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In a concentric magnetic gear, which replaces the teeth of a mechanical gear with a permanent magnet, the polar ratio of the magnet that determines the reduction ratio affects the behavior of the magnetic gear dramatically. This study analyzed the density of transmission torque, the efficiency of torque considering the solid loss, and the torque quality, including the cogging characteristics using finite element analysis. When the pole number on the driving side was changed from two to five, it was confirmed that there was an optimal pole ratio, in which the transmission torque was maximized. Because eddy current generation density is proportional to the magnetic field, the transmission efficiency also shows a similar tendency to the transmission torque density, and the efficiency is more than 95% at a low gear ratio. The cogging characteristics due to the interaction of the permanent magnets with the limited number of poles are inversely proportional to the least common multiple between the number of magnets on the drive side and the number of modulator teeth. A test model was built for the transmission torque evaluation. 기계식 기어의 치를 영구자석으로 대체한 동심 마그네틱 기어에서 원주방향을 따라 놓인 모든 자석이 동력 전달에 관여하므로 감속비를 결정하는 자석의 극수비는 마그네틱 기어의 거동 특성에 큰 영향을 미친다. 본 논문에서는 극수비를 변화시켜가며 마그네틱 기어에서 생성되는 전달토크의 밀도, 동손을 고려한 토크의 효율, 코깅 특성을 포함한 토크의 품질 등을 유한요소 해석을 이용하여 비교 분석하였다. 구동측의 극수를 2극에서 5극까지 변화시킬 때 전달토크가 최대가 되는 최적의 극수비가 존재함을 확인하였으며 이는 모듈레이터를 통한 구동측 자기장의 필터링 성분에 직접적인 영향을 받다. 전달 효율 역시 와전류 생성 밀도와 자기장간에 비례특성이 있으므로 전달 토크 밀도와 유사한 경향을 나타내는 것을 알 수 있으며 낮은 기어비에서는 95% 이상의 효율을 보인다. 제한된 극수를 갖는 영구자석의 상호작용에 기인하는 코깅 특성은 일반적인 동기 모터에서와 같이 구동측 자석의 개수와 모듈레이터 치의 개수간의 최소공배수에 반비례하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 전달 토크 평가를 위해 실제 시험 모델이 제작되었고 실증시험이 진행되었다.
The electrical and the physical characteristics of ZnO thin-film transistors (TFTs) with two different active layer thicknesses of 40 nm and 80 nm are investigated. A positive voltage shift and a mobility degradation were observed in all devices under a gate-bias stress. However, when the stress bias was removed, all ZnO TFTs recovered their original characteristics, which is regarded to be a result of pre-existing traps rather than stress-induced traps. In addition, through an XRD analysis and AFM topographies, we found that the thinner active layer thickness was, the smaller the grain size and the RMS roughness were. In order to clarify the pre-existing traps for various active layer thicknesses, we extracted the grain boundary trap density by using Levinson’s model, and we compared Hooge’s parameters based on a low-frequency noise analysis. TFTs with an active layer thickness of 40 nm have a higher grain boundary trap density and Hooge’s parameter value.
In this study, we implemented an experimental approach of ecological model development in order to emphasize the importance of input variable selection with respect to time-delayed arrangement between input and output variables. Time-series modeling requires relevant input variable selection for the prediction of a specific output variable (e.g. density of a species). Inadequate variable utility for input often causes increase of model construction time and low efficiency of developed model when applied to real world representation. Therefore, for future prediction, researchers have to decide number of time-delay (e.g. months, weeks or days; t-n) to predict a certain phenomenon at current time t. We prepared a total of 3,900 equation models produced by Time-Series Optimized Genetic Programming (TSOGP) algorithm, for the prediction of monthly averaged density of a potamic phytoplankton species Stephanodiscus hantzschii, considering future prediction from 0- (no future prediction) to 12-months ahead (interval by 1 month; 300 equations per each month-delay). From the investigation of model structure, input variable selectivity was obviously affected by the time-delay arrangement, and the model predictability was related with the type of input variables. From the results, we can conclude that, although Machine Learning (ML) algorithms which have popularly been used in Ecological Informatics (EI) provide high performance in future prediction of ecological entities, the efficiency of models would be lowered unless relevant input variables are selectively used.
The rotating electrodynamic wheel over a conductive plate produces thrust force as well as normal force. Specially, separating the conductive plate and spacing apart each part, the lateral stability of the rotating wheel is guaranteed due to the restoring force into neutral position. In this paper, the force characteristics of the electrodynamic wheel rotating over the conductive plate is analyzed using the finite element tool. First, the dominant parameters are identified considering the geometric configuration and the operating condition. And the sensitivity for the parameter deviation is quantified for the high force density. The above topology can be applied as an actuating principle for inter-city train as well as contact-free transfer device.
Magnet gear transfers a high speed torque of the driving side to a low speed following side. Of course, the torque is amplified as much as a ratio between pole number of magnet gears constituting both sides through ferromagnet modulator. However, the parameters of the overall magnetic system influence the transmitting torque strongly. They include a pole number of permanent magnet, magnet thickness, reducing ratio, harmonic modulator thickness, and open ratio etc. In this paper, the influences of the parameters are analyzed using finite element method tool. By comparison, a desirable design specification is proposed, including a recommended modulator pattern.
By controlling the speed of one layer of a concentric magnetic gear, we can change the ratio of the rotational speed between the other two layers, which are composed of permanent magnets and ferromagnetic steel. This results in torque ratio between the layers that is not the inverse of the speed, unlike in a general speed reducer. The value of the torque ratio is determined from the pole ratio of the permanent magnets and steel teeth constituting the layers. In this study, we propose experimentally verified method of varying the torque of the output layer of a variable speed magnetic gear by superimposing another polyphase power source on the control coil. By setting the torque ratio inversely to the speed, constant power can be maintained and some of the coil's power can be supplied to the output side.
High-precision surface actuator, in which in-plane motion is realized by not two-dimensional actuator superposing linear actuators but integrated planar actuator, has been developed to cope with the severe target performance like precise motion with large envelope. It is very difficult to accomplish the performance with the traditional actuating principle. So, various methods have been tried to break through the problem. This paper discusses some meaningful trials performed in the Nano Measurement and Precision Motion Control Lab. of Korea National University of Transportation.
The rotating electrodynamic wheels can produce three-axial forces on the conductive target. The forces are linked strongly each other, and their magnitudes depend on the rotating speed of the wheel. However, the wheels can be used effectively as an actuating principle for transfer system of conductive material. The conductive material is a pipe with a constant cross-section or a conductive plate. In this paper, a few applications using the electrodynamic wheels as transferring means are introduced including the full description of the real hardware implementation.