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In this study, we implemented an experimental approach of ecological model development in order to emphasize the importance of input variable selection with respect to time-delayed arrangement between input and output variables. Time-series modeling requires relevant input variable selection for the prediction of a specific output variable (e.g. density of a species). Inadequate variable utility for input often causes increase of model construction time and low efficiency of developed model when applied to real world representation. Therefore, for future prediction, researchers have to decide number of time-delay (e.g. months, weeks or days; t-n) to predict a certain phenomenon at current time t. We prepared a total of 3,900 equation models produced by Time-Series Optimized Genetic Programming (TSOGP) algorithm, for the prediction of monthly averaged density of a potamic phytoplankton species Stephanodiscus hantzschii, considering future prediction from 0- (no future prediction) to 12-months ahead (interval by 1 month; 300 equations per each month-delay). From the investigation of model structure, input variable selectivity was obviously affected by the time-delay arrangement, and the model predictability was related with the type of input variables. From the results, we can conclude that, although Machine Learning (ML) algorithms which have popularly been used in Ecological Informatics (EI) provide high performance in future prediction of ecological entities, the efficiency of models would be lowered unless relevant input variables are selectively used.
As the construction industry continued to depress due to the saturation of the Korean housing market, the Korean company expanded their business to overseas markets. However, since it is the position of a cultural outsider who can not fully understand the local residential culture, the business is often performed in the same way as in Korea. H apartment buildings in Hanoi, Vietnam, have almost the same structure as a unit plan for Korean apartments. Residents living in H apartments, which are different from Vietnamese traditional houses or apartments, are experiencing differences in contrast to their residential culture. Through residents, the satisfaction of the unit plan of Korean apartment could grasp whether they satisfy or not. This will be a chance for a new culture to be created from the viewpoint of residents of Vietnam, also providing a way for Korean apartments to settle in the country with less risk. The purpose of this study is to identify the factors affecting the satisfaction level of Vietnamese households living in a Korean apartment building constructed by a Korean company in Vietnam and analyze it from a cultural point of view. For this purpose, a Post Occupancy Evaluation (P.O.E) was conducted or 63 residents in Vietnam. Data mining was conducted on the datasheet with physical and resident attributes, and the residence type and characteristics were analyzed. The factors affecting the satisfaction obtained through the analysis was to derive meaning through in-depth interviews with literature and traditional Vietnamese homes and apartments residents of Korea. As a result of the analysis, the types of residents’ characteristics were analyzed for four groups. And the study analyzes the causes of dissatisfaction and satisfaction with environmental factor and spatial factor through variable analysis. Also, it is confirmed that the Vietnamese residential culture.
저수지의 둑을 높이는 과정 및 준공 이후에 걸쳐 파생되는 다양한 물리적 교란 상황은 현재 저수지 수체 내부 및 주변에 서식하는 생물상 분포에 영향을 미칠 수 있다. 그러나 국내에는 18,000여개의 농업용 저수지가 산재하여 있고, 담수 부존량의 상당부분을 농업용 저수지가 담당하고 있음에도 불구하고 (수표면적 기준), 농업용 저수지를 서식처로 활용하는 생물상에 대한 연구는 미진한 실정이다. 특히, 저수지 증고사업 시행 시 생물서식처에 대한 배려가 포함되지 않을 경우, 서식처의 단절을 야기할 수 있으며, 이는 서식처 파편화 (fragmentation)를 초래하여 생물자원 개체군의 감소로 이어질 수 있다. 따라서 농업용 저수지 둑높이기 사업 실시 중 저수지 내, 그리고 저수지 주변에서 서식처 단절로부터 생물상을 보호할 수 있는 생태계 네트워크 구축이 필요하다. 본 연구에서는 「농업용저수지 둑높이기 사업」추진 단계에서 생물분류군 분포를 보호할 수 있는 생태계 네트워크 구축 방안을 모색하고, 저수지의 현재 상황과 비교하여 서식처 보전 방향성을 제시하고자 한다. 저수지 생태통로 실태는 문헌 검토를 통해 수행되었다. 국내 문헌은 대부분이 영향평가보고서이며, 대체로 저수지의 유형, 수질, 저류량에 관한 내용이 주를 이루고 있었다. 국외문헌에서는 생물종과 서식처를 별개로 보지 않고 하나의 묶음으로 보고, 생태계 내에 존재하는 요소(entity), 연계성 혹은 상호관계(process), 환경(environment or landscape)을 수준에 따라 다양한 각도로 접근하여야 하고, 서식처의 보존을 통한 생물상 관리의 경우 인위적인 활동이 발생할 수 있는 곳으로부터 주요 서식처까지 완충구역(buffer)을 설정하고, core habitat을 집중적으로 관리하는 방안이 강조되고 있다. 저수지 수질의 경우는 대체로 양호한 수질을 보이는 저수지가 많이 있으나, 수계별 위치별 편차가 심하였다. 포유류 및 조류에 의해서 생물분류군 등급화가 크게 영향을 받지만, 저수지내 혹은 주변에 서식하는 어류 및 양서ㆍ파충류는 현장조사 결과 보호종이 거의 확인되지 않은 상태였다. 문헌조사 결과를 바탕으로 수질상태가 양호하고 생물분류군의 전체종수와 보호종수가 비교적 많이 분포하는 저수지를 목록화하여 수질/생물분류군 복합관리 우선순위 설정(안)을 마련하였다. 이들 저수지는 우선적으로 생물상과 수질의 보전 방안이 강구되어야 하며, 그 외 저수지 역시 보다 정밀한 생물상 조사가 실시될 경우 심도있는 보전 수준이 제시될 수 있을 것으로 판단된다. 생태네트워크 구축(안)은 서식처의 단절성 회복 필요성, 제당 신축시 고려사항 및 저수지 공사 중 고려사항을 내용으로 마련되었다.
