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      • KCI등재

        The Need for Green Sourcing in Free Trade Agreements

        박명섭(Myong-Sop Pak),신수용(Soo-Yong Shin) 한국무역연구원 2013 貿易 硏究 Vol.9 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        오늘날 자유무역협정은 전 세계적으로 이루어지고 있는 추세이다. 자유무역협정은 협정을 맺은 양 국가들 간에 관세 혜택을 부여함으로 세금에 대한 부담이 줄어들어 기업들의 활발한 무역활동을 촉진시킬 수 있다. 자유무역협정에서 관세에 대한 혜택을 부여받기 위해서는 원산지규정에 따른 원산지 증명이 반드시 이루어져야하는데 원산지 증명에 대한 국가별 규정이 각기 상이하고 절차가 복잡하여 규모가 큰 기업뿐 아니라 규모가 다소 작은 기업들도 혜택을 부여받는데 어려운 실정이다. 기존의 자유무역협정이 가지고 있는 관세 혜택의 장점을 살리지 못하는 문제점을 해결하기 위해서는 원산지규정 간편화를 통해 기업들의 자발적이고 접근성을 용이하게 해야 비용 및 시간을 절감할 수 있다는 연구들은 기존에 다수 존재하고 있다. 하지만 비용 및 시간 절감 이외에도 환경적 인 부분을 고려해야 한다고 생각한다. 자유무역협정으로 맺어진 양 국가간의 무역활성화는 경제적인 측면에서 두 국가에게 이득을 제공할 수 있지만 경제적 발전을 위한 개발과 산업화는 지속적으로 환경을 파괴함으로써 전 세계가 공통적으로 문제점을 삼고 있는 온난화를 촉진 시킬 우려가 있다. 따라서 자유무역협정을 통한 경제적 이득과 환경적인 측면을 고려한 그린소싱과 같은 녹색 전략이 자유무역협정 규정에 정책적으로 다가갈 수 있는 연구가 필요하다고 생각한다. 본 연구에서는 관세혜택을 바탕으로 이루어지는 무역활동에 있어 비용적 측면 이외에도 환경적 측면을 고려한 녹색 자유무역협정에 대해 연구를 하고자 한다. Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) connect countries to major economies and new markets through eliminations of tariffs, import quotas, and preferences on most goods and services between agreed members. Increased number of such agreements worldwide has led to an increased interest in Rules of Origins (ROOs) which is necessary for identifying a nationality of a product in order to receive the benefit under FTAs. However, complex characteristics of ROOs damage the principle benefit of FTAs which leaves cost burdens to companies. Because of such complexity, harmonization of ROOs has long been argued. Harmonizing the complex ROOs may benefit many countries and businesses. However, the current issues related to FT As or use of ROOs rather seem to pay most attention only on reducing costs while the current century is faced with ever-challenging environmental issues. Environment should never be neglected. Considering green efforts in FTAs would be necessary. FTAs could consider strategies that accompany green efforts namely green sourcing, for example. Applying green sourcing in FTAs should allow companies to focus on their supply chains with sustainability to give positive effects on the environment. Such efforts should also provide them with further cost benefits. This paper aims to study FTAs with related issues of ROOs in order to argue for the need of green sourcing in them.

      • KCI등재

        베트남의 B2C 전자상거래 무역확대와 한국의 경제협력 모색

        김종권 한국무역연구원 2020 貿易 硏究 Vol.16 No.5

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose This paper is to study Vietnam’s B2C e-commerce trade expansion and Korea’s economic cooperation. Accordingly, I will look at the ARIMA (1,1,0) model estimate of Vietnam’s trade expansion trend in this field for such a research purpose. Design/Methodology/Approach Actual figures of Vietnam’s high-tech export growth rate (million dollars, compared to the previous year) in Vietnam’s high-tech industry from 1998 to 2013, and the e-commerce growth rate of Vietnam’s B2C from 1998 to 2017 were analyzed using real figures of e-commerce growth rate of B2C in Vietnam. The expected scale level was estimated from 2020 to 2025 by the ARIMA (1,1,0) model. Therefore, it is worth paying attention to Korea’s leading electronics, automobile, automobile part and fabric industries are specifically strengthening economic cooperation with Vietnam through EVFTA, etc. Findings From 2020 to 2025, the expected scale level was estimated using the ARIMA (1,1,0) model. Based on this study, it is estimated that Vietnam’s B2C e-commerce growth rate will continue to rise from 2020 to 2025, increasing by more than 2.5 times compared to 2017 and more than 1.5 times compared to 2020. Research Implications Looking at the difference in the e-commerce revenue of Vietnam’s B2C from 2014 to 2017 (compared to the previous year), it increased by $1.1 billion in 2015 compared to 2014. In addition, it was found to have increased by $930 million in 2016 compared to 2015, and then to $1.2 billion in 2017 compared to 2016.

