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      • KCI등재

        전기방전하에서 D2/H2O 반응계의 수소 동위원소 교환반응

        김현정,박영동,이웅무 한국수소에너지학회 1998 한국수소 및 신에너지학회논문집 Vol.9 No.2

        H₂O/D₂, D₂O/H₂O, D₂O/H₂ 등의 반응계의 수소동위원소 교환반응은 전기방전을 이용하여 용이하게 일으킬 수 있다. 예를 들어, DC 코로나 방전을 위의 반응혼합물을 통하여 일으키면 여기된 상태의 반응물이 존재하는 플라즈마를 형성하게 된다. 이러한 플라즈마 내에서 반응물들은 양자에너지 준위의 여기, 이온화 그리고 라디칼 형성등을 통하여 매우 큰 반응성을 갖게되므로 실온에서도 용이하게 수소동위원소 교환반응을 일으킨다. 본 연구에서는 H₂/D₂O계의 기상에서의 교환반응에 대한 연구를 실시하였다. 위 반응계는 전기방전하에서 수소(H)와 중수소(D)간의 교환반응에 의하여 HDO와 HD를 생성하게 된다. 이러한 반응생성물을 FTIR 분광법을 이용하여 시간의 함수로 측정을 하였다. 그리고 위 반응계의 수소동위원소 교환반응에 대한 온도의 효과 및 플라즈마 방법과 촉매법과의 비교를 통하여 그 효율성을 비교하였다. Hydrogen isotope exchange in mixtures of H₂O/D₂, H₂O/D₂O, or D₂O/H₂ can be facilitated under electrical discharge. For example, a simple DC corona discharge through the mixture creates a plasma in which the reactants are excited energetically. The reactants in such plasma, due to increase in population of excited quantum levels or due to production of radicals or ions, undergo very rapid chemical reactions even at ambient temperature. The isotope exchange reaction of hydrogen(H) and deuterium(D) produces the third kind of heavy water(HDO) and isotopic hydrogen gas(HD), as shown in D₂ + H₂O → HDO + HD K=11.257(at 25℃) The reaction products can be detected with temporal resolution using the Fourier transform infrared(FTIR) absorption spectroscopy. Since H₂O, D₂O and HDO are all infrared active with different absorption peaks, FTIR proves to be a useful tool for monitoring the reaction. Experimental results show that the electrical method is indeed a useful means to promote the reaction, showing a better efficiency than traditional catalytic methods.

