http://chineseinput.net/에서 pinyin(병음)방식으로 중국어를 변환할 수 있습니다.
변환된 중국어를 복사하여 사용하시면 됩니다.
개별검색 DB통합검색이 안되는 DB는 DB아이콘을 클릭하여 이용하실 수 있습니다.
통계정보 및 조사
예술 / 패션
<해외전자자료 이용권한 안내>
- 이용 대상 : RISS의 모든 해외전자자료는 교수, 강사, 대학(원)생, 연구원, 대학직원에 한하여(로그인 필수) 이용 가능
- 구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색 및 등록된 대학IP 대역 내에서 24시간 무료 이용
- 미구독대학 소속 이용자: RISS 해외전자자료 통합검색을 통한 오후 4시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용
※ 단, EBSCO ASC/BSC(오후 5시~익일 오전 9시 무료 이용)
The COVID-19 pandemic has brought about unprecedented changes in the landscape of education across the world. Following the first few-weeks' mass closures of educational institutions in March 2020, all the universities and colleges in Korea began the spring semester online. Nationwide switching to online during such a short period of time may have proved both our strength of IT infrastructure and operational effectiveness of all those involved in educational system, but the salient features of this instant transition in all levels of educational practices ask for shared on-going discussions about ‘pandemic' pedagogy, especially as the threat of COVID-19 is now being ever greater. This study thus aims to be a part of such discussions, first, briefly examining the notions and approaches that the current emergency education compels for a deliberation, and then sharing the experience of the shift-to-online teaching of the Nineteenth-century English literature course. With a critical caution against rushed ideas of post-corona education, and also to draw attention to contextual appreciation for pandemic education, the paper takes on “emergency remote teaching” suggested as an alternative term by online education scholars, and goes on to scrutinize the “Film Narrative and English Literature” course implemented as such. Its focus is more on the major aspects of the modification in instructional design, operational strategies, and student supporting required for an asynchronous model of “emergency remote teaching,” rather than the course content, so that its context and process elements can be underlined.
정연재월트 휘트먼과 에밀리 디킨슨은 동시대 작가이며 두 작가 모두 미국 근대시를 대표하는 정전화된 시인들이다. 또한 두 시인 모두 그들의 시작 전체를 통해 죽음이라는 추상적인 주제를 깊이 있게 탐구하였다. 이 논문의 첫 번째 부분에서 저자는 휘트먼과 디킨슨이 각자의 시에서 어떻게 죽음의 문제를 다루었는지를 두 시인의 몇몇 대표적인 작품들을 중심으로 살펴 보고자한다. 이 논문의 두 번째 부분에서는 죽음에 대한 휘트먼과 디킨슨의 태도를 19세기 미국의 대중문화라는 보다 큰 구조 안에서 재조명해 보고자한다. 각기 다른 시대는 죽음에 대한 저마다의 독특한 문화적 이미지와 태도를 가지고 있다. 19세기 미국인들의 죽음에 대한 인식과 자세는 죽음이라는 엄연한 현실을 부인하는 20세기 현대인들의 부정적인 인식경향과는 매우 다름을 우리는 반드시 고려해야할 것이다. 마치 빅토리아 시대 사람들이 성(性)에 대한 언급을 혐오하며 억압했던 것처럼 현대인들도 죽음이라는 냉엄한 현실을 왜곡하고 회피하려 하는 경향이 있는 것이다. 20세기의 이러한 비관적 경향과는 달리, 휘트먼과 디킨슨의 시들은 죽음을 극도의 두려움과 불안을 일으키는 공포의 대상으로 묘사하고 있지 않다. 휘트먼과 디킨슨 두 시인 모두 죽음에 대한 각자의 고유한 견해와 태도를 다양한 시어로 표현하였지만 그럼에도 불구하고 그들의 시는 “죽음 미화하기”(“the beautification of death”) 또는 “죽음 길들이기”(“the domestication of death”)라고 정의될 수 있는 19세기 미국 중류계층의 한 문화적 경향과 밀접한 관계를 가지고 있음을 밝혀보고자 한다.