The amounts of carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) in relation to dry weight (D.W.) were measured in zooplankton from the large four rivers (Han R., Geum R., Yeongsan R. and Seomjin R.) during 2004~2008. The stoichiometry of total zooplankton in four river systems was highly variable. The ranges of average C, N and P-contents were 70~620 mgC mg-1 D.W., 7.1~85.5 μgN mg-1 D.W. and 2.5~7.4 μgP mg-1 D.W., respectively. The mean C:N: P atomic ratios reflected large spatial differences. The C: P and N: P ratios of the zooplankton community ranged from 38 to 392: 1 and from 4 to 65: 1 in all sampling sites. Self- Organizing Map (SOM) was applied to the survey data, and the study sites were clearly classified into 3 clusters. Clustering was largely affected by the distribution pattern of C, N, P-contents, which is related with characteristics of river systems on the basis of stoichiometry.
We conducted a comprehensive monitoring for freshwater food web in a wetland system (Jangcheok Lake), from May to October, 2011. Monthly sampling for zooplankton, fish as well as organic matters, was implemented. In order to understand the food web structure and energy flow, we applied stable isotope analysis to the collected samples, based on δ13C and δ15N values of epiphytic particulate organic matter(EPOM) and particulate organic matter (POM), epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton, fish (Lepomis macrochirus). In the study site, epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton was 24 and 30 species, respectively, and coincidence species between epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton were 20 species. Epiphytic zooplankton were more abundant during the spring and early summer (May to July); however, planktonic zooplankton were more abundant during the autumn (September to October) season. Stable isotope analysis revealed that fish and epiphytic zooplankton had seasonal variations on their food sources. EPOM largely contributed epiphytic zooplankton in spring (May), but increasing contribution of POM in autumn (September) was detected. However, planktonic zooplankton depended on only POM in both seasons. Fish utilized both epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton, but small sized (1~~3 cm), fish preferred epiphytic zooplankton, where as larger sized (4~~7 cm) fish tended to consume planktonic zooplankton, and epiphytic zooplankton had important role in energy transfer. This pattern was clear when results of spring and autumn stable isotope analysis were compared. From the results of this study, we confirmed that wetlands ecosystem supported various epiphytic and planktonic zooplankton species, they depend on other food items, respectively. L. macrochirus also showed a difference of food source according to the body size, they depend on seasonal density change of zooplankton. In particular, epiphytic zooplankton was very important for growth and development of young fish in the spring.
The relationships between environmental factors and the dynamics of the microcrus-tacean community, including planktonic or epiphytic or epiphytic cladocerans and copepods, were studied at Upo Wetlands from 2001 to 2010.Among 10 identified cladoceran taxon, epiphytic cladocerans (Alona, Camptocercus, Simocephalus, Diaphanosoma, Sida)and planktonic claadocerans (Bosmina, Ceriodaphnia, Daphnia, Moina, Scapho-leberis) showed distinctive patterns in appearance throughout the year. Overall,epi-phytic cladocerans were more abundant during the aquatic plant development season (May to Nov.),planktonic cladocerans were similarly distributed throughout the sea-sons,but showed a lower density than epiphytic cladocerrans. The seasonal changes in copepods abundance showed a similar seasonal pattern when compared to epiphytic cladocerans. Planktonic cladocerans showed no significant relationship to rainfall and physic-chemical factors, while epiphytic cladocerans exhibited a distinct relationship with rainfall and water temperature(n=120,p<0.01),and a negative relationship with pH and conductivity (n=120,p<0.05).Among the epiphytic cladocerans, the Alona and Diaphanosoma showed a distinctive correlation with environmental factors, and their density was affected by rainfall and water temperature(n=120,p<0.01).Copepods had a positive relationship with rainfall(n=120,p<0.01)and water temperature(n=120,p<0.05).In conclusion, changes in rainfall and water temperature can affect the seasonal changes of microcrustacean community and abundance in Upo Wetlands.