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      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

        X.,Chen,Y.P.,Chen,D.W.,Wu,C.,Wen,Y.M.,Zhou 아세아·태평양축산학회 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.4

        This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at 100°C for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of broilers, which was likely to result from the simultaneously compromised digestive function.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Heat-oxidized Soy Protein Isolate on Growth Performance and Digestive Function of Broiler Chickens at Early Age

        Chen,,X.,Chen,,Y.P.,Wu,,D.W.,Wen,,C.,Zhou,,Y.M. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2015 Animal Bioscience Vol.28 No.4

        This study was conducted to investigate effects of heat-oxidized soy protein isolate (HSPI) on growth performance, serum biochemical indices, apparent nutrient digestibility and digestive function of broiler chickens. A total of 320 1-day-old Arbor Acres chicks were randomly divided into 4 groups with 8 replicates of 10 birds, receiving diets containing soy protein isolate (SPI, control group) or the same amount of SPI heated in an oven at $100^{\circ}C$ for 1, 4, or 8 h, for 21 days, respectively. The results indicated that compared with the control group, body weight gain and feed intake of birds fed diet containing SPI heated for 8 h were significantly lower (p<0.05). Serum urea nitrogen concentration was higher in the broilers fed diet containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). In contrast, serum glucose content was decreased by HSPI substitution at d 21 (p<0.05). The relative pancreas weight in HSPI groups was higher than that in the control group at d 21 (p<0.05). Meanwhile, the opposite effect was observed for relative weight of anterior intestine and ileum in broilers fed a diet containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Birds fed diets containing SPI heated for 4 or 8 h had a decreased lipase activity in anterior intestinal content at d 14 and 21 (p<0.05), respectively. In addition, the same effect was also noted in broilers given diets containing SPI heated for 1 h at d 21 (p<0.05). Similarly, amylase, protease and trypsin activity in anterior intestinal content were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h at d 21 (p<0.05). The apparent digestibility of dry matter (DM) from d 8 to 10 and DM, crude protein (CP), and ether extract from d 15 to 17 were lower in broilers fed diets containing SPI heated for 8 h (p<0.05). Besides, birds given diets containing SPI heated for 4 h also exhibited lower CP apparent digestibility from d 15 to 17 (p<0.05). It was concluded that HSPI inclusion can exert a negative influence on the growth performance of broilers, which was likely to result from the simultaneously compromised digestive function.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Extrusion Processing of Low-Inhibitor Soybeans Improves Growth Performance of Early-Weaned Pigs

        Kim,,I.H.,Hancock,,J.D.,Jones,,D.B.,Reddy,,P.G. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 1999 Animal Bioscience Vol.12 No.8

        Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of roasting and extrusion on nutritional value of conventional and low-inhibitor soy beans for nurser-age pigs. In Exp. 1, 100 weaning pigs (7.5 kg average initial BW) were used in a 35-d growth assay to determine the effects of processing method (roasting in a Rast-A-Tron$^{TM}$ raster vs extrusion in an Insta-Pro$^{TM}$ extruder) on the nutritional value of Williams 82 soybeans with (+K) and without (-K) gene expression for the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor. Treatments were 48% soybean meal with added soybean oil, +K roasted, +K extruded, -K roasted and -K extruded. All diets were formulated to contain 3.5 Mcal DE/kg, with 0.92% lysine for d 0 to 14 and 0.76% lysine for d 14 to 35 of the experiment. The lysine concentrations were 80% of NRC (1988) recommendations to accentuate difference in response to protein quality and lysine availability. For d 0 to 14, pigs fed extruded soybeans (+K and -K) had greater ADG (p<0.001), ADFI (p<0.09) and gain/feed (p<0.01) than pigs fed roasted soybeans. For d 14 to 35 and overall, the same effects were noted, i.e., pigs fed extruded soybeans had greater ADG, ADFI and gain/feed than pigs fed roasted soybeans (p<0.03). Also, pigs fed -K soybeans were more efficient (p<0.008) than pigs fed +K soybeans. In Exp. 2, 150 weanling pigs (7.0 kg average initial BW) were used in a 35-d growth assay. All diets were formulated to contain 3.5 Mcal DE/kg, with 1.25% lysine for d 0 to 14 and 1.10% lysine for d 14 to 35 of the experiment. The lysine concentrations were formulated to be in excess of NRC recommendation to determine if differences in nutritional value of the soybean preparations could be detected in protein-adequate diets. For d 0 to 14 (p<0.06), 14 to 35 (p<0.03) and 0 to 35 (p<0.02), pigs fed extruded soybeans had greater ADG and gain/feed than pigs fed roasted soybeans. Apparent digestibilities of DM, N and GE were greater for diets with extruded soybeans than diets with roasted soybeans and diets with soybean meal and soybean oil were intermediate. The response to extrusion processing was greater with -K than +K soybeans, with pigs fed extruded -K soybeans having the greatest growth performance and nutrient digestibilities and lowest skin-fold thickness of any treatment. In conclusion, extrusion yielded a full-fat soy product of greater nutritional value than roasting. Also, selection against genetic expression of the Kunitz trypsin inhibitor improved nutritional value of the resulting soybean preparations.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Effect of Methionine Source and Dietary Crude Protein Level on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Nutrient Retention in Chinese Color-feathered Chicks

        P.B.,Xi,B.F.,Yi,Y.C.,Lin,C.T.,Zheng,Z.Y.,Jiang,M.,Vazquez-,Anon,G.L.,Song,C.D.,Knight 아세아·태평양축산학회 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.6

        A total of 1,200 LinNan Chinese color-feathered chicks were used to study the effects of methionine source [DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) or DL-methionine (DLM)] and dietary crude protein (CP) level on growth performance, carcass traits, and whole-body nitrogen and fat retention. The trial was designed as a 2?? factorial arrangement, including two CP levels (adequate and low) and two methionine sources (HMTBa and DL-methionine). Diets were formulated for three phases, starter (0-21 d), grower (21-42 d), and finisher (42-63 d). Chicks fed HMTBa had higher daily gain and improved feed efficiency than DLM during the grower phase (p<0.05). A significant two-way interaction was observed for growth performance during the finisher phase and overall (0-63 d). Growth performance was greater for chicks fed HMTBa than DLM on adequate-CP diets (p<0.05), but this was not observed at low-CP level (p>0.05). Chicks fed low-CP diets grew slower, used feed less efficiently during the grower, finisher phase and overall. On d 42, regardless of dietary CP levels, birds fed HMTBa had higher carcass weights, breast and thigh weights than DLM-fed birds (p<0.04). Birds fed low-CP diet had lighter carcass weights and less breast muscle, thigh muscle, and dressing percentage at the end of starter, grower and finisher phases (p<0.05). Whole body composition analyses found that birds fed HMTBa tended to contain more protein and less fat compared to those chicks fed DLM at the end of the starter phase (p<0.10). Low-CP diets increased CP concentration in the whole body at the end of the finisher phase (p = 0.05). HMTBa supplementation increased whole-body N retention rate during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.01), and low-CP diets reduced N intake and whole-body fat retention during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.05). In summary, HMTBa was better than DLM on an equimolar basis for growth performance, carcass traits, and N retention in Chinese color-feathered chicks. Low-CP diets lowered growth performance as well as carcass traits in color-feathered birds, probably due to imbalanced AA profiles.

