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This research aims to shed light on the technology adoption process and its drivers in the Vietnamese educational system. Research data was collected with an online questionnaire from more than 600 teachers in primary schools, secondary schools, high schools, colleges, and universities in Vietnam in 2020. Based on a holistic literature review, we develop a model of two extrinsic factors (global needs and school-infrastructure), and two intrinsic factors (teachers' technological literacy and their beliefs), which are correlated with the teachers' technological adoption. We measure the dependent variable by asking the teachers' ability and their efficacy to implement technology in teaching according to a Likert scale. With the support of SPSS_22 and STATA_2015, we find that over 70% of changes in technology adoption are explained by the changes in four independent variables and three control variables related to age, gender, and teaching-level of the teachers. Furthermore, these independent variables are significantly and positively associated with two dependent variables. However, a significant difference in technology integration ability can be seen among teachers' gender, age, and school-level. Specifically, male teachers seem to adopt technology at schools than female teachers better, and university teachers have the lowest level of technology adoption compared to other school-level teachers.
Hydrotalcite-like compound containing metal cations such as Mg2+, Al3+ and Ni2+ was characterized using Ni K-edge EXAFS and in situ Ni K-edge XANES techniques for clarifying its bonding environment around Ni2+ sites and structure changes during calcination from room temperature to 550 oC, respectively. At the fixed molar ratio of Mg/Ni/Al of 2/1/1, the results obtained from EXAFS analysis showed a slight blue shift before and after the calcination at 550 oC and a reduction in white line peak; the best fits of the two samples revealed tiny change in coordination number about 7 for Ni-O path but considerable difference for Ni-Mg(Al) path from about 4.5 to 9.5, confirming a modification from brucite like to mixed oxide structure. On the other hand, bond distances of the Ni-O and Ni-Mg paths nearly fixed at about 2.06 Å to 3.0 Å reflected stability of the cationic bond order on each plane, but partial collapse and decomposition of the interlayer formed by water molecules and anion CO3 2− after the calcination. Linear combination fit extracted from the in situ Ni K-edge XANES also confirmed the changes along with the calcination such as slow and fast decreases of brucite fraction at 150 oC and 330 oC, respectively, in corresponding to the mixed oxide fraction increases. The achieved bonding structures were also applied to explain acid-base occurrence of the hydrotalcite-like material, especially the acid sites generated by different static charges along with the bonds. The explanation was illustrated by NH3-TPD method.