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As a poet of trauma, William Wordsworth is faced with the dilemma of having to find a way to voice traumatic muteness without disrupting silence. “The Thorn” exemplifies the difficulty of acquiring such a poetic voice by portraying a narrator who fails to read, let alone transmit, Martha’s traumatic suffering. The narrator’s failure is bound both to his sense of self that privileges emotional autonomy and transparent knowledge and to the arbitrariness of language itself. Against the backdrop of the failed narrator of “The Thorn,” emerges nature as a force that tempers the very desire of making alterity transparently known and available to the subject’s meaning-making process. Instead of transforming traumatic experience into a communicable form of knowledge, nature lets the noncommunicable aspects of human experience be, momentarily liberating the human mind from the burden of signification. Ultimately, nature in “The Thorn” disciplines the human mind so that it can turn back on habits of thought and easy categorization to discover the unassimilable otherness and inscrutability inherent in both human and non-human worlds. “The Thorn” seeks to show that the successful transmission of trauma is possible only through cutting the experience free from the subject of experience or at least from the familiar forms of subjectivity that require individuation as the condition for their existence. In other words, the grief and loss of Martha must not be experienced as merely subjective, consciously owned and recognized. Instead, the poem seeks to foster affective discomfort and cognitive unease to disturb the very notion of subjectivity itself. The affective interruption of the subject moves readers out of familiar forms of personhood so that the prohibition of mourning imposed on Martha can be ultimately lifted.
This essay is yet another attempt to reread Wordsworth’s representation of history by drawing on the recent advances in trauma theory. While Wordsworth has often been accused of eliding history by substituting its material elements with aestheticized sublime moments of imagination, this essay claims that The Prelude shifts from a sublime approach to history to a traumatized one. The shift represents Wordsworth’s exploration of the complex and problematic relationships among memory, trauma, and writing. These issues are also prominent in a recent ethical turn in historiography concerning the role of historians who must heed to the memories of survivors, with an awareness of how the remembrance of the past is sometimes repressed, distorted, and exaggerated. Wordsworth contributes to these debates by providing a model of empathetic representation that bridges the site of individual trauma with a collective form of historical trauma. This model challenges the linear and progressive model of history that calls for dialogical interaction between past and present.
This essay is an attempt to read The Ruined Cottage as a sustained reflection on the ethos of “ecstatic dwelling,” a rethinking of oikos in the face of “the elemental, the uninhabitable, and the incomprehensible.” While critics view the so-called “reconciling addendum” in The Ruined Cottage as the facile idealization of unity between nature and human imagination, this essay claims that it is the very idealization that the “addendum” criticizes. Instead of translating nature’s response to human suffering into human terms, the Pedlar presents the spear-grass, a weed, as a model for “ecstatic dwelling,” which can be learned only when one radically transforms traditional discourses of humanism, personhood, and community. Margaret’s failure to dwell and the subsequent destruction and ruination of the dwelling are intermeshed with her melancholic commitment to the notion of oikos as an original, stable site of unity and identity. In contrast, the spear-grass in the “addendum” practices the art of dwelling that makes a home in exile. The survival of the spear-grass in the ruined cottage correlates with a particular sense of belonging, which does not have an antithetical relationship to non-belonging. Unloved and unwanted in the world and never given a proper place, as in the case of Margaret, the spear-grass experiences a foreign place as a home, one that is redefined as a place of difference, where one can enjoy tranquility, however, precarious and temporary.
This essay is an attempt to read William Blake's The Book of Thel as an ecocritical text that challenges two major ecological thoughts that emerged in the eighteenth century, an “arcardian” stance of British nature poetry and the idea of “economy of nature” that emphasizes wise human stewardship. Blake's greatest contribution to the ecological thought is his continual sensitivity to the life of the body, which resists both the subjectless immersion into nature and imperial imposition of human values onto nature. The Poetic Genius is central to this essay's understanding of Blake's proto-ecological thought. Even though it differentiates the human from the non-human, its seemimg anthropocentrism is curbed by its promotion of malleability and fluidity, pushing the human subject to move outside the cave of the self and to help encounter other human and non-human life forms. Thel in The Book of Thel is seduced by nature to give up her human identity, including not only her anthropocentric idea of utility but also her life of the body as an embodied form of the Poetic Genius. Thel gives up the former willingly embracing experiential possibilities that her selfhood does not already know. However, she decide not to let the latter go, realizing it reduces her to a vegetable body with its five vitiated senses. Thel's rejection of the vegetable body is directly related to Blake's notion of the “spiritual body,” which benefits contemporary environmental thinking. The notion of the “spiritual body” limits the exercise of the human destructive will on nature, while promoting the emergence of new energy and possibilities in nature.
