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Abdul Kadir Azidah,Abdul Kadir Arifah,A. H. Roslida,Abdul Manan Mat Jais,Julia Omar,Abdul Nawfar Sadagatullah,Azlina Ishak,Norhayati Mohd. Noor,Ahmad Tarmizi Musa 경희대학교 융합한의과학연구소 2017 Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine Vol.17 No.4
Knee osteoarthritis (OA) is the leading cause of chronic disability at older age. Channa striatus (CS) is a freshwater fish that is traditionally valued for its medicinal properties in promoting wound healing and reducing post-operative pain. This study evaluate the efficacy of different doses of oral Channa striatus extract on primary knee osteoarthritis patients. A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 3-arm trial was conducted comparing oral CS extract 1000 mg/day or 500 mg/day and placebo among knee OA patients for a 6-month intervention period. The main outcome measures were Western Ontario and McMaster University Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC), analgesic scores and serum cartilage oligomeric matric protein (COMP). Laboratory-based blood tests were used as safety measures. A total of 120 patients were randomized, and 112 patients were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. Significant reductions in WOMAC stiffness and function scores were achieved at month 6 in CS 1000 mg/day and CS 500 mg/day compared to placebo groups (p < 0.05). No significant differences were found between the groups in terms of analgesic scores, serum COMP and biochemical parameters. No serious adverse events were reported in the study. In conclusion, both doses of CS showed similar efficacy and were more effective than the placebo in treating the symptoms of knee OA.
Treatment of male albino rats with 5% honey for 20 days had no significant effect on total body weight or on the relative weight of other organs like the testis, seminal vesicles, spleen, kidneys, liver, heart, or brain. The only significant change was a 17% increase in the relative weight of the epididymis (P ≤ .01). The relative weight of all the other organs was similar to those in control animals treated for the same period with drinking water. Treatment of rats for the same period with the same concentration of 5% sucrose produced no significant changes in absolute or relative weight of tested organs compared to control animals. The same treatment with Palestinian honey increased significantly the epididymal sperm count by 37% (P ≤ .05). The activity of testicular marker enzymes for spermatogenesis such as sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) was increased by 31% (P ≤ .05), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was reduced by 48% (P ≤ .05), which indicates that treatment with honey induces spermatogenesis. Similar treatment with sucrose had no significant effect on any of the key enzymes or epididymal sperm count. In conclusion, our results show that ingestion of honey induces spermatogenesis in rats by increasing epididymal sperm count, increasing selectively the relative weight of the epididymis, and increasing SDH activity and reducing LDH activity.
Several CEA tools are available to the analyst. Usually an analytical tool, such as the cause and effect diagram is applied for the investigation phase while a visual display tool, such as Pareto and pie charts, is used for presentation and decision support. A thorough look into these tools reveals the presence of fundamental limitations such as: (i) the particular tool is only efficient in the investigative stage but not in decision support, (ii) no qualitative and/or quantitative relationships between causes and effects can be obtained or (iii) the tool cannot accommodate multi-level CEA analyses. A new tool called the Drain-Pipe-Diagram (DPD) has been developed to overcome these limitations and enable easy decision making. The principle of the DPD derives from the working nature of a typical drainpipe network where the main collection-pipe resembles the “main effect” whereas higher-level feeding pipes resemble causes and sub-causes. In addition, color coding and diametrical ratios were used to signify importance and share, respectively. The DPD was assessed against other CAE tools using a practical case study and proved to be superior to all compared CEA tools in both diagnostic and presentation abilities. Furthermore, the DPD was successfully applied to non-technical areas including environmental applications.
Desiccated coconut waste (DCW) is an agricultural waste that originates from the coconut milk processing industry. In this study, it was utilized for the removal of copper (Cu(II)) and nickel (Ni(II)) via adsorption process. The physicochemical characterization of the DCW adsorbent shows that the adsorbent have a surface area of 6.63 ㎡/g, have high elemental carbon content and existences of important functional groups on its surface. The adsorptive capability of DCW adsorbent in removing the heavy metal were conducted in batch studies. DCW adsorbent performed highest Ni(II) and Cu(II) adsorption capacity at pH 6, where equilibrium is achieved at 450 minutes. The kinetic analysis showed the adsorption agreed with pseudo-second order kinetic model, indicating the Cu(II) and Ni(II) adsorption were a chemical adsorption, limited by the film diffusion. The DCW adsorbent still retained its effective adsorption capacity after 2 adsorption-desorption cycles, which is one of the excellent criteria of a good adsorbent for an adsorption process.