      • KCI등재후보

        한국과 미국의 수입신고 및 관세납부절차 비교분석 -한국 관세법과 U.S.C를 중심으로-

        김태인 한국무역연구원 2009 貿易 硏究 Vol.5 No.1

        This study analyzed entry and payment process between the U.S.A and Korea. While Korea accomplishes two process at the same time, the U.S.A separates and accomplishes two process. Importer of the U.S.A offers partnership security for the amount of duties and fees estimated to be payable on such merchandise at entry time, and pay the amount as file entry summary document not later than 12 working days after entry or release. The U.S.A is enforcing After Payment System in principle. Because American Customs Brokerage Corporation offers Customs Bond in the customhouse instead of importer, Most import goods are released or is being bonded transportation after Customs Bond security offer by American Customs Brokerage Corporation Korea is enforcing After Payment System in principle too. But most medium and small enterprises must make preliminary payment. Therefore, this system will have to be improved so that customs corporation can provide financial services that tax payment assurance to publish Customs Bond like the U.S.A.

      • KCI등재후보

        금융위기 이후 한국의 대중국 수출입 무역구조 분석

        최병철 한국무역연구원 2010 貿易 硏究 Vol.6 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Recently, Korea's total export is increased and Korea overcomes from the financial crisis due to the export to China. This paper analyzes the changes of Korea's trade structure to China after financial crisis. Chinese government will focus on the expansion of domestic consumption to maintain the stable economic growth after financial crisis. According to such changes of Chinese economic policies after financial crisis, the Korea's trade structure to China will be affected. This paper finds some characteristics of Korea's trade structure to China after financial crisis. First, Korea's export to China have a tendency to synchronize with China's export. Second, the ratio of export to the firm of foreign direct investment at China is so high in Korea's export to China. And still the ratio of export of parts and components to the Korean company in China are so high. Third, after financial crisis, export of special products which are related with Chinese policies to overcome the recession, is increased. Finally, the import substitution of intermediate goods is taken so quickly by the sophistication of Chinese industry.

      • KCI등재

        한국 제조업의 저학력 노동수요 요인 분석

        박건효(Geon-Hyo Park),유일선(Il-Seon Yoo),순밍밍(Ming-Ming Soon) 한국무역연구원 2020 貿易 硏究 Vol.16 No.2

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Purpose– The purpose of this study was to empirically analyze what elements determines the demand of low-educated labor which has caused income inequality and unstable employment in Korean manufacturing industry. Design/methodology/approach– This study set up the trans-log cost function which led to the derivation of demand function of low-educated labor by using Shephard’s lemma. Based on the demand function and the data issued by National Statistical Office, the regression analysis was implemented with the method of fully-modified ordinary least square. Findings–First, The relative wage of high-educated labor in terms of that of low-educated lobor is negatively related with demand of low-educated labor. It means that there is a complementary relation between two labors. Second, globalization also negatively influences demand of the labor. It means that globalization may trigger unemployment and thus lessen the demand of the labor because of comparative disadvantage of its labor-intensive industry. Third, other variables including technical progress, the ratio of physical capital to the amount of total production are not statistically significant. Conclusively the relative wage and globalization are the main determinants of demand of low-educated labor in Korean manufacturing industry. Research implications or Originality–The wage differential of two labors is extended in the labor market of manufacturing sector. Moreover globalization will be steadily progressed in the future. According to the results of this study, two factors - the relative wage and globalization-will produce the large unemployment of low-educated labor. So the polices are needed to promote its labor-biased technical innovation and to prepare social safety net to support them.

      • KCI등재

        블록체인 기술 개발의 국제 무역시스템 연동으로 국제무역 및 국제금융거래 활성화에 대한 연구

        한수범 한국무역연구원 2021 貿易 硏究 Vol.17 No.1

        Purpose - This study aimed to study how well blockchain technology is operating in conjunction with trade and financial transactions in the international trade system as it develops, and what challenges should be solved in commercializing digital assets, a means of payment. Design/Methodology/Approach - The data used in this study sets the scope of utilization around digital asset exchanges. It also wants to analyze the applicability of trade finance by focusing on the examples of companies that are currently engaged in financial transactions. Findings - The result of the study is that blockchain technology is still in the early stages of development, so it should be free from various regulations. Research Implications - In order to standardize blockchain technology, there remains a task to quantify. And since there is still a lot of inaccurate data, research on the use of blockchain technology in trade finance is likely to take place after standardization-based statistics are established.

