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This paper presents a design method for the structural-acoustic coupled radiator that can emit sound in the desired direction. A coupled system that has a finite space and a semi-infinite space separated by two flexible walls and an opening is considered. An objective function is selected to maximize radiation power on a main axis and minimize a side lobe level. To get initial values, prediction of a pressure distribution on field points and radiation pattern of the structural-acoustic coupling system is shown at a coupled-resonant frequency. Three different optimization methods are adapted to design the coupled radiator. Pressure and intensity distribution of the designed radiator is presented.
This paper explains a general coupling system in terms of the system parameters. impedance of a cavity or mobility of a structure. To easily access the mechanism of the structural-acoustic coupled system, a simple expression is derived. A general coupled equation is also derived of a general coupled problem constituted a flexible structure and an opening boundary in terms of vector and matrix notation, and is analyzed the coupling phenomena using the understanding acquired simple coupled system. The paper shows that the general coupled equation is expanded version of the simple coupled equation by some limiting checks. The paper also shows that the degree of coupling is proportioned to a stiffness of the acoustic system and a modal coupling coefficient, but is in inverse proportion to a mass of the structural system and the difference of the excitation frequency and resonant frequency of the acoustic or structural system.
A study was carried out to investigate the fluid-structure interaction phenomena of buried hydrophone system that exposed complex loads due to handling, transportation and installation. The buried hydrophone system has necessarily neighborhood structures for installation. Because of the neighborhood structure, acoustic field is deformed. We analyze the piezoelectric-structural-acoustic coupled problem and the results to use a finite element analysis software, ANSYS, which has an coupled field analysis capability. The effect of the component of hydrophone system is revealed altogether in pressure distribution. So, we classify and analyze the problem by four different compositions for decomposition.
Underwater acoustic transducers can be exposed to a underwater explosive shock caused by various types of underwater weapon. So, a robust anti-shock design is required for transducers to endure the underwater explosive shock. To check the anti-shock characteristics of a transducer, underwater explosive shock test is needed. The conditions of underwater explosive shock test are set up referring to various oversea explosive shock test specifications, and the explosive shock pressure values are calculated according to those conditions. Transient analyses art: carried out for two kinds of underwater acoustic transducer model to verify the anti-shock characteristics. The applied model has robust anti-shock characteristics enough to endure the explosive shock up to 2300 psi. In the future, the transducer design should be certified through the fields test, and modified if needed.
As an experimental technique to analyze the far-field characteristics of underwater cylindrical array sensors, cylindrical acoustic holography is studied. Inside an laboratory water tank, far-field directivity patterns as well as near-field source images are reconstructed from the measured hologram by hydrophone array. Approximate equation for far-field directivity estimation is derived based on stationary phase method. The simulation and experiment show well usefulness of the proposed method in application of underwater array sensors.
Dynamic response of a hull mounted sonar(HMS) to shocks transmitted through hull structures is analyzed and then the structural reliability of the sonars is evaluated. Finite element model of the hull mounted sonar is established and the transient responses to the shock is calculated using MSC.NASTRAN. According to BV043, the maximum allowable accelerations at the foundation of the sonar are converted from the shock spectra allowable for HMS. They are applied vertically and horizontally, respectively, using the large mass method. The structural reliability is evaluated by comparing the von-Mises stresses with the material yield stress. The drum for sensors shows a high reliability owing to mounts by which the shock waves from the base structure are well protected. However, the mounts between the base structure and the drum to mount sensors show a high stress intensity. The base structure also reveals a high stress intensity at the connection points to the hull.
This paper establishes a modeling and simulation procedure for structural response and reliability of a cylindrical array sensor on submarines under the shock generated by underwater explosion. The structural reliability of SONAR is important because the submarine could get out of combat ability by the structural damage of the SONAR upon explosion. A cylindrical array sensor was first modeled using the finite element method. Modal analysis was then performed for the check of the reliability of the modeling. The shock resistance simulations were performed for the responses to the structural shock waves and for the responses to the directly applied underwater shock waves, according to BV-043 and MIL-STD-901D, respectively. The stresses of the structure were evaluated with von-Mises scheme. Vulnerable regions were exposed through mapping the maximum stress to the structural model. Maximum stress of the SONAR was compared with the yield stress of the material to examine the structural reliability.