      • p53, Cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1) and Ki-67 (MIB1) Expression at Invasive Tumour Fronts of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas and Development of Local Recurrence

        Sawair,,F,Hassona,,Y,Irwin,,C,Stephenson,,M,Hamilton,,P,Maxwell,,P,Gordon,,D,Leonard,,A,Napier,,S Asian Pacific Organization for Cancer Prevention 2016 Asian Pacific journal of cancer prevention Vol.17 No.3

        Background: Expression of p53, cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1) and Ki-67 (MIB1) was evaluated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to test whether levels of these markers at invasive tumour fronts (ITFs) could predict the development of local recurrence. Materials and Methods: Archived paraffin-embedded specimens from 51 patients with T1/T2 tumours were stained immunohistochemically and analysed quantitatively. Local recurrence-free survival was tested with Kaplan-Meier survival plots (log-rank test) using median values to define low and high expression groups and with a Cox's proportional hazards model in which the expression scores were entered as continuous variables. Results: The assessment of expression of all markers was highly reliable, univariate analysis showing that patients with clear surgical margins, with low cyclin D1 and high p21 expression at the ITF had the best local recurrence-free survival. Multivariate analysis showed that these three parameters were independent prognostic factors but that neither p53 nor MIB1 expression were of prognostic value. Conclusions: Assessment of p53, cyclin D1, p21 (WAF1), and Ki-67 (MIB1) at the ITF could help to predict local recurrence in early stage oral squamous cell carcinoma cases.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Comparison of Methodologies to Quantify Phytate Phosphorus in Diets Containing Phytase and Excreta from Broilers

        de,P.,Naves,,L.,Rodrigues,,P.B.,Bertechini,,A.G.,Correa,,A.D.,de,Oliveira,,D.H.,de,Oliveira,,E.C.,Duarte,,W.F.,da,Cunha,,M.R.R. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.7

        The use of a suitable methodology to quantify the phytate phosphorus ($P_{phy}$) content in both the feed and the excreta from broilers is required to enable accurate calculation of the catalytic efficiency of the phytase supplemented in the feed. This study was conducted to compare 2 analytical methodologies (colorimetry and also high-performance liquid chromatography with a refractive index detector) in order to calculate the phytase efficiency by utilizing the results from the methodology that was shown to be the most appropriate. One hundred and twenty broilers were distributed in a $(4+1){\times}2$ factorial arrangement, corresponding to 4 diets that were equally deficient in P supplemented with increasing levels of phytase (0, 750, 1,500, and 2,250 units of phytase activity - FTU - per kg of feed) plus 1 positive control diet without phytase, supplied to male and female birds. The result indicated that the colorimetric methodology with an extraction ratio of 1:20 (mass of sample in g:volume of the solvent extractor in mL) was shown to be the most adequate. There was no interaction between the phytase level and the sex of the broilers (p>0.05). Males consumed 12% more $P_{phy}$ than did females (p<0.01), but the sex of the broilers did not affect (p>0.05) the excretion and retention coefficient of $P_{phy}$. The increase in the phytase level of the diet reduced (linear, p<0.01) the $P_{phy}$ excretion. The greatest $P_{phy}$ retention was estimated at 87.85% when the diet contained 1,950 FTU/kg (p<0.01), indicating that it is possible to reduce the inorganic P in the formulation at an amount equivalent to 87.85% of the $P_{phy}$ content present in the feed, which, in this research, corresponds to a decrease in 2.86 g of P/kg of the feed.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of Methionine Source and Dietary Crude Protein Level on Growth Performance, Carcass Traits and Nutrient Retention in Chinese Color-feathered Chicks

        Xi,,P.B.,Yi,,G.F.,Lin,,Y.C.,Zheng,,C.T.,Jiang,,Z.Y.,Vazquez-Anon,,M.,Song,,G.L.,Knight,,C.D. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2007 Animal Bioscience Vol.20 No.6