      • KCI우수등재

        재래한우의 보존을 위한 혈청 및 혈구단백질의 유전적 다형현상

        한상기,신유철,윤희섭,정의룡,변희대 한국축산학회 1995 한국축산학회지 Vol.37 No.1

        Biochemical polymorphisms of five red cell and semen proteins, Hemoglobin(Hb), Transferrin(Tf), Post-transferrin 2(Ptf2), Post-albumin(Pa) and Albumin(Alb) as genetic markers in Korean cattle were analyzed by Starch and Polyacryamide gel electrophoresis and their phenotypes, genotypes and gene frequencies were estimated in order to analysis the genetic constitution of Korean native cattle population. In the Hemoglobin(Hb) locus four different phenotypes AA, AB, BB and CH were observed and assumed to be controlled by four different alleles designated Hb^A, Hb^B, Hb^C and Hb^H, and the Hb^H type was rare variant of Korean native cattle. The observed distribution of phenotypes were 73.37% for AA type, 23.37% for AB type. 2.72% for BB type and 0.54%r for CH type. Gene frequencies of Hb^A, Hb^B, Hb^C and Hb^H were 0.8505, 0.1440, 0.0027 and 0.0027. Semen Transfetrin(Tf) locus, 11 different phenotypes AA, AD₁, AD₂, AE, AH, D₁D₁, D₁D₂, D₁E, D₂H, D₂D₂, D₂E, EE and EH type were identified, which considered to be controlled by codominant alleles TF,^A Tf^D, Tf^D, Tf^E and Tf^H at a single locus. The frequencies of Tf genotypes AD₁, D₁E, D₁D₂, D₂E, AA, AE, D₁D₂, AD₂, D₁D₁, EE, AH, D₂H and EH were found to be 16.30, 13.33, 11.85, 10.37, 9.69, 8.15, 7.41, 9.63, 5.93, 4.44, 1.48, 0.74 and 0.01%, respectively. Gene frequencies of TF^A, Tf^(D1) Tf^(D2) and Tf^H were 0.2741, 0.2704, 0,2333, 0.2074 and 0.0148, respectively. And TfH gene were newly identified in Korean native cattle. Considering Post-transterrin 2 locus, three different phenotypess FF, FS and SS were identified, which considers to he controlled by two alleles Ptf^F and Ptf^S at a single autosomal locus. The frequencies of Rf genotypes FS, FF and SS were found to be 51.06. 36.88 and 12.06%n, respectively and gene frequencies of Ptf^F and Ptf^S were 0.6241 and 0.3759. In the Postalbumin(Pa) locus, three different phenotypes FF, FS and SS type were observed to be genetically controllled by Pa^F and Pa^S gene. And genotypes frequencies FS. FF amd SS type were 48.65, 36.(H and 1_5.32%, respectively. The gene frequencies of Pa^F and Pa^S were 0.6036 and 0.3964. The Albumin(Alb) locus were observed to lack any individual variation. Therefore, this locus were defined to be monomorphic. In comparison of genetic distance and dendogram calculated from the gene frequencies, close relationship was obtained between the Japanese cattle and the Korean cattle.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Chromium Supplementation and Lipopolysaccharide Injection on Physiological Responses of Weanling Pigs

        Lee,,D.N.,Weng,,C.F.,Yen,,H.T.,Shen,,T.F.,Chen,,B.J. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.4

        Sixteen specific pathogen free 4-wk-old crossbred weanling pigs were allotted into a $2{\times}2$ factorial design to evaluate chromium picolinate (CrPic) on growth and physiological responses. Two factors included (1) no Cr or 400 ppb Cr supplementation from chromium picolinate and (2) lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection on day 21 (d 21) and 35 (d 35) compared to saline application. Plasma samples and rectal temperature were obtained from all piglets before (h 0) and at 2 h (h 2), 4 h (h 4), 8 h (h 8), and 24 h (h 24) after LPS injection ($200{\mu}g/kg$ BW, intraperitoneally). The rectal temperature on d 21 was significantly decreased (p<0.05) of about $0.36^{\circ}C$ with Cr supplementation before LPS injection. After LPS injection, the daily gain of piglets was decreased during d 35-38. Supplementation of Cr had no effect in general on growth performance particularly after LPS injection. The plasma glucose, triglycerides and urea nitrogen concentrations were changed in different ways after LPS injection. Plasma cortisol level was significantly elevated at h 2 after LPS injection on d 21 and d 35. The supplementation of Cr in the diet can delayed plasma cortisol release on d 35. The results suggest that 400 ppb Cr supplementation from CrPic may modulate the physiological response during immune stress in weanling pigs.

