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Oxidative changes of the doughnut lipids were studied under three experimental storage conditions. Doughnut was 1) exposed to fluorescent light irradiation at 15℃ 2) incubated in the dark at 40℃ and 3) irradiated with sunlight. In the study, changes in acid values, peroxide values, fatty acid composition an iodine value were determined with the lipids extracted from the doughnut samples in intervals for a period of 5 weeks. Acid values, peroxide values of the samples under fluorescent light irradiation and 40℃ incubation increased slightly during storage, while a sharp increase of these values were noticed with the samples of sunlight irradiation. In the event of sunlight irradiation the content of linoleic acid and linolenic acid decreased, on the other hand the content of palmitic acid and stearic acid increased.
Purpose: To evaluate brain activation areas during the processing of languages in multilingual volunteers by functional MRI and to examine the differences between the mother and foreign languages. Materials and Methods: Nine multilingual (Korean, French, and English speaking) Korean individuals were enrolled in this study. Functional images were acquired during a lexical decision task (LDT) and picture naming task (PNT) in each of the Korean, French and English languages. The areas activated were analyzed topographically in each language and task, and compared between languages. Results: Activation was noted in Broca’s area, supramarginal gyrus, fusiform gyrus during the LDT. During the PNT, activation was noted in Broca’s area, left prefrontal area, cerebellum, right extrastriated cortex. While Broca’s area activation was observed for all languages during LDT, there was more activation in Broca’s area and additional activation in the right prefrontal area with foreign languages. During the PNT, there was more activation in the left prefrontal area with foreign languages. Conclusion: Broca’s area, which is known as a major language region, was activated by all languages and tasks. The brain activation areas were largely overlapping with the mother and foreign languages. However, there were wider areas of activation and additional different activation areas with foreign languages. These results suggest more cerebral effort during foreign language processing. 목적: 다중언어화자들을 대상으로 대뇌 언어처리영역을 기능적 자기공명영상을 통해 알아보고 모국어와 외국어의 차이점을 알아보고자 하였다. 대상과 방법: 한국어, 불어, 영어를 구사할 수 있는 한국인 9명을 대상으로 하였다. 실험참가자가 어휘판단과제와 그림명명과제를 수행하는 동안 기능적 영상을 획득하였으며 한국어, 영어, 불어에 대해 각각 이루어졌다. 언어별, 자극과제별로 나타난 활성화 신호를 분석하였고 각 언어에 따른 차이를 비교하였다. 결과: 어휘판단과제에서는 Broca영역, 모서리상회, 방추회 등의 영역에서 활성화가 나타났다. 그림명명과제에서는 Broca영역과 함께 좌전중회, 소뇌, 우반구 선조외피질의 활성화가 나타났다. 어휘판단과제에서 모국어와 외국어를 비교하였을 때 모두 Broca영역의 활성화가 있었으나 외국어에서 활성화의 범위가 넓었으며 또한 우반구 우전두전영역의 활성화 수준이 높았다. 그림명명과제에서는 좌전두회에서 외국어의 활성화가 높았다. 결론: 언어처리에 핵심영역으로 알려진 Broca영역은 모국어와 외국어를 불문하고 어휘판단과제와 그림명명과제 모두에서 활성화가 보였다. 외국어의 언어처리영역은 모국어와 일치하는 부분이 많았으나, 활성화 영역의 범위가 넓고 다른 활성화 영역도 존재하여 모국어보다 많은 대뇌 영역이 관여하는 것으로 보인다.
The ordered mesoporous Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> at an optimal molar ratio of Zr/Fe at ~ 0.25 showed the highest catalytic activity by maintaining its original mesoporous structures even after the reductive Fischer- Tropsch synthesis (FTS) reaction conditions. The manganese (Mn) promoter has been generally known to increase the olefin selectivity by inhibiting the readsorption of olefin intermediates for a further hydrogenation to paraffinic hydrocarbons on the Fe-based FTS catalysts. On the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub>, 5 wt%Mn revealed the highest catalytic activity and structural stability with higher olefin selectivity. To verify the effects of Mn promoter with their surface distributions, Mn promoter was incorporated by impregnation method on the presynthesized Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> (Mn/FeZr<sub>0.25</sub>Ox) as well as by tri-metal precursors incorporation method into the hard template of the KIT-6 mesopores (FeZr<sub>0.25</sub>Mn<sub>0.05</sub>Ox).
The present study was conducted to know the antioxidative effect of Green tea on the lipid in chicken patties. Green tea is known to have diverse physiological functions including cardiotonic function, diuretic function, detoxicating function, sterilization function, antiphlogistic function, and the suppressive effect of food poising. Accordingly, the addition of Green tea powder is mostly appropriate for being used to processed food. With a view to project the storage stability and the storage life prolongation of chicken meat, we gained the following results after reviewing the storage stability and the effect on the antioxidant according to the addition of Green tea powder during storage of chicken patties for 15days at 5℃ or -5℃. 1. The Effect of the antioxidant on the lipid of chicken patties was increased according to the addition of Green tea powder. 2. The Effect of the antioxidant on the lipid of chicken patties was not especially changed in TBA value according to the addition of Green tea powder 1.0% and Na-Nitrite 50ppm, 100ppm, and 150ppm especially. 3. The addition of Green tea powder demonstrated the best effect of suppressing the TBA value at a lower temperature(-5℃)
Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) is a heterogeneous catalytic process to produce eco-friendly fuels from the syngas by CO hydrogenation. Based on our previous study, ZrO<sub>2</sub>-promoted mesoporous Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub> showed an enhanced catalytic activity and structural stability. The alkali metals such as Na and K, which are well known promoters for Fe-based catalysts, were further investigated on the highly ordered mesoporous Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> bimetal oxides in terms of CO conversion and product distributions. To find out optimum reaction conditions on the K-promoted mesoporous Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub>, temperature, pressure, space velocity (SV) and H<sub>2</sub>/CO ratio were studied and various characterization methods were applied to verify the roles of alkali metal effects on the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> surfaces.