This paper aims to read William Blake’s notion of friendship with Jacques Derrida’s re-politicization of Friendship in Politics of Friendship, in order to express Blake’s powerful presence within a field of political philosophy. While friendship in neo-liberal world order is marginalized as private, impotent, and sentimental feeling, it was originally a strong political concept working as a condition for genuine justice. Derrida is trying to revive friendship as a political concept supplementing justice, which will illuminate Blake’s similar efforts to redefine friendship in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell. For Blake, friendship is the very power that imbalances the “antagonistic” relationship between a friend and an enemy resulting in the de-stabilization of the subject herself. The marriage in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell is not between the Angel and the Devil but within the Angel (or Angel turned into Devil), which points out the incessant indeterminacy within each friend. Without friendship, human beings are completely isolated, left only with a violent way of interaction, if such thing is possible. Derrida’s disruption of the friend-enemy antinomy similarly suggests the subject’s fluidity or her openness to the absolute heterogeneity of the other. This opennenss and indeterminacy are presented as a baseless base of community without home or hearth, a kind of community completely breaking itself from a faction or a clique. Blake’s last work, Jerusalem, tests the theory of friendship he explored in The Marriage of Heaven and Hell as a public and political principle of community-building. Some might be skeptical about the political efficacy of this loose community without strong solidarity. However, the revolution of “the political” that both Derrida and Blake pursue is something waiting to be actualized since, as Blake succinctly put, “what is now proved was once, only imagin’d” (E 619).
Anybody who is interested in tourism agriculture understands the necessity of developing original tourism agriculture items with area-specificies. However, it is not easy to prepare a comprehensive plan to satisfy both tourists and tourism farm owners. In addition, the studies for developing comprehensive plans for tourism farms are theoretical ones so far.<br/> Tourism agriculture is surely a shortcut to activate rural area, which has been proved in developed countries already. In developed countries, tourism agriculture is changing its form from general tourism farms to a large complexes with a wide spectrum of themes. Many of the recent tourism farms have their present form of theme parks such as herb villages, horticultural lands, windmill towns, tourism pasture, tourism fruit tree village, civil park, forest resort areas, as a part of the rearrangement plan of the rural areas.<br/> Compared to urban development, developing rural areas is not simple since it is a mixed area of production, living, tradition and culture. Developing compositeness urban of urban and agraian is even more complex since both balancing and supplementing roles between urban and rural development need to be considered simultaneously.<br/> The topics for future studies should be categorized based on agricultural resources (vegetables, fruits, flowers, dairy products, fish, etc.), locations (mountainous area, hilly area, flat area, coastal area, etc.), types (farm village experience type, culture experience type, natural learning type etc.). Therefore development of tourism agriculture with area-specific programs is urgent.<br/> The objectives of this study were i) to prepare a comprehensive plan for developing rural areas by analyzing effect of urban development on rural development and ii) to study how to utilize rural resources as a way to supplement each other.
Shelley's “Mont Blanc” describes a moment in which the sheer materiality of nature exceeds the cognitive and linguistic power of its perceiver. This moment is traditionally identified as the sublime moment and usually followed by the exaltation of the subject's mind and imagination over nature. The subject, only temporarily humbled before nature, eventually transcends anything it encounters in the material world. However, in this poem, the speaker's desire to unify mind and nature under the sign of a subject is frustrated mainly due to the nature's resistance to finite reduction to the subjective meaning process systems. Shelley calls this semantic indeterminacy in nature “vacancy” and celebrates vacancy as a sign of the proliferation of signification. The vacancy of “Mont Blanc” not only attests to the fullness of the world and but also inscribes anti-foundational epistemology and ontology of the subject as a foundation of political reform. We need to pay a close attention to the subtle way in which Shelley relates the “vacancy” of the mountain to the “vacancy” that the ethical and political reformers leave. Shelley was enthusiastic about the possibilities opened up by the anti-foundational epistemology and ontology, especially its potential contribution to the progressive renovation of democratic values and multiplication of democratic practices. In this way, Shelley's notion of vacancy anticipates the poststructuralists' notion of vacancy, which they locate at the center of democracy. Poststructuralists reveal a certain symbiosis between post-structuralist ideas of representation and democratic culture by transforming the crisis of representation into the tool of deepening the radical potential of democracy. Especially Marxists influenced by poststructuralism try to politicize the semantic indeterminacy, by elevating the perpetual subversion in the space of language into the practical political struggles for the exercise of power. Similarly, Shelley saw in “Mont Blanc” the possibility of “articulation,” a term postMarxist invented to describe a practice establishing a relation among elements in a way to modify individual identity as a result of such a relation. The articulation makes the structure never entirely secure, which, in case of civil society, allows the space for the articulation of new hegemonic projects, which would disturb and even (eventually) displace the hegemony of those who are currently dominant. This potentiality of perpetual change is what Shelley believes to be literature's utility, which will substitute the utilitarian political reformers' economic “utility”. The proliferation of struggles between power and counter-power is only possible when one is constantly reminded of the existence of “constitutive outside.” Literature is the silenced voice, “vacancy” of those constitutive outsides, which challenges the condition and limit of both individual and collective identity.