      • KCI우수등재

        자외선의 조사간격이 브로일러 병아리의 볏 피부중 비타민 D₃함량에 미치는 영향

        조인호,장윤환,이은택,여영수,배은경,김중달 한국축산학회 1994 한국축산학회지 Vol.36 No.1

        This study was conducted to determine the content, of previtamin D₃(PreD₃), lumisterol₃(L₃), vitamin D₃(VD₃) and provitamin D₃(ProD₃) in comb skski of broiler chicks exposed to medium ware ultraviolet(UVB) lights in different interval. The broiler Hubbard line day old chicks(199 = 10 control + 3 irradiation interval × 9 elapsed time × 7 replica) were fed vitamin D deficient diet for 3 weeks in a windowless subdued light room and exposed to 297 ㎚ UVB light by 0.068 mJ/㎝-(10 min) three times in 0, 12 or 24 h interval. The comb skin were taken at 0, 6, 12, 18, 24, 48, 96, 144 or 240 h after last irradiation, and epidermis and dermis were separated. The lipid in sample was extracted by 9% ethyl acetate/hexane and purified by Sep-Pak silica catridge. The stright phase HPI-C was applied to analyze the concentration of Prop; and its photoproducts. When chicks were exposed once to UVB light for 30 min without interval, the mole % of ProD₃ in comb epidermis were 100% at control and 52.65% at 0 h after irradiation, thereafter it increased gradually to 88.17% at 240 h. PreD₃ and L₃ presented the maximum mole % at 0 h. VD₃ showed the peak value at 12 h. then decreased slowly. As UVB light was utilized to irradiate the chicks for 10 thin three times in 12 h interval, the ProD₃ mole portion in epidermis at 0 h was 76.4%, the lowest value among tested. PreD₃ and 1-3 preserved the highest level at 24 and 0 h, respectively, thereafter decreased gradully. VD₃ showed a peak at 6 h after exposure. When 24 h interval system was treated, the lowest value of ProD₃ 83.52% was appeared at 0 h. PreD₃ and L3 showed the highest level at 6 and 0 h, respectively. Mole ale of VD₃ had a peak value at 6 h and thin decreased. The mole % of ProD₃ and its photoproduets in comb dermis presented similar trends of time course variation as in those in epidermis. In respecting the method of UVB irradiation the PreD₃, L, and VDT were produced more quickly and largely in no intend system as compared to the time and amount produced in 12 or 24 h interval system.

      • 인공지능을 이용한 3D 콘텐츠 기술 동향 및 향후 전망

        이승욱,황본우,임성재,윤승욱,김태준,김기남,김대희,박창준,Lee,,S.W.,Hwang,,B.W.,Lim,,S.J.,Yoon,,S.U.,Kim,,T.J.,Kim,,K.N.,Kim,,D.H,Park,,C.J. 한국전자통신연구원 2019 전자통신동향분석 Vol.34 No.4

        Recent technological advances in three-dimensional (3D) sensing devices and machine learning such as deep leaning has enabled data-driven 3D applications. Research on artificial intelligence has developed for the past few years and 3D deep learning has been introduced. This is the result of the availability of high-quality big data, increases in computing power, and development of new algorithms; before the introduction of 3D deep leaning, the main targets for deep learning were one-dimensional (1D) audio files and two-dimensional (2D) images. The research field of deep leaning has extended from discriminative models such as classification/segmentation/reconstruction models to generative models such as those including style transfer and generation of non-existing data. Unlike 2D learning, it is not easy to acquire 3D learning data. Although low-cost 3D data acquisition sensors have become increasingly popular owing to advances in 3D vision technology, the generation/acquisition of 3D data is still very difficult. Even if 3D data can be acquired, post-processing remains a significant problem. Moreover, it is not easy to directly apply existing network models such as convolution networks owing to the various ways in which 3D data is represented. In this paper, we summarize technological trends in AI-based 3D content generation.

      • KCI등재후보SCOPUS

        Protein Profile in Corpus Luteum during Pregnancy in Korean Native Cows

        H.J.,Chung,K.W.,Kim,D.W.,Han,H.C.,Lee,B.C.,Yang,H.K.,Chung,M.R.,Shim,M.S.,Choi,E.B.,Jo,Y.M.,Jo,M.Y.,Oh,S.J.,Jo,S.,K.,Hong,J.K.,Park,W.,K.,Chang 아세아·태평양축산학회 2012 Animal Bioscience Vol.25 No.11

        Steroidogenesis requires coordination of the anabolic and catabolic pathways of lipid metabolism, but the profile of proteins associated with progesterone synthesis in cyclic and pregnant corpus luteum (CL) is not well-known in cattle. In Experiment 1, plasma progesterone level was monitored in cyclic cows (n = 5) and pregnant cows (n = 6; until d-90). A significant decline in the plasma progesterone level occurred at d-19 of cyclic cows. Progesterone level in abbatoir-derived luteal tissues was also determined at d 1 to 5, 6 to 13 and 14 to 20 of cyclic cows, and d-60 and -90 of pregnant cows (n = 5 each). Progesterone level in d-60 CL was not different from those in d 6 to 13 CL and d-90 CL, although the difference between d 6 to 13 and d-90 was significant. In Experiment 2, protein expression pattern in CL at d-90 (n = 4) was compared with that in CL of cyclic cows at d 6 to 13 (n = 5). Significant changes in the level of protein expression were detected in 32 protein spots by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2-DE), and 23 of them were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Six proteins were found only in pregnant CL, while the other 17 proteins were found only in cyclic CL. Among the above 6 proteins, vimentin which is involved in the regulation of post-implantation development was included. Thus, the protein expression pattern in CL was disorientated from cyclic luteal phase to mid pregnancy, and alterations in specific CL protein expression may contribute to the maintenance of pregnancy in Korean native cows.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Taurine on Sperm Characteristics during In vitro Storage of Boar Semen