      • KCI등재

        한국의 대 아시아 투자가 무역에 미친 효과

        김미아(Mi-Ah Kim) 한국무역연구원 2018 貿易 硏究 Vol.14 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This paper focuses on the effect of Korea’s outward FDI on trade flows in Asian countries. Using cross-country time series data for the period 1992-2016, we analyze by panel estimation the trade effects of Korea’s outward FDI. Particularly, we investigate whether outward FDI and trade flows are complements or substitutes. Major empirical findings are as follows. First, outward FDI to Asian countries plays a positive role in increasing Korea’s trade flows, supporting the hypothesis that outward FDI and home country trade are complements. Our finding indicates that outward FDI to Asian countries may help promote Korea’s export and import flows. This results are consistent to the vertical FDI model in which home country exports intermediate goods to host country and imports finished goods from host country. Second, upon estimating the influence of GDP on trade flows, we find that there is a positive relationship between GDP and trade flows, implying that Korea’s trade flows with Asian countries increase as market size get larger. Finally, our study offers some policy implications: 1) The governments should continue to support outward FDI to Asian countries. 2) It would be pertinent to build virtuous relationship of outward FDI and exports for sustainable growth of korea’s exports.

      • KCI등재

        한국과 아세안 국가간 주식시장 동조화 현상에 관한 연구

        수미앗나잉(Su Myat Naing),이준서(Junesuh Yi) 한국무역연구원 2018 貿易 硏究 Vol.14 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        This study examines the stock market co-movement between Korea and ASEAN countries, following the implementation of the Korea-ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (FTA) for 10 years. Based on the analyses on returns coupling between the Korea’s stock market index and six ASEAN countries’ stock market indices, we find that the Korean stock market index has a reciprocal relationship with those of Malaysia, Thailand and the Philippines. However it Granger causes the Vietnam stock index, while it does not Granger cause those of Laos and Cambodia. We also reveal that the shock on the Korea stock market has a positive effect on the stock markets of Malaysia, Thailand, the Philippines and Vietnam for two days based on impulse response function analyses. In addition, the KOSPI is observed to explain more than 20% of Thai, Malaysian and Filipino stock market returns whereas these countries’ index returns describe only less than 4% of the KOSPI’s. Consequently, we conclude that the Korean stock market influences the ASEAN stock markets. In robust tests evaluating whether the co-movement of returns in different stock markets is a popular trend, the ASEAN countries’ stock market returns are more influenced by the KOSPI than by the Nikkei 225 of Japan’s stock market index.

      • KCI등재

        중국의 대외무역대리제도하에서 한국기업의 대중국 수출계약상의 유의점 : 중국 신통일계약법의 적용을 중심으로

        한상현 한국무역연구원 2014 貿易 硏究 Vol.10 No.3

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        According to the increasing trade with China, the trend of business dispute is growing rapidly with respect to trade and investment between Korea and China. Specially, regarding international business disputes over Chinese foreign trade management rights, the dispute related to trade agent can be conducted. The foreign trade agency system of China is a result of foreign trade policy, not a system regarding legal factors. Therefore, Chinese scholars present various opinion whether foreign trade agency is considered as a consignment agency relationship or consignment dealing relationship, or dealing relationship. However this kind of confusion aroused different conclusion about similar cases related to foreign trade agency. Therefore, this study is systematically analyzing the problem of Chinese trade agent system, applying revised contract law article 402. Furthermore, based on this analysis, the implications for a plan and alternatives for Korean exporter are elicited.

      • KCI등재

        국제금융위기가 한국의 반도체 수출입에 미친 효과

        김미아 한국무역연구원 2013 貿易 硏究 Vol.9 No.4

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        The paper analyses the competitiveness of the Korean semiconductor industry and examines the impact of international financial crisis of 2008 on Korea's semiconductor trade flows. Our analysis of the TSI and RCA index shows that Korea has comparative advantage in semiconductor industry. We have also estimated the effects of international financial crises on Korea's semiconductor trade flows using a panel of 72 observations(1995.1/4-2012.4/4) for the 4 regions. We have found that international financial crisis have a statistically significant negative effect on Korea's semiconductor trade flows. Estimates presented in this paper suggest that international financial crisis could lower export volumes and import volumes. It is further observed that GDP and exchanges have an important effect on Korea's semiconductor trade flows, but the impact of exchange rates has smaller than that of GDP.

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