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The purpose of this paper is to discuss present and future research trends in historical geography based on the results of the Sixth International Conference of Historical Geographers held in July, 1986. Around 110 historical geographers from more than 10 countries participated and 63 papers for 21 subjects were presented at the conference. The International Conference of Historical Geographers is not the only opportunity for the world's geographers to get together, but it is the one and only active international meeting for historical geographers as a speciality group. The origin of the ICHG was the meeting of historical geographers in the United Kingdom and Canada in 1975, and the meeting was enlarged to English-speaking historical geographers and named CUKANZUS in 1979. The Sixth meeting of CUKANZUS in 1986 was opened to historical geographers other than from English-speaking countries and the name was changed to the International Conference of Historical Geographers. The participants in this conference discussed the organizing of the International Association of Historical Geographers and inviting historical geographers from other countries especially Japanese and Chinese historical geographers, to the next meeting. The development of historical geography was somewhat retarded until the 1970s compared with the development of other subfields of geography. In recent years, however, the growth of historical geography has made much progress through the diversification of research subjects, areas and periods, and the application of new approaches by many historical geographers. That is, besides the traditional methodology-mere description and interpretation, newly-developed approaches have been applied in research since the late 1970s-statistical approaches using the computer for gathering, classifying, analyzing and mapping of data; theoretical approaches using theories and theoretical models; and behavioral approaches analyzing perceptions and the environment from the viewpoint of past peoples. With these changes, historical geography, reconstructing the past geography of a certain place in a certain past period and tracing geographical changes of a certain place through time, has been changed from an egoistic and closed attitude discipline to a cooperative and open-minded attitude discipline. Moreover, many research papers and books have been published reflecting the changing trends of historical geography from the late 1970s. In conclusion, it can be said that the present state of historical geography is of a preparation stage for a take-off in its history, because historical geographers tend to pursue interdisciplinary and cooperative research on an international basis, and try to apply newly-developed approaches in their research. If historical geographers maintain these attitudes in their research and overcome the difficulties in using different languages among scholars from different countries, historical geography will develop rapidly. The future of historical geography is therefore considered to be very bright.
Rare maps and atlases were mainly the subject of study in geography, but they are being extended to other fields in 21st century since they contain various information. With this trend the need to complete a research on the history of Korean rare maps and atlases scattered in several countries including USA and Japan is rising. This paper reviews rare Korean maps and atlases preserved in the Geography and Map Division of the Library of Congress. The division having excellent collection of Korean maps houses approximately 46 Korean manuscript and woodblock print maps with the physical types like scrolls, binding, and folding fans. These are primary resource for understanding and researching the history of Korean cartography at the Library of Congress. We not only could see the trend appeared in the old maps being preserved in Korea but found that there still exist rare and unique maps by reviewing the Korean maps in the Library of Congress through typology and cladistic analysis. The trend of the maps and the results of this study are worth acquiring new research objects as well as broaden our understanding on history of Korean maps. 고지도는 과거에는 주로 지리학에서 연구해 왔으나 21세기에 들어서면서 지도가 내포하고 있는 다양성에 주목하여 여러 학문분야의 연구자료로 확대되고 있다. 이러한 추세와 함께 미국이나 일본을 비롯한 해외에 흩어져 있는 우리나라 고지도에 대한 연구를 완성시켜야 한다는 필요성이 대두되고 있다. 이 논문은 이러한 맥락에서 세계적인 지도 소장처라고 할 수 있는 미국의회도서관 지리지도부에 소장된 한국본 고지도를 조사하고 분석하는 것을 목적으로 하였다. 미국의회도서관 지리지도부에 소장된 것으로 확인된 46점의 한국본 고지도는 판종의 형태는 필사본과 목판본이었고 형태적으로는 권자본, 선장본뿐만 아니라 부채 형태에 이르기까지 다양한 모습을 보여주고 있다. 또한 지도의 유형과 계통분석을 통하여 살펴본 결과 현재 한국에 소장되어 있는 고지도에서 나타나는 지도의 일반적인 흐름을 엿볼 수 있음과 동시에 희귀본이나 유일본으로 판단되는 자료들을 확인할 수 있었다. 이러한 지도의 경향과 결과는 한국 고지도의 변천사에 대한 이해의 폭을 넓히고 새로운 연구 자료를 확보하는데 충분한 가치가 있을 것으로 기대한다.