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Purpose Our question is about the entrepreneur’s choice of the capital structure. How does the entrepreneur choose the amount of debt or equity investment in order to send a credible signal about the project value to potential investors? To find the answer to the question, we construct a single-stage signaling game model between a penniless entrepreneur who wants to launch an innovative project and investors. Design/Methodology/Approach We construct a single-stage signaling game model between a penniless entrepreneur who wants to launch an innovative project and debt and equity investors. The entrepreneur strategically chooses a debt level as a signaling device in order to inform his project value to the investors. Observing the amount of debt taken by the entrepreneur, investors evaluate the entrepreneur’s project value and make investment decisions. Findings We derive separating perfect Bayesian equilibria in the signaling game and refine them into a unique equilibrium by invoking the Intuitive Criterion of Cho and Kreps (1987). Then we characterize the refined equilibrium. Research Implications In startup financing, the minimum debt level to make investors perceive the entrepreneur high type is affected by the low type’s expected project value and the ratio of the low type’s equity share to the high type’s.
Livestock disease viruses can be spread and transmitted by three major routes: contact with thesecretions of diseased animals, virus migration by people or vehicles, and also spread by air. In thisstudy, livestock and fecal transport vehicles are used as basic data to determine the route of diseaseand establish an effective range of prevention in case of infectious diseases. we analyzed ondirectional distribution of vehicles using Measuring geographic distribution method in ArcGIS(Ver. 10.3, ESRI, USA) Spatial Statistics tool. Latitude, Longitude, Rotation, XstdDist, and YstdDist wereobtained. As a result of the analysis, in case of livestock and manure vehicles whose departureplace is belonged to a specific area and the departure point, arrival point and destination do notchange greatly, the roads used were limited to a specific route. It was confirmed that the manurewas transported by using only the normal route with a constant pattern of 70% or more, among the30 vehicles. The purpose of this study was to identify the route of disease in case of an epidemicdisease and to set effective range of prevention, while reducing input persons and equipments. 가축질병 바이러스는 매우 빠르게 전파되는 특징을 가지고 있으며 질병에 걸린 동물의 분비물에 접촉하거나, 사람이나 차량에 의한 바이러스의 이동, 또는 공기를 통하여 전파가 이루어진다. 본 연구에서는 가축 및분뇨 운반차량이 질병을 전파시키는 요인이 될 수 있다고 판단하고 전염병 발생 시 질병의 이동 경로를 파악하고 효율적인 방역범위를 설정하는데 기초자료로 활용 하고자 한다. 축산차량의 이동경로를 분석하기 위해ArcGIS(Ver. 10.3, ESRI, USA)의 Spatial Statistics tool에서 Measuring geographic distribution방법을활용하여 Directional distribution을 추출하였다. 결과 값으로 위도(Latitude), 경도(Longitude), Rotation,XstdDist, YstdDist을 얻었다. 그 결과 특정한 목적을 가지고 출발지가 일정 지역에 귀속되어 있는 가축 및분뇨 차량의 경우 출발지점, 도착지점, 목적지가 크게 바뀌지 않을 경우, 이용하는 도로는 한정되어 있었다. 30대의 차량 중 대다수의 차량이 일정한 패턴을 가지고 평상 시 이용하는 경로만 이용하여 분뇨를 운반하는것을 확인 할 수 있었다. 본 연구를 통해 전염병 발생 시 질병의 이동 경로를 파악하고 효율적인 방역범위를설정하여 투입 인원과 장비를 줄이면서 현재보다 효율적인 방역 범위를 설정이 가능할 것으로 판단되었다.
Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) reaction is a key catalytic process to obtain a wide range of hydrocarbons from syngas containing carbon oxides (CO and CO<sub>2</sub>). Based on our previous researches, the ordered mesoporous Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> bimetal oxides at an optimal molar ratio of Zr/Fe at ~ 0.25 showed the highest activity by maintaining its original mesoporous structures. Generally, the potassium promoter has been reported to improve catalytic activity by increasing an active iron carbide formation. To find an optimal amount of potassium promoter, the amount of potassium promoter was studied from 0.5 to 10wt% on the Fe<sub>2</sub>O<sub>3</sub>-ZrO<sub>2</sub> bimetal oxides. Furthermore, those catalysts was applied to conversion of syngas containing carbon dioxide (CO<sub>2</sub>).
Pazopanib is a potent multitargeted tyrosine kinase inhibitor that has been shown to have good efficacy in patients with renal cell carcinoma. A previous phase II trial demonstrated that short-term pazopanib administration was generally well tolerated and showed antitumor activity in patients with early-stage non-small cell lung cancer. Herein, we report on the case of a 66-year-old man with simultaneous metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the lung and renal cell carcinoma who was treated with pazopanib. The patient showed an unexpected partial response and experienced a 10-month progression-free survival without significant toxicity. To the best of the authors’ knowledge, this is the first report of pazopanib treatment in a non-small cell lung cancer patient in Korea. The results in this patient suggest that pazopanib may be a valid treatment option for advanced non-small cell lung cancer.