        Jang,,H.Y.,Kong,,H.S.,Park,,C.K.,Oh,,J.D.,Lee,,S.G.,Cheong,,H.T.,Kim,,J.T.,Lee,,S.J.,Yang,,B.K.,Lee,,H.K. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2006 Animal Bioscience Vol.19 No.11

        The objective of this study was to investigate the anti-oxidative effects of taurine on sperm characteristics for in vitro storage of boar semen. Semen was randomly divided into 10 groups in conical tubes and treated with different concentrations of taurine (25-100 mM) with or without $250{\mu}M$ $H_2O_2$. The percentage of motile spermatozoa in taurine groups after 6 and 9 h were significantly higher at >94% and 87%, respectively, compared to the control group ($85.1{\pm}0.5$ and $72.4{\pm}0.3$, p<0.05). The sperm motility in taurine with $H_2O_2$ after 6 h incubation was slightly decreased compared to the taurine alone treatment, but after 9 and 12 h incubation % sperm motility dropped sharply in taurine with $H_2O_2$ ($75.3{\pm}0.3$ and $69.6{\pm}2.9$, p<0.05). For 3, 9 and 12 h incubation, sperm viability in the control was lower than in taurine groups, irrespective of taurine concentration. In eosin Y and nigrosin staining (ENS), the sperm survival rates (%) for 6 h incubation were significantly higher in 25 mM ($76.0{\pm}0.6$) and 50 mM taurine groups ($78.0{\pm}0.7$), respectively. Sperm survival rates for 9 and 12 h incubation were higher in taurine groups (${\geq}48%$ in 9 h and ${\geq}42%$ in 12 h) compared to controls ($43.0{\pm}2.1$ and $31.0{\pm}0.6$, respectively). In the hyoosmotic swelling test (HOST), sperm membrane integrity was similar to the results of sperm survival. These experiments indicate that supplementation of taurine to the semen extender can increase the sperm characteristics(motility, viability, survival and membrane integrity).

      • KCI등재SCOPUS

        The Effects of Fat-soluble Vitamin Administration on Plasma Vitamin Status of Nursing Pigs Differ When Provided by Oral Administration or Injection

        Y.D.,Jang,M.D.,Lindemann,H.J.,Monegue,R.L.,Stuart 아세아·태평양축산학회 2014 Animal Bioscience Vol.27 No.5

        Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of fat-soluble vitamin administration to sows or newborn pigs on plasma vitamin status. In Exp. 1 and 2, a total of 24 and 43 newborn pigs were allotted to control and vitamin treatments (vitamin D3 with variable addition of vitamins A and E) orally or by i.m. injection. In Exp. 3, pigs from Exp. 2 were allotted to 2 treatments (±vitamins D3 and E in drinking water) for 14 d postweaning. In Exp. 4, twenty-four gestating sows were used for 2 treatments (±injection of a vitamin D3/A/E product 2 wk prepartum). In Exp. 1 and 2, when vitamin D3 was administrated orally or by i.m. injection on d 1 of age, pigs had increased plasma 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH D3) concentration 10 d after administration compared with control pigs (p<0.05). The injectable administration with vitamin D3 and E was able to achieve higher plasma 25-OH D3 (p<0.05) and α-tocopherol (p<0.05) concentrations than oral administration. At weaning, the pigs in the injection group had higher plasma 25-OH D3 concentration than those in the other groups in both studies (p<0.05). In Exp. 3, water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E postweaning increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations at d 14 postweaning (p<0.01). In Exp. 4, when sows were injected with the vitamin D3 product prepartum, serum 25-OH D3 concentrations of sows at farrowing (p<0.01), and in their progeny at birth (p<0.01) and weaning (p<0.05) were increased. These results demonstrated that fat-soluble vitamin administration to newborn pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 concentration regardless of administration routes and α-tocopherol concentration by the injectable route, and that water supplementation of vitamin D3 and E to nursery pigs increased plasma 25-OH D3 and α-tocopherol concentrations. Additionally, injecting sows with vitamin D3 prepartum increased 25-OH D3 in sows and their offspring. If continued research demonstrates that the serum levels of 25-OH D3 are critical in weanling pigs, a variety of means to increase those levels are available to swine producers.

