,V.,Choi,,Chel‐,Jong,Bae,,Jong‐,Seong John Wiley Sons, Ltd. 2012 Surface and interface analysis Vol.44 No.1

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Palladium/Vanadium (Pd/V) Schottky structures are fabricated on <I>n</I>‐type InP (100) and the electrical, structural and surface morphological characteristics have been studied at different annealing temperatures. The extracted barrier height of as‐deposited Pd/V/<I>n</I>‐InP Schottky diode is 0.59 eV (I–V) and 0.79 eV (C–V), respectively. However, the Schottky barrier height of the Pd/V Schottky contact slightly increases to 0.61 eV (I–V) and 0.84 eV (C–V) when the contact is annealed at 200 °C for 1 min. It is observed that the Schottky barrier height of the contact slightly decreases after annealing at 300, 400 and 500 °C for 1 min in N<SUB>2</SUB> atmosphere. From the above observations, it is clear that the electrical characteristics of Pd/V Schottky contacts improve after annealing at 200 °C. This indicates that the optimum annealing temperature for the Pd/V Schottky contact is 200 °C. Basing on the auger electron spectroscopy and X‐ray diffraction results, the formation of Pd‐In intermetallic compound at the interface may be the reason for the increase of barrier height upon annealing at 200 °C. The formation of phosphide phases at the Pd/V/<I>n</I>‐InP interface could be the reason for the degradation in the barrier heights after annealing at 300, 400 and 500 °C. From the AFM results, it is evident that the overall surface morphology of the Pd/V Schottky contacts is fairly smooth. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</P>

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Hydrothermally synthesized Na<sub>2</sub>Ti<sub>3</sub>O<sub>7</sub> nanotube–V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> heterostructures with improved visible photocatalytic degradation and hydrogen evolution - Its photocorrosion suppression

        Vattikuti,,S.V.,Prabhakar,Reddy,,Police,Anil,Kumar,NagaJyothi,,P.C.,Shim,,Jaesool,Byon,,Chan Elsevier 2018 JOURNAL OF ALLOYS AND COMPOUNDS Vol.740 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>There is still a need to prepare heterostructure photocatalysts with high activity and recyclability but without using precious metals to reduce the cost of photocatalysts. Thus, a facile and simple method for the synthesis of a Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst via hydrothermal synthesis is reported herein. The chemical composition, morphology, and structural features of the photocatalyst were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), N<SUB>2</SUB> adsorption–desorption specific surface area analysis (BET), and diffuse reflectance absorption (DRS) methods. It was observed that the specific surface area of the Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst increased with the incorporation of V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB>. The Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst was then used for the removal of rhodamine B (RhB) under simulated solar light irradiation. The Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst revealed excellent photocatalytic activity and photodegradation kinetics as compared to pristine Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotubes and V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> photocatalysts. Furthermore, both the photoactivity and long-term stability of the Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst were superior to those of the pristine Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotubes and V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> photocatalysts. The excellent photocatalytic performance of the Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> nanotube–V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterostructure photocatalyst can be ascribed to its high specific surface area (283.71 m<SUP>2</SUP>g<SUP>−1</SUP>), mesoporous structure, highly dispersed V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> nanoparticles, and hindrance of electron–hole pair recombination of Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> due to the V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> incorporation, which is proven by the photoelectrochemical results, including photocurrent and electron impendence spectroscopy results. In addition, during the study of photocatalytic hydrogen evolution, the hydrogen yield of the Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB>/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> nanocomposite was 1.83 times that of pristine Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB>, which also exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Heterojunction of Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> NTs/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> NPs was developed via hydrothermal method. </LI> <LI> Visible photocatalytic RhB degradation studies were performed over Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> NTs/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> NPs. </LI> <LI> Improved degradation efficiency was observed over Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> NTs/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> NPs when compared to pristine Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> NTs. </LI> <LI> V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> NPs were successfully utilized as cocatalyst for pollutant degradation. </LI> <LI> Charge recombination was diminished in the Na<SUB>2</SUB>Ti<SUB>3</SUB>O<SUB>7</SUB> NTs by the addition of V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> NPs. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Buffalo Follicular Fluid Alone and in Combination with PMSG and M199 on in vitro Buffalo Oocyte Maturation