        A total of 1,200 LinNan Chinese color-feathered chicks were used to study the effects of methionine source [DL-2-hydroxy-4-methylthio-butanoic acid (HMTBa) or DL-methionine (DLM)] and dietary crude protein (CP) level on growth performance, carcass traits, and whole-body nitrogen and fat retention. The trial was designed as a $2{\times}2$ factorial arrangement, including two CP levels (adequate and low) and two methionine sources (HMTBa and DL-methionine). Diets were formulated for three phases, starter (0-21 d), grower (21-42 d), and finisher (42-63 d). Chicks fed HMTBa had higher daily gain and improved feed efficiency than DLM during the grower phase (p<0.05). A significant two-way interaction was observed for growth performance during the finisher phase and overall (0-63 d). Growth performance was greater for chicks fed HMTBa than DLM on adequate-CP diets (p<0.05), but this was not observed at low-CP level (p>0.05). Chicks fed low-CP diets grew slower, used feed less efficiently during the grower, finisher phase and overall. On d 42, regardless of dietary CP levels, birds fed HMTBa had higher carcass weights, breast and thigh weights than DLM-fed birds (p<0.04). Birds fed low-CP diet had lighter carcass weights and less breast muscle, thigh muscle, and dressing percentage at the end of starter, grower and finisher phases (p<0.05). Whole body composition analyses found that birds fed HMTBa tended to contain more protein and less fat compared to those chicks fed DLM at the end of the starter phase (p<0.10). Low-CP diets increased CP concentration in the whole body at the end of the finisher phase (p = 0.05). HMTBa supplementation increased whole-body N retention rate during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.01), and low-CP diets reduced N intake and whole-body fat retention during the finisher phase and overall (p<0.05). In summary, HMTBa was better than DLM on an equimolar basis for growth performance, carcass traits, and N retention in Chinese color-feathered chicks. Low-CP diets lowered growth performance as well as carcass traits in color-feathered birds, probably due to imbalanced AA profiles.

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        Effect of diets with different energy and lipase levels on performance, digestibility and carcass trait in broilers

        Y.,D.,Hu,D.,Lan,Y.,Zhu,H.,Z.,Pang,X.,P.,Mu,X.,F.,Hu 아세아·태평양축산학회 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.8

        Objective: A 28-d trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets with different energy and lipase levels on performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, gut health, and carcass quality in broilers. Methods: A total of 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers (45.4±0.5 g) were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: i) RET, reduced energy treatment (metabolizable energy = 2,950 and 3,100 kcal/kg for starter and finisher diet), ii) BDT, basal diet treatment (metabolizable energy = 3,050 and 3,200 kcal/kg for starter and finisher diet, iii) RET015, RET+0.15 g/kg lipase, and iv) RET03, RET+0.3 g/kg lipase. There were 10 replications (cages) per treatment with 18 birds per cage. Results: During d 1 to 14, broilers fed BDT, RET015, and RET03 diets had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed RET diet. During d 1 to 14, 15 to 28 and the overall experiment, feed conversion ratio in RET03 treatment was lower (p<0.05) compared with RET treatment. On d 14, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), and gross energy in RET03 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than those in RET treatment, while the ATTD of N was increased (p<0.05) by RET03 treatment. On d 28, broilers fed RET03 diet had higher (p<0.05) ATTD of DM than those fed RET and RET015 diets, while the ATTD of EE in BDT and RET03 treatments was increased (p<0.05) compared with RET and RET015 treatments. Broilers fed RET03 diet had higher villus height (VH) and VH:crypt depth (CD) ratio than those fed RET and BDT diets. The activity of pancreatic lipase in BDT and RET03 treatments was higher (p<0.05) than that in RET treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, lipase supplementation (3,000 U/kg feed) increased growth performance, nutrient digestibility, VH, VH:CD ratio and lipase activity, but decreased triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the abdominal fat percentage in broilers fed reduced energy diet.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        The Impact of Feeding Diets of High or Low Energy Concentration on Carcass Measurements and the Weight of Primal and Subprimal Lean Cuts

        A.P.,Schinckel,M.E.,Einstein,S.,Jungst,J.O.,Matthews,B.,Fields,C.,Booher,T.,Dreadin,C.,Fralick,S.,Tabor,A.,Sosnicki,E.,Wilson,R.D.,Boyd 아세아·태평양축산학회 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.4

