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      • KCI등재후보

        柳宗元의 古賦 硏究

        류재윤(Liu Jaeyoon) 중국인문학회 2017 中國人文科學 Vol.0 No.65

        This paper is a study on six works of rhapsodies which were written by Liu-zongyuan during the period of exile. Ancient rhapsodies contained a lot of lyricism. Liu-zongyuan, using the style of ancient rhapsodies, expressed his feelings and disaffections that came from the living of exile. In his six works, he indicated some of misconducts made by villainous retainers, but lots of his classical rhapsodies consist of the contents of melancholy stress pain and unsatisfaction about his exile life. All of rhapsodies researched in this paper are ancient style of rhapsodies originated by Quyuan. Using the style and character of ancient rhapsodies, he manifested his misfortune and unsatisfactory feelings of being exiled.

      • KCI등재

        A New GARCH-Type Model

        Qingfeng Liu 충남대학교 경영경제연구소 2010 경영경제연구 Vol.33 No.2

        Liu와 Morimune(2005)는 일련의 양(+)의 충격 혹은 음(-)의 충격이 변동성에 미치는 영향을 포착하기 위하여 GARCH 모델을 확장하였다. 그리고 이 새로운 모델을 OGARCH 모델이라고 명명하였다. 그러나 OGARCH 모델에 대해 몇몇 연구자들이 충격의 함수형태에 문제가 있을 수 있음을 제기했다. 현재의 함수형태에서는 OGARCH 모델이 불안정할 수 있다는 것이다. 본 연구에서는 이러한 문제를 극복하기 위하여 충격에 대한 새로운 함수형태를 채택하여 모형을 수정하였다. 새로운 형태의 GARCH 모델은 일련의 양(+)의 충격 혹은 음(-)의 충격의 날짜 수가 변동성에 미치는 영향을 포착하도록 수정되었다. 본 연구는 새로운 모델을 SSEC, KS11, N225 지수들에 적용해 보았으며, 그 결과 상하이주식시장의 SSEC 지수를 분석하는데 특히 유용했음을 알 수 있었다. 또한 새로운 모형은 실증적 연구에서 OGARCH 모형과 GARCH 모형보다 더욱 좋은 결과를 보여주었다. Liu and Morimune (2005) expanded GARCH model to capture the effect of a consecutive number of positive or negative shocks on volatilities. They named that model OGARCH model. However, a shortcoming of OGARCH model on the function form was pointed out by some researchers. Due to this shortcoming, OGARCH model could be unstable. In this paper, in order to overcome this problem of OGARCH model, we modified it by adopting a different function of the spells of shocks. A new GARCH type model is established by means of capturing the effect on volatilities of the consecutive number of days of positive or negative shocks. The new model is applied to the SSEC, KS11 and N225 indices and is found particularly useful in analyzing the SSEC index of Shanghai market. Moreover, the new model performs better than OGARCH and GARCH model in the empirical study.

      • KCI등재

        The generalized Fermat type difference equations

        Kai Liu,Lei Ma,Xiaoyang Zhai 대한수학회 2018 대한수학회보 Vol.55 No.6

        This paper is to consider the generalized Fermat difference equations with different types which ever considered by Li \cite{li}, Ishizaki and Korhonen \cite{IK}, Zhang \cite{zhangjie} and Liu \cite{liuk4,11,1177,liu}, respectively. Some new observations and results on these equations will be given.

      • KCI등재

        Rainfall-induced Landslide Hazard Analysis Based on GIS in Yanbian Region, China

        Liu,Xiu Xuan,Quan, He Chun,이병걸 대한공간정보학회 2017 대한공간정보학회지 Vol.25 No.4

        This paper mainly studies landslide hazard in Yanbian region,8 landslide factors of soil moisture content, hydrogeology, land use type, slope, slope aspect, fault, river and rainfall are analyzed in the area of Yanbian region. Using the analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the relative weights of 8 landslide factors were obtained, and the internal weights of each factor were determined by the data; the rainfall factors were then divided into three categories such as average annual rainfall, average flood season rainfall, and the maximum average rainfall. And the comparison of the rainfall factors was made. Finally based on the results of these weights to the remote sensing technology(RS) and geographic information system(GIS) technology combined to evaluate its area, we are mapping the risk assessment area for landslide hazard in Yanbian region. According to the map analysis, figure in the dangerous hierarchies result in accordance with the historical landslides is better. At the same time. landslides and hazard area of statistical data analysis showed that the AHP method combined with GIS technology is suitable for promoting the Yanbian regional landslide hazard assessment.

      • COMMON STATIONARY POINTS OF MULTI-VALUED F-CONTRACTIONS WITH δ-DISTANCE

        Liu1 Zeqing,Liu Ying,Kang Shin Min 경남대학교 기초과학연구소 2019 Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Applications Vol.24 No.1

        Three common stationary point theorems for some multi-valued F-contractions with δ-distance in bounded complete metric spaces are proved. The results obtained in this paper are extended or are different from several results in the literature. Three nontrivial examples are given.

      • THE REPRESENTATION AND CONTINUITY OF A GENERALIZED METRIC PROJECTION ONTO HALF-SPACES IN BANACH SPACES

        Liu1 Ruijuan,Liu Chunyan,Zhang Zihou 경남대학교 기초과학연구소 2019 Nonlinear Functional Analysis and Applications Vol.24 No.1

        Let C be a closed bounded convex subset of a real Banach space X with 0 as its interior point and pc the Minkowski functional generated by the set C. For a nonempty set G in X and x ∈ X, g_0 ∈ G is called the generalized best approximation to x from G if p_c(g_0 − x) ≤ p_c(g − x) for all g ∈ G. In this paper, we will give a distance formula under p_C from a point to a half-space K_{x^∗_0,c} = {x ∈ X : x^∗_0(x) ≤ c} in Banach space and investigate the continuity of this generalized metric projection, extending corresponding results for the case of norm.