        Gupta,,P.S.P.,Nandi,,S.,Ravindranatha,,B.M.,Sarma,,P.V. 아세아태평양축산학회 2001 Animal Bioscience Vol.14 No.5

        The effect of replacement of in vitro maturation medium completely with the buffalo follicular fluid (buFF) on in vitro oocyte maturation of buffalo oocytes was studied. 5 to 8 buffalo cumulus oocyte complexes were cultured in a single drop with each of the eight media studied i.e., M199+steer serum (10% v/v), M199+steer serum (10% v/v)+PMSG, M199+buFF (10% v/v), M199+buFF (10% v/v)+PMSG, M199+buFF (50% v/v), M199+buFF (50% v/v)+ PMSG, buFF (100%) and buFF+PMSG at $39^{\circ}C$ and 5% $CO_2$ in air for 24 h. Supplementation of M199 with Steer serum alone resulted in IVM rate of 35% only. When the above medium was supplemented with PMSG, the maturation rate rallied to 82%. Significant increase in the maturation rates were observed when M199 was supplemented with increasing levels of buFF. A further increase in the maturation rate was also obtained when PMSG was incorporated into the medium of M199 supplemented with buFF. The rate of maturation was to the tune of 91% when oocytes were matured in buFF alone which was increased non significantly on the addition of PMSG. Highest maturation rate (97%) obtained with M199+buFF (50%v/v)+PMSG did not differ significantly from that obtained by either M199+buFF (10%v/v)+PMSG or buFF+PMSG. It is suggested that buFF alone without any supplementation can form the effective in vitro maturation medium for buffalo oocytes.

      • Effect of crystal orientation of GaN/V<sub>2</sub>O<sub>5</sub> core-shell nanowires on piezoelectric nanogenerators

        Waseem,,Aadil,Johar,,Muhammad,Ali,Hassan,,Mostafa,Afifi,Bagal,,Indrajit,V.,Ha,,Jun-Seok,Lee,,June,Key,Ryu,,Sang-Wan Elsevier 2019 Nano energy Vol.60 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> core-shell nanowire (NW) piezoelectric generators of controlled crystallographic orientations were fabricated, and the device performance was characterized. Catalyst-assisted c- and m-axis GaN NWs were grown on a c-plane GaN thin film by varying the NH<SUB>3</SUB> flow rate and reactor pressure. The grown NWs were then utilized to fabricate the flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators (PNGs) to practically investigate the impact of the c- and m-axis GaN NWs on the piezoelectric response. The c-axis GaN NWs exhibited a higher piezoelectric output than m-axis GaN NWs. Furthermore, the GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> core-shell structure was utilized in the NWs to suppress the internal carrier screening that degrades the piezoelectric output. The maximum output voltage (27 V) exhibited by core-shell c-axis NWs was thrice the voltage exhibited by pristine c-axis GaN NWs (9 V). A stability test was performed for one hour to verify the feasibility of using flexible PNGs for real applications. The high stability of PNGs was attributed to the flexibility and high crystallinity of the NWs.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> C- & m-axis GaN NWs are grown by MOCVD for piezoelectric generators. </LI> <LI> The piezoelectric output for pristine c-axis NWs is twice the output of m-axis NWs. </LI> <LI> The piezoelectric output of the GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> core-shell NWs is three times of pristine NWs. </LI> <LI> PNGs exhibited long-term stability due to excellent mechanical properties of NWs. </LI> <LI> GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> heterojunction suppressed the junction current screening effect. </LI> </UL> </P> <P><B>Graphical abstract</B></P> <P>GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> core-shell nanowire (NW) piezoelectric generators of controlled crystallographic orientations are reported. Catalyst-assisted c- and m-axis GaN NWs grown by MOCVD are utilized to fabricate the flexible piezoelectric nanogenerators to investigate the impact of the c- and m-axis GaN NWs on the piezoelectric response. The c-axis GaN NWs exhibited the higher piezoelectric output than m-axis GaN NWs. The GaN/V<SUB>2</SUB>O<SUB>5</SUB> core-shell structure is utilized in the NWs which further enhanced the output voltage to 27 V and output current to 590 nA.</P> <P>[DISPLAY OMISSION]</P>

