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      • Freeze-dried MoS<sub>2</sub> sponge electrodes for enhanced electrochemical energy storage

        Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Lee, Minoh,Kim, Byung Hoon,Lee, Jae Sung,Jun, Yongseok The Royal Society of Chemistry 2017 Dalton Transactions Vol.46 No.7

        <▼1><P>High surface area MoS2 sponge electrodes were synthesized <I>via</I> a facile hydrothermal method followed by a freeze drying process and showed high specific capacitance and better charge storage behavior.</P></▼1><▼2><P>In the present study, we have synthesized high surface area MoS2 sponge electrodes <I>via</I> a facile hydrothermal method followed by a freeze drying process. The performance of the MoS2 based symmetric capacitor showed a high specific capacitance value of around 128 F g<SUP>−1</SUP> at a scan rate of 2 mV s<SUP>−1</SUP>, and also a single electrode showed a specific capacitance of 510 F g<SUP>−1</SUP>, which is a remarkable value to be reported for a MoS2 based material in a symmetric device configuration. Also, a high energy density of around 6.15 Wh kg<SUP>−1</SUP> and a good cyclic stability over 4000 cycles are obtained for the symmetrical cell.</P></▼2>

      • Molybdenum diselenide/reduced graphene oxide based hybrid nanosheets for supercapacitor applications

        Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Lee, Jae Sung,Jun, Yongseok The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Dalton Transactions Vol.45 No.23

        <P>In the present study, molybdenum diselenide/reduced graphene oxide (MoSe2/rGO) nanosheets were synthesized via a facile hydrothermal process and the electrochemical performance of the nanosheets was evaluated for supercapacitor applications. The MoSe2 nanosheets were uniformly distributed on the surface of the rGO matrix. The MoSe2/rGO nanosheet electrode exhibited an enhanced specific capacitance (211 F g(-1)) with excellent cycling stability, compared with pristine MoSe2. The enhanced electrochemical performance of the MoSe2/rGO nanosheet electrode is mainly attributed to the improved electron and ion transfer mechanism involving the synergistic effects of pseudocapacitance (from the MoSe2 nanosheets) and the electric double layer charge (EDLC, from the rGO nanosheets) storage behavior. These results demonstrate that the enhanced electrochemical performance of MoSe2/rGO nanosheets could be obtained via a facile and scalable approach.</P>

      • Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a 3D electrode for long cycle life symmetric supercapacitors

        Balasingam, S.,Thirumurugan, A.,Lee, J.,Jun, Y. Royal Society of Chemistry 2016 Nanoscale Vol.8 No.23

        <P>Amorphous MoSx thin-film-coated carbon fiber paper as a binder-free 3D electrode was synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method. The maximum specific capacitance of a single electrode was 83.9 mF cm(-2), while it was 41.9 mF cm(-2) for the symmetric device. Up to 600% capacitance retention was observed for 4750 cycles.</P>

      • Metal substrate based electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells: fabrication methods, progress and challenges

        Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Kang, Man Gu,Jun, Yongseok The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013 Chemical communications Vol.49 No.98

        <P>A step towards commercialization of dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) requires more attention to engineering aspects, such as flexibility, the roll to roll fabrication process, the use of cost effective materials, <I>etc.</I> In this aspect, advantages of flexible DSSCs attracted many researchers to contemplate the transparent conducting oxide coated flexible plastic substrates and the thin metallic foils. In this feature article, the pros and cons of these two kinds of substrates are compared. The flexible dye-sensitized solar cells fabricated using metal substrates are briefly discussed. The working electrodes of DSSCs fabricated on various metal substrates, their fabrication methods, the effect of high temperature calcination and drawbacks of back illumination are reviewed in detail. A few reports on the flexible metal substrate based counter electrodes that could be combined with the plastic substrate based working electrodes are also covered at the end.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>This article summarizes the various methods of fabrication of metal substrate-based working and counter electrodes for flexible dye-sensitized solar cells. The potential progress in this field, current challenges and the key ideas to solve those challenges are also discussed in detail. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c3cc46224b'> </P>

      • Few-layered MoSe<sub>2</sub> nanosheets as an advanced electrode material for supercapacitors

        Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Lee, Jae Sung,Jun, Yongseok The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015 Dalton Transactions Vol.44 No.35

        <▼1><P>Few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets are synthesized <I>via</I> a facile hydrothermal method. A symmetric two-electrode device consisting of MoSe2 nanosheets showed enhanced performance and good capacitance retention over 10 000 cycles.</P></▼1><▼2><P>We report the synthesis of few-layered MoSe2 nanosheets using a facile hydrothermal method and their electrochemical charge storage behavior. A systematic study of the structure and morphology of the as-synthesized MoSe2 nanosheets was performed. The downward peak shift in the Raman spectrum and the high-resolution transmission electron microscopy images confirmed the formation of few-layered nanosheets. The electrochemical energy-storage behavior of MoSe2 nanosheets was also investigated for supercapacitor applications in a symmetric cell configuration. The MoSe2 nanosheet electrode exhibited a maximum specific capacitance of 198.9 F g<SUP>−1</SUP> and the symmetric device showed 49.7 F g<SUP>−1</SUP> at a scan rate of 2 mV s<SUP>−1</SUP>. A capacitance retention of approximately 75% was observed even after 10 000 cycles at a high charge–discharge current density of 5 A g<SUP>−1</SUP>. The two-dimensional MoSe2 nanosheets exhibited a high specific capacitance and good cyclic stability, which makes it a promising electrode material for supercapacitor applications.</P></▼2>