The main function of Higher Educational Institutions (HEIs) is to produce skilled and knowledgeable workforce who are able to not only function with minimal guidance but also to contribute effectively to the hiring organizations. Many studies have indicated that most HEIs have somewhat similar course content and thrived at producing students with good academic achievement. But what differentiated them from one another is their ability to develop knowledge workers with the right employability skills or 'soft skills' such as communication, problem-solving, interpersonal and other skills deemed important as the foundations by which they require to function at work regardless of the nature of employment. This paper reports findings of a large-scale study looking into the soft skills attainment of Malaysian HEI graduates. A quantitative survey design was employed whereby data were obtained through the administration of an instrument called the Malaysian Soft Skills Scale (My3S). My3S consists of 180 items covering seven elements namely Communications, Critical Thinking and Problem Solving, Teamwork, Moral and Professional Ethics, Leadership, Life Long Learning and Entrepreneurial aspects. The mean scores for the seven My3S subscales were found to be between 6.3 and 7.8 from the maximum possible score of 10. Specifically, comparisons were made between graduates of public and private institutions with respect to the seven elements. Findings of the study suggest that, in general, students of public HEIs scored higher in all seven skills. With respect to gender, male students scored higher than female students in all elements except for teamwork skills and moral and professional ethics. A comparison between fields of study showed that for both types of HEIs, technical students scored the highest in all skills except for moral and professional ethics. Based on the findings of this study, it is suggested that in addition to offering specific courses to improve soft skills attainment, HEIs need to embed soft skills in their academic curricula.
The exploitation of fibre reinforced polymer composites, as external reinforcement is an evergreen and well-known technique for improving the structural performance of reinforced concrete structures. The demand to use FRP composites in the civil engineering industry is mainly due to its high strength, light weight, and stiffness. This paper exemplifies the shear strength of partially precracked reinforced concrete rectangular beams repaired with externally bonded Bi-Directional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Fabrics strips. All specimens were cast in the laboratory environment without any internal shear reinforcement. The test parameters were longitudinal tensile reinforcement, shear span to effective depth ratio, spacing of CFRP strips, and orientation of CFRP reinforcement. It mainly focuses on the shear capacity and modes of failure of the CFRP strengthened shear beams. Results have shown that the CFRP repaired beams attained a shear enhancement of 32% and 107.64% greater than the control beams. This study underscores that the CFRP strip technique significantly enhanced the shear capacity of precracked reinforced concrete rectangular beams without any internal shear reinforcement.
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Objective: The present, case-control, study investigates binaural hearing performance in schizophrenia patients towards sentences presented in quiet and noise. Methods: Participants were twenty-one healthy controls and sixteen schizophrenia patients with normal peripheral auditory functions. The binaural hearing was examined in four listening conditions by using the Malay version of hearing in noise test. The syntactically and semantically correct sentences were presented via headphones to the randomly selected subjects. In each condition, the adaptively obtained reception thresholds for speech (RTS) were used to determine RTS noise composite and spatial release from masking. Results: Schizophrenia patients demonstrated significantly higher mean RTS value relative to healthy controls (p=0.018). The large effect size found in three listening conditions, i.e., in quiet (d=1.07), noise right (d=0.88) and noise composite (d=0.90) indicates statistically significant difference between the groups. However, noise front and noise left conditions show medium (d=0.61) and small (d=0.50) effect size respectively. No statistical difference between groups was noted in regards to spatial release from masking on right (p=0.305) and left (p=0.970) ear. Conclusion: The present findings suggest an abnormal unilateral auditory processing in central auditory pathway in schizophrenia patients. Future studies to explore the role of binaural and spatial auditory processing were recommended.