      • KCI등재

        Influence of rapid thermal annealing on electrical and structural properties of double metal structure Au/Ni/n-InP (1 1 1) diodes

        M.,Bhaskar,Reddy,V.,Janardhanam,A.,Ashok,Kumar,V.,Rajagopal,Reddy,P.,Narasimha,Reddy 한국물리학회 2010 Current Applied Physics Vol.10 No.2

        The effect of rapid thermal annealing on the electrical and structural properties of Ni/Au Schottky contacts on n-InP have been investigated by current–voltage (I–V), capacitance–voltage (C–V), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) techniques. The Au/Ni/n-InP Schottky contacts are rapid thermally annealed in the temperature range of 200–500 ℃ for a duration of 1 min. The Schottky barrier height of as-deposited Ni/Au Schottky contact has been found to be 0.50 eV (I–V) and 0.86 eV (C–V),respectively. It has been found that the Schottky barrier height decreased with increasing annealing temperature as compared to as-deposited sample. The barrier height values obtained are 0.43 eV (I–V),0.72 eV (C–V) for the samples annealed at 200 ℃, 0.45 eV (I–V) and 0.73 eV (C–V) for those at 400 ℃. Further increase in annealing temperature to 500 ℃ the barrier height slightly increased to 0.46 eV (I–V) and 0.78 eV (C–V) compared to the values obtained for the samples annealed at 200 ℃ and 400 ℃. AES and XRD studies showed the formation of indium phases at the Ni/Au and InP interface and may be the reason for the increase in barrier height. The AFM results showed that there is no significant degradation in the surface morphology (rms roughness of 1.56 nm) of the contact even after annealing at 500 ℃.

      • Effect of annealing temperature on the electrical and structural properties of V/p-GaN Schottky structures

        Padma,,R.,Nagaraju,,G.,Rajagopal,Reddy,,V.,Choi,,Chel-Jong Elsevier 2016 THIN SOLID FILMS - Vol.598 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>The electrical and structural properties of V/p-GaN Schottky barrier diode (SBD) have been investigated as a function of annealing temperature. The Schottky barrier height (SBH) of the as-deposited contact is found to be 0.82eV (<I>I–V</I>) and 1.10eV (<I>C–V</I>). However, it is noted that the SBH increases for the contact annealed at 400°C and the values are 0.94eV (<I>I–V</I>) and 1.21eV (<I>C–V</I>). Further, with increasing annealing temperature up to 500°C, the SBH decreases to 0.92eV (<I>I–V</I>) and 1.19eV (<I>C–V</I>). Also, the rectification ratio of the V/p-GaN SBD is evaluated for as-deposited and annealed contacts. The electrical parameters of the V/p-GaN SBD are also discussed with Cheung's and Norde functions. It is noted that the interface state density decreases upon annealing at 400°C and then slightly increases after annealing at 500°C. Results reveal that the superior electrical characteristics are obtained for the contact annealed at 400°C. The electrical results are also correlated with the interfacial microstructure of the contacts. The AES and XRD results reveal that the formation of nitride phases at the interface may be the reason for the increase of SBH after annealing at 400°C. The formation of gallide phases at the interface may be reason for the decrease in the SBH.</P> <P><B>Highlights</B></P> <P> <UL> <LI> Annealing effects on electrical and structural properties of V/p-GaN SBD are studied. </LI> <LI> Maximum barrier height is obtained on V/p-GaN SBD upon annealing at 400°C. </LI> <LI> Interface state density decreases with increasing annealing temperature up to 400°C. </LI> <LI> Electrical results are correlated with the interfacial microstructure of the contacts. </LI> <LI> Nitride interfacial phases are responsible for increase in BH after annealing at 400°C. </LI> </UL> </P>