      • KCI등재

        中国商业特许经营合同的立法选择

        ??(LIU,JUN?HU),胡光志(GUANGZHI) 동아대학교 법학연구소 2017 國際去來와 法 Vol.- No.19

        비즈니스프랜차이즈경영(商业特许经营)는 우리들의 일상생활에서 이미 중요한 역할을 맡고 있다. 이러한 비즈니스 모델은 비즈니스프랜차이스경영계약을 핵심으로 하고 있다. 따라서 비즈니스프랜차이즈경영계약제도의 설계는 특히 중요해진 것이 사실이다. 비즈니스프랜차이즈계약은 하나의 관계유형의 계속적인 계약이고 일반적인 계약관계와 비교하면 거대한 특수성을 가진다. 이것은 입법에 대해 이익평가의 구체적인 요구를 제기하고 있다. 비즈니스프랜차이즈경영계약은 중국민법전의 편찬과정에서 하나의 새로운 입법선택을 직면하고 있다. 이는 民法典化 또는 전문적 입법 중에 하나의 쟁점이 되고 있다. 기타 국가(지역)에서 두 종류의 입법모식이 병존하는 입법경험은 하나의 참고 가능한 최적모식을 제공할 수 없지만, 중국의 입법견해로 주로 관심을 가지는 것은 비즈니스 프랜차이즈경영계약이 민법전화의 기술적인 문제가 될 수 있는지 이다. 현재 중국의 입법은 비즈니스프랜차이즈경영계약 자체에 대한 관심이 결핍되어 있다. 이러한 상황에서 선택하기 어렵다. 또한 비즈니스프랜차이즈경영계약 분쟁에 관한 사법재판을 보면, 중국 기존의 행정전문입법은 사법실무에서 변통적으로 적용되고 있다. 이는 약자의 보호를 받는 피프랜차이즈인의 제도설계에서 결코 진정한 역할을 발휘할 수 없다. 여기에 비추어 보아, 민법전화의 모식을 선택하면, 사법의 변통적 적용을 제한하는데 유리하며, 나아가 프랜차이즈 경영계약의 일반적 법칙과 실무적 요구를 반영할 수 있다. Commercial franchise has played an important role in our daily life, and commercial franchise contract is the core of this business model, so its contract system design is particularly important. The commercial franchise contract is a relational and continuing contract, which has a large specificity compared with the general contractual relationship, and it puts forward the specific requirement of the measure of interest. Commercial franchise contract faces a new legislative choice in the process of compiling the civil code, civil code or specialized legislation has become a controversial issue. The legislative experience of coexistence of two kinds of legislative models in other countries can not provide an optimal model for reference, and the domestic legislation advocates pay more attention to the technical problem how the commercial franchise contract can be a part of the civil code. It is difficult to choose in this case. In the judicial decisions of the commercial franchise contract dispute, the existing administrative special legislation has been applied in changed ways, and the system design to protect the vulnerable franchisee did not really work. In view of this, commercial franchise contracts stipulated in the civil code civil code is more conducive to restrict the application of justice, but also better reflect the general rules and practical needs of franchise contract.

      • Study on the Thermal Decomposition of Waste Polystyrene in Motor Oil Using Microwave Energy

        Liu, Xiao Yun,Kang, Tae Won 公州大學校 工學硏究院 生産技術硏究所 2003 論文集 Vol.11 No.-

        A novel microwave-induced pyrolysis of waste polystyrene in motor oil was performed in quartz tube reactor. Different pyrolysis conditions were investigated, such as time range from 30 minutes to 1 hour and effective microwave power range from 180 to 250 watt. The distillate components were analyzed with GC-MS, and styrene, 1-methyl styrene, toluene, ethyl benzene were the four main products. Among these distillate products, styrene took over 70 percentages. Temperature of pyrolysis suing microwave was much lower than that of conventional thermal pyrolysis method.

      • KCI등재

        Inheritance and Development of Cultural Heritage of Chinese Architecture - Root-Exploring and Innovation of the Cultural Value of the Arch

        Liu,Fu-long 한국조형디자인학회 2013 조형디자인연구 Vol.16 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Chinese traditional architecture has a long-dated history. As one of the important architectural style of ancient cultural heritage, archway (square) building used since the Song Dynasty and now is the crowning touch to the composition of architectural space. First, the value of the arch is embodied in the inheritance and development of traditional culture, and cultural development of the arch is closely related to historical and cultural background of Chinese society; Second, as a traditional architectural form, the arch is one of the unique elements in entrance spaces, such as villages, temples, towns, royal gardens, memorial sites, tombs, etc. Meanwhile, the arch has become typical symbol of the entrance to residential area of foreign Chinese. Column, floor and frontal fang and span arch is the basic components of the arch. To cleverly constructed so that the arch stand leaving it emerged actual situation and white silhouette beauty. We can learn construction techniques and layout forms of Chinese traditional architecture, then explore the inheritance and development of the wisdom and culture of Chinese traditional architecture under contemporary perspective though the arch arts. The article takes the design of Baoji City Dai Jia-wan administrative square arch for example, explores the way of combining new technologies with traditional materials, meanwhile achieves harmony between large-scale pure stone arch and contemporary urban space, which is a useful practice about inheritance and innovation of traditional arch arts.

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