      • SCIESCOPUSKCI등재

        Effects of Chromium Supplementation and Lipopolysaccharide Injection on the Immune Responses of Weanling Pigs

        Lee,,D.N.,Shen,,T.F.,Yen,,H.T.,Weng,,C.F.,Chen,,B.J. Asian Australasian Association of Animal Productio 2000 Animal Bioscience Vol.13 No.10

        Sixteen specific pathogen free 4-wk-old crossbred weanling pigs were allotted into a $2{\times}2$ factorial experiment to evaluate the effects of chromium (Cr) on the immune responses after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) injection. Two factors included (1) no Cr or 400 ppb Cr supplementation from chromium picolinate (CrPic) and (2) LPS injection ($200{\mu}g/kg$ BW, intraperitoneally) on day 21 (d 21) and 35 (d 35) as compared with saline application. Plasma samples were obtained from all piglets before (0 h) and at 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h after LPS injection. The changes in tumor necrosis $factor-{\alpha}$ ($TNF-{\alpha}$) and leukocyte populations after LPS injection were not significant on d 21. On d 35, the plasma $TNF-{\alpha}$ level was increased at h 2 postinjection, and supplemental Cr reduced the $TNF-{\alpha}$ level. The leukocyte populations had changed profoundly and lymphocyte subsets of $CD2^+$ and $CD8^+$ were reduced at 8 h postinjection. The blood granulocytes were increased and the percentage of $CD2^+$ was reduced in the Cr-fed group on d 35. Furthermore, Cr supplementation decreased the blastogensis of concanavalin A-stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) on d 21. These results suggest that 400 ppb Cr supplementation from CrPic in diets may modulate the immune responses in weanling pigs during LPS injection.