      • KCI등재SCIESCOPUS

        Hydrothermal Synthesis of H2V3O8 Nanobelts from V2O5 Xerogels for Lithium Battery Applications

        Sun-Il,Mho,Ch.V.,Reddy,Youna,Kim,In-Hyeong,Yeo,Su-Moon,Park 한국물리학회 2009 THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN PHYSICAL SOCIETY Vol.54 No.6

        Vanadium oxyhydroxide (H2V3O8) nanobelts were synthesized from V2O5 xerogels through a simple hydrothermal process in efforts to obtain nanomaterials for rechargeable Li batteries. Polymers with multidentate oxygen ligands, such as polyethylene glycol or polyethylene oxide, were shown to play a critical role in the formation of H2V3O8 nanobelts during the hydrothermal process. The specific capacity measured during the initial discharge process for the lithium battery with a cathode made of H2V3O8 nanobelts were 292 mAh/g, which stabilized at ca. 261 mAh/g corresponding to two equivalents of Li intercalation/deintercalation into H2V3O8. Lithium batteries made of a vanadium-oxyhydroxide cathode showed better cycle stability than those with a V2O5 cathode.

      • KCI등재

        Electrical and frequency-dependent properties of Au/Sm2O3/n-GaN MIS junction with a high-k rare-earth Sm2O3 as interlayer

        V.,Manjunath,V.,Rajagopal,Reddy,P.R.,Sekhar,Reddy,V.,Janardhanam,최철종 한국물리학회 2017 Current Applied Physics Vol.17 No.7

        High-k rare-earth samarium oxide (Sm2O3) films are formed on n-GaN surface and analyzed its compositional properties by XPS measurements. XPS results specify that the Sm2O3 films are formed at the interface. Then, the Au/Sm2O3/n-GaN MIS junction is prepared with a Sm2O3 as insulating layer and correlated its electrical properties with the Au/n-GaN MS junction. The MIS junction shows highest barrier height ((0.81 eV (I-V)/1.0 eV (C-V)) for MIS junction than the MS junction (0.68 eV (I-V)/0.90 eV (C-V)). Excellent rectifying property is observed with lowest reverse leakage current and higher barrier height for the MIS junction than the MS junction, implying that the Sm2O3 insulating layer effectively modified the barrier height. The barrier heights determined from I-V, Cheung's, Norde and JS eV plot closely matched with each other, suggesting that these techniques are reliable and valid. The estimated interface state density of the MIS junction (1.990 1011 cm2eV1 (EC-0.82 eV)) is lower than the MS junction (9.204 1012 cm2eV1 (EC-0.70 eV)), which demonstrates that the Sm2O3 insulating layer performs an important role in lowering the interface state density. The frequency-dependent characteristics of the MS and MIS junctions are discussed in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz and found that the determined capacitance values decrease with increasing frequency. The forward I-V characteristic of the MS and MIS junctions reveals the ohmic behavior at low voltage regions and space-chargelimited conduction at higher voltage regions. Results reveal that the reverse leakage current in the studied MS and MIS junctions is controlled by a Poole-Frenkel emission.