        Pigs from four sire lines were allocated to a series of low energy (LE, 3.15 to 3.21 Mcal ME/kg) corn-soybean meal-based diets with 16% wheat midds or high energy diets (HE, 3.41 to 3.45 Mcal ME/kg) with 4.5 to 4.95% choice white grease. All diets contained 6% DDGS. The HE and LE diets of each of the four phases were formulated to have equal lysine:Mcal ME ratios. Barrows (N = 2,178) and gilts (N = 2,274) were fed either high energy (HE) or low energy (LE) diets from 27 kg BW to target BWs of 118, 127, 131.5 and 140.6 kg. Carcass primal and subprimal cut weights were collected. The cut weights and carcass measurements were fitted to allometric functions (Y = A CW^B) of carcass weight. The significance of diet, sex or sire line with A and B was evaluated by linearizing the equations by log to log transformation. The effect of diet on A and B did not interact with sex or sire line. Thus, the final model was cut weight = (1+b_D(Diet)) A(CW^B) where Diet = -0.5 for the LE and 0.5 for HE diets and A and B are sire line-sex specific parameters. Diet had no affect on loin, Boston butt, picnic, baby back rib, or sparerib weights (p>0.10, bD = -0.003, -0.0029, 0.0002, 0.0047, -0.0025, respectively). Diet affected ham weight (b_D = -0.0046, p = 0.01), belly weight (b_D = 0.0188, p = 0.001) three-muscle ham weight (bD = -0.014, p = 0.001), boneless loin weight (b_D = -0.010, p = 0.001), tenderloin weight (bD = -0.023, p = 0.001), sirloin weight (b_D = -0.009, p = 0.034), and fat-free lean mass (b_D = -0.0145, p = 0.001). Overall, feeding the LE diets had little impact on primal cut weight except to decrease belly weight. Feeding LE diets increased the weight of lean trimmed cuts by 1 to 2 percent at the same carcass weight.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effect of diets with different energy and lipase levels on performance, digestibility and carcass trait in broilers

        Hu,,Y.D.,Lan,,D.,Zhu,,Y.,Pang,,H.Z.,Mu,,X.P.,Hu,,X.F. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2018 Animal Bioscience Vol.31 No.8

        Objective: A 28-d trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets with different energy and lipase levels on performance, nutrient digestibility, serum profiles, gut health, and carcass quality in broilers. Methods: A total of 720 one-day-old male Ross 308 broilers ($45.4{\pm}0.5g$) were randomly assigned to one of the following four treatments: i) RET, reduced energy treatment (metabolizable energy = 2,950 and 3,100 kcal/kg for starter and finisher diet), ii) BDT, basal diet treatment (metabolizable energy = 3,050 and 3,200 kcal/kg for starter and finisher diet, iii) RET015, RET+0.15 g/kg lipase, and iv) RET03, RET+0.3 g/kg lipase. There were 10 replications (cages) per treatment with 18 birds per cage. Results: During d 1 to 14, broilers fed BDT, RET015, and RET03 diets had higher (p<0.05) body weight gain than those fed RET diet. During d 1 to 14, 15 to 28 and the overall experiment, feed conversion ratio in RET03 treatment was lower (p<0.05) compared with RET treatment. On d 14, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter (DM), ether extract (EE), and gross energy in RET03 treatment was higher (p<0.05) than those in RET treatment, while the ATTD of N was increased (p<0.05) by RET03 treatment. On d 28, broilers fed RET03 diet had higher (p<0.05) ATTD of DM than those fed RET and RET015 diets, while the ATTD of EE in BDT and RET03 treatments was increased (p<0.05) compared with RET and RET015 treatments. Broilers fed RET03 diet had higher villus height (VH) and VH:crypt depth (CD) ratio than those fed RET and BDT diets. The activity of pancreatic lipase in BDT and RET03 treatments was higher (p<0.05) than that in RET treatment. Conclusion: Taken together, lipase supplementation (3,000 U/kg feed) increased growth performance, nutrient digestibility, VH, VH:CD ratio and lipase activity, but decreased triglyceride, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the abdominal fat percentage in broilers fed reduced energy diet.

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