      • 비타민 D3 의 경구투여 또는 자외선 조사가 브로일러 병아리의 증체 및 비타민 D3 대사에 미치는 영향

        장윤환,김중달,Holick,,M,F,황선일 한국영양사료학회 1995 韓國營養飼料學會誌 Vol.19 No.6

        본 연구는 육계에 대한 vitamin D₃(VD₃)의 경구투여 또는 중파자외선(UVB) 照射가 증체와 VD₃대사에 어떤 영향을 미치는지 구명코자 실시되었다. 1일령 Hubbard 계통 병아리 360수(6 처리 × 3반복 × 20수)에, 기본사료에 VD₃를 1,000, 2,000 또는 3,000IU/㎏(처리 1, 2, 3) 첨가하여 급여하거나, 기본사료만 급여하고 UVB를 30, 45 또는 60분 照射하여(처리 4, 5, 6) 6주간의 증체량, 사료섭취량, 영양소 이용율, 혈장중 Ca, P, VD₃및 25-hydroxyvitamin D₃〔25(OH)D₃〕 함량을 측정하였다. Ca은 원자 흡수 분광광도계로, P은 molybdovanadate 분광광도 계법으로, VD₃와 25(OH)D₃는 HPLC에 의하여 정량되었다. 6주간의 증체량에 있어서 처리간에 유의차가 없었으며, 사료섭취량 및 전환율에 있어서도 유의차가 나타나지 않았다. 가용 무질소물의 이용 효율에 있어서도 각 처리간에 유의차를 보이지 않았다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 Ca 농도는 처리 1∼4가 처리 5와 6보다 더 높은 수치를 보였고(P$lt;.05), 6주령 때에는 처리 1과 2가 처리 4∼6보다 높게 나타났으나(P$lt;.05), P 함량은 3주 및 6주령 모두 비슷한 수준을 보였다. 3주령 병아리의 혈장중 VD₃농도는 처리간 유의차가 없었고 25(OH)D₃함량은 처리 2와 3에서 처리 4보다 더 높은 성적을 보였다(P$lt;.05). 6주령 병아리의 VD₃함량은 처리 1과 2가 처리 4와 6보다 높게 나타났으며(P$lt;.05), 25(OH)D₃농도에서는 처리 1∼3이 처리 4와 5보다 높은 결과를 보였다(P$lt;.05). 대체로 혈장 내 Ca, VD₃및 25(OH)D₃함량상 VD₃경구 투여가 UVB 照射 보다 더 높은 값을 보였다. 그 이유로서 VD₃증가 급여는 체내의 Ca 및 VD₃함량을 증가시키고 때로는 중독증을 유발하나, UVB 照射는 불필요한 VD₃의 생성을 억제하기 때문이라 생각 되었다. 본 연구에서는 병아리의 증체를 더 증시하고 처리 1의 VD₃1,000IU/㎏의 경구투여 또는 처리 4의 UVB 30분 照射(매일)를 추천코자 한다. 이 두 처리의 비용을 비교하였을 때 처리 4의 방법이 처리 1보다 경제성이 있었다. 그러므로 육계사육시에 병아리를 태양광선에 노출시키는 연구도 필요 할 것이라 생각된다. This research was carried out to compare the effects of oral administration of vitamin D₃(VD₃) and the irradiation of medium wave ultraviolet(UVB) light for the performance and VD₃metabolism in broiler chicks. Day old Hulbard fine 360 chicks(6 treatment × 3 replication × 20 chicks) were fed the basal diet plus VD₃1,000, 2,000 or 3,000IU/㎏(treatment 1, 2 or 3, respectively) or fed the basal diet only and exposed to UVB light for 30, 45 or 60 min everyday at I'm distance (treatment 4, 5 or 6, respectively). The body weight gain and feed consumption were measured for 6 wk. The nutrient utilization of 2-3 and 5-6 wk period were investigated. The Ca, P, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃contents in plasma of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were analyzed. The Ca and P were quantitated by atomic absorption and molybdovanadate spectrophotometry, and VD₃and 25(OH)D₃by HPLC. The body weight gain, feed consumption, feed Conversion and N-free extract utilization were not significantly different among treatments tested. Ca concentrations in plasma of treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4 at 3 wk was significantly higher than those of treatments 5 and 6 (P$lt;.05). Those were also higher in treatments 1 and 2 than those of rest groups at 6 wk (P$lt;.05). However, the P concentrations in whole groups both of 3 and 6 wk old chicks were similar. The VD₃levels represented no significant difference among treatments at 3 wk age, however, 25(OH) values in treatments 2 and 3 were greater than that in group 4(P$lt;.05). The VD₃contents in plots 1 and 2 were higher than those in treatments 4 and 6 (P$lt;.05), and 25(OH)D₃levels in groups 1-3 were more than those in treatments 4 and 5 (P$lt;.05) at 6 wk old birds. With respect to the concentrations of Ca, VD₃and 25(OH)D₃briefly, the oral VD₃administration presented the higher values compared to the UVB irradiation. It was shown that increasing the dietary supplemental VD₃level presented an increased Ca, VD₃or 25(OH)D₃content in plasma, but increasing the irradiation time of UVB light brought a limited level of those compositions, inhibiting the toxicity of excess VD₃, which was confirmed by other researchers. Consequantly, it was thought that the oral administration of VD₃1,000IU/㎏ that was lowest level among 3 treatments or the UVB irradiation of 30 min, shortest time among 3 applications would be desirable for broiler performance. However, it was known that UVB irradiation for 30 min cost less than VD₃administration of 1,000IU/㎏ did. Furthermore, it was considered that studies on exposing the broiler chicks to the sunlight would be needed in the future.

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