      • SCISCIESCOPUS

        Long-range two-particle correlations of strange hadrons with charged particles in pPb and PbPb collisions at LHC energies

        Khachatryan,,V.,Sirunyan,,A.M.,Tumasyan,,A. North-Holland Pub. Co 2015 Physics letters. Section B Vol.742 No.-

        <P><B>Abstract</B></P> <P>Measurements of two-particle angular correlations between an identified strange hadron ( K S 0 or Λ / Λ ‾ ) and a charged particle, emitted in pPb collisions, are presented over a wide range in pseudorapidity and full azimuth. The data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of approximately 35 nb<SUP>−1</SUP>, were collected at a nucleon–nucleon center-of-mass energy ( <SUB> s N N </SUB> ) of 5.02 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC. The results are compared to semi-peripheral PbPb collision data at <SUB> s N N </SUB> = 2.76 TeV , covering similar charged-particle multiplicities in the events. The observed azimuthal correlations at large relative pseudorapidity are used to extract the second-order ( <SUB> v 2 </SUB> ) and third-order ( <SUB> v 3 </SUB> ) anisotropy harmonics of K S 0 and Λ / Λ ‾ particles. These quantities are studied as a function of the charged-particle multiplicity in the event and the transverse momentum of the particles. For high-multiplicity pPb events, a clear particle species dependence of <SUB> v 2 </SUB> and <SUB> v 3 </SUB> is observed. For <SUB> p T </SUB> < 2 GeV , the <SUB> v 2 </SUB> and <SUB> v 3 </SUB> values of K S 0 particles are larger than those of Λ / Λ ‾ particles at the same <SUB> p T </SUB> . This splitting effect between two particle species is found to be stronger in pPb than in PbPb collisions in the same multiplicity range. When divided by the number of constituent quarks and compared at the same transverse kinetic energy per quark, both <SUB> v 2 </SUB> and <SUB> v 3 </SUB> for K S 0 particles are observed to be consistent with those for Λ / Λ ‾ particles at the 10% level in pPb collisions. This consistency extends over a wide range of particle transverse kinetic energy and event multiplicities.</P>

      • Electrical and frequency-dependent properties of Au/Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>/n-GaN MIS junction with a high-k rare-earth Sm<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> as interlayer

        Manjunath,,V.,Rajagopal,Reddy,,V.,Sekhar,Reddy,,P.R.,Janardhanam,,V.,Choi,,C.J. Elsevier 2017 Current applied physics Vol.17 No.7

        <P>High-k rare-earth samarium oxide (Sm2O3) films are formed on n-GaN surface and analyzed its compositional properties by XPS measurements. XPS results specify that the Sm2O3 films are formed at the interface. Then, the Au/Sm2O3/n-GaN MIS junction is prepared with a Sm2O3 as insulating layer and correlated its electrical properties with the Au/n-GaN MS junction. The MIS junction shows highest barrier height ((0.81 eV (I-V)/1.0 eV (C-V)) for MIS junction than the MS junction (0.68 eV (I-V)/0.90 eV (C-V)). Excellent rectifying property is observed with lowest reverse leakage current and higher barrier height for the MIS junction than the MS junction, implying that the Sm2O3 insulating layer effectively modified the barrier height. The barrier heights determined from I-V, Cheung's, Norde and Psi S eV plot closely matched with each other, suggesting that these techniques are reliable and valid. The estimated interface state density of the MIS junction (1.990 x 10(11) cm(-2)eV(-1) (E-C-0.82 eV)) is lower than the MS junction (9.204 x 10(12) cm(-2)eV(-1) (E-C-0.70 eV)), which demonstrates that the Sm2O3 insulating layer performs an important role in lowering the interface state density. The frequency-dependent characteristics of the MS and MIS junctions are discussed in the frequency range of 10 kHz to 1 MHz and found that the determined capacitance values decrease with increasing frequency. The forward I-V characteristic of the MS and MIS junctions reveals the ohmic behavior at low voltage regions and space-chargelimited conduction at higher voltage regions. Results reveal that the reverse leakage current in the studied MS and MIS junctions is controlled by a Poole-Frenkel emission. (C) 2017 Elsevier B. V. All rights reserved.</P>

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