      • Improvement of dye-sensitized solar cells toward the broader light harvesting of the solar spectrum

        Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Lee, Minoh,Kang, Man Gu,Jun, Yongseok The Royal Society of Chemistry 2013 Chemical communications Vol.49 No.15

        <P>Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) have been extensively evolved for the past two decades in order to improve their cell performance. From the commercialization point of view, the overall solar to electrical energy conversion efficiency should compete with other solar cells. But, due to structural restrictions of DSSC using the liquid electrolyte and a space requirement between two electrodes, the direct tandem construction of DSSCs by stacking of repeating units is highly limited. In this feature article, important research trials to overcome these barriers and a recent research trend to improve the light harvesting strategies mainly panchromatic engineering, various tandem approaches such as parallel tandem, series tandem, p–n tandem <I>etc.</I>, have been briefly reviewed.</P> <P>Graphic Abstract</P><P>This article summarizes the effective utilization of solar energy using panchromatic engineering and various tandem structures in dye-sensitized solar cells. <IMG SRC='http://pubs.rsc.org/services/images/RSCpubs.ePlatform.Service.FreeContent.ImageService.svc/ImageService/image/GA?id=c2cc37616d'> </P>

      • Importance of Hydrophilic Pretreatment in the Hydrothermal Growth of Amorphous Molybdenum Sulfide for Hydrogen Evolution Catalysis

        Bose, Ranjith,Balasingam, Suresh Kannan,Shin, Seokhee,Jin, Zhenyu,Kwon, Do Hyun,Jun, Yongseok,Min, Yo-Sep American Chemical Society 2015 Langmuir Vol.31 No.18

        <P>Amorphous molybdenum sulfide (MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB>) has been identified as an excellent catalyst for the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). It is still a challenge to prepare amorphous MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> as a more active and stable catalyst for the HER. Here the amorphous MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> catalysts are prepared on carbon fiber paper (CFP) substrates at 200 °C by a simple hydrothermal method using molybdic acid and thioacetamide. Because the CFP is intrinsically hydrophobic due to its graphene-like carbon structure, two kinds of hydrophilic pretreatment methods [plasma pretreatment (PP) and electrochemical pretreatment (EP)] are investigated to convert the hydrophobic surface of the CFP to be hydrophilic prior to the hydrothermal growth of MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB>. In the HER catalysis, the MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> catalysts grown on the pretreated CFPs reach a cathodic current density of 10 mA/cm<SUP>2</SUP> at a much lower overpotential of 231 mV on the MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB>/EP-CFP and 205 mV on the MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB>/PP-CFP, compared to a high overpotential of 290 mV on the MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> of the nonpretreated CFP. Turnover frequency per site is also significantly improved when the MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> are grown on the pretreated CFPs. However, the Tafel slopes of all amorphous MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> catalysts are in the range of 46–50 mV/dec, suggesting the Volmer–Heyrovsky mechanism as a major pathway for the HER. In addition, regardless of the presence or absence of the pretreatment, the hydrothermally grown MoS<SUB><I>x</I></SUB> catalyst on CFP exhibits such excellent stability that the degradation of the cathodic current density is negligible after 1000 cycles in a stability test, possibly due to the relatively high growth temperature.</P><P><B>Graphic Abstract</B> <IMG SRC='http://pubs.acs.org/appl/literatum/publisher/achs/journals/content/langd5/2015/langd5.2015.31.issue-18/acs.langmuir.5b00205/production/images/medium/la-2015-00205r_0010.gif'></P><P><A href='http://pubs.acs.org/doi/suppl/10.1021/la5b00205'>ACS Electronic Supporting Info</A></P>

      • KCI등재

        Facile synthesis of pristine FeS2 microflowers and hybrid rGO-FeS2 microsphere electrode materials for high performance symmetric capacitors

        B. Balamuralitharan,Suresh Kannan Balasingam,S. N. Karthick,Ananthakumar Ramadoss,Manab Kundu,박진수,조인호,프라바카르,전용석,김희제 한국공업화학회 2019 Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Vol.71 No.-

        Iron pyrite (FeS2) is an interesting mineral in the transition metal dichalcogenide group due to its highabundance in the earth’s crust which can be used for various electrochemical energy storage applications,such as batteries and supercapacitors; however, it suffers from low rate capability and poor cycleperformance, which hampers its use from large-scale commercial applications. In the present study, irondisulfide microspheres anchored onto a reduced graphene oxide matrix (rGO-FeS2 hybrid) were grownusing a superficial hydrothermal method. For comparison, rGO-free iron disulfide material wassynthesized under the same hydrothermal conditions, and uniformly distributed FeS2 micro-sizeflowerswere formed. The energy storage capacity of both electroactive materials (FeS2 and rGO-FeS2 hybridmaterial) was tested for supercapacitor applications in a symmetric cell configuration. The pristine FeS2microflower electrode exhibited an areal capacitance of 70.98 mF cm 2 at 5 mV s 1. On the other hand,the rGO-FeS2 hybrid microsphere electrode exhibited an enhanced areal capacitance of 112.41 mF cm 2 atthe same scan rate with an excellent capacitance retention of 90% over 10,000 cycles. The improvedelectrochemical performance of the rGO-FeS2 hybrid material is due mainly to its improved electricalconductivity, high surface area indicating an enhanced electron, and ion transfer mechanism. This studysuggests that the rGO-FeS2 hybrid electrode material has potential applications in energy storage devices.

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