The novels dealt with in this paper are more attuned to chemistry than other branches of sciences. Frankenstein in Frankenstein seems to develop his dream based upon the knowledge of both old alchemists and modern chemists. As revealed in Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde and The Picture of Dorian Gray, it might be taken for granted that chemical reaction would influence the psychological mind as well as the physiological body. Dr. Jekyll's attempt to divide good and evil in human mind shows well that many of the 19th-century scientists had too much credit with the chemistry. Sherlock Holmes also invents a chemical test of blood to solve the criminal case with, and Frankenstein and Dr. Moreau put much emphasis on the physiological chemistry to execute the body experiment and transformation. Therefore, it could be believed that using and applying chemicals would solve physiological and psychological problems in many parts of life of the century. Likewise, the novels depict the diverse aspects of chemical development. In that context, examining and analyzing all the chemical facts revealed in the novels could be taking a big step and attempt to investigate the history of chemistry through the analysis of the novels.
This article aims to read Henry James`s Washington Square through the lens of the Genteel Tradition and pragmatism. James conducted a novelistic experiment to explore how pragmatism could work as an antidote to the old-fashioned Calvinism found in American society during that period. In the narrator`s viewpoint, the problems under the Calvinistic tradition were closely related to the legacies of the Genteel Tradition. The petrified social morality existing on the antebellum American soil was complicit with mammonism in the era of Reconstruction. In this novel, the Genteel Tradition in the 1840s(the time period of the novel) overlaps with the Progressive Era around the 1880s(the time when he wrote it). The psychological turmoil of an upper-class young lady epitomizes the ordeals that women had to endure in the Genteel Tradition. Nevertheless, Catherine Sloper, the heroine of the story, searches for her identity, refusing to be manipulated by her stubborn father (Austin Sloper) and the cunning lover (Morris Townsend). Despite her frustrations, she deals with inhospitable realities with a flexible mind. As the story develops, she comes to establish her own life principles while growing as a pragmatist.
This paper aims at tracing the inherited Puritan past casting a deep gloom over the House of the seven gables and its residents and examining Hawthome's intention to demonstrate the community as what really is. In Puritan rhetoric, religious zeal and secular prosperity are closely interrelated because God's blessing is embodied in earthly wealth. This unique rhetoric highlights Puritan hypocrisy when Puritans exclude, oppress and take advantage of the marginalized in the name of religion or God's providence. In The House of the Seven Gables, Hawthorne deals with a 150-year-long American history through the family feud of the Pyncheons and the Maules. Interestingly, Hawthorne puts an impoverished and isolated old spinster, Hepzibah Pyncheon in the center instead of Jaffrey Pyncheon, the legitimate Puritan descendant. As a protagonist, Hepzibah also stands for the majority struggling to live in this capitalistic society. Hawthorne portrays the pivotal values in this community through the malicious assumptions and intruding gossips about Hepzibah and Clifford. What is more, in exploring the history, the narrator depends on the gossips, legends, rumors and traditions as ‘contrary averments' to the recorded documents. Through this process, Hawthorne reveals the multi-layered truth of the person or the events by criss-crossing both ways of transmitting the past. In spite of a happy ending, there still remains disharmony, indifference and diversity in Salem community with more meanings and significance in contrast to the so-called or assumed homogeneous America.
This paper argues that “the wonders” by themselves are impossible without the routine. The routine establishes a base where the wonders can lurk and penetrate the mundane. In Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland and Through the Looking Glass, the author calls the reader's attention to the structural, constitutional aspects of the wonders, and of the routine; both are institutionalized within one another. Alice's metamorphosis can be read as the one of the significant wonders which Victorian citizens had created in their routine when they tried to ‘return' to their everyday lives, as Marx exhorted. The new existence surfaces out of her childhood: not the one as the peripheral to the citizen par excellence but as the human agent undertaking the bodily perception of the wonders. This would-be modern woman Alice is meant to pursue her adventures eventually to get somewhere; somewhere that is different from her past home, somewhere where the wonders all of sudden get to the surface of the present.
The historical approach of British Romantic studies has overlooked that the Abolition Movement partly contributed to the making of the British Romantic poetry. However, the Romanticism and the Abolition Movement not simply coincide in the rising time, but share some common thematic perceptions like “slave”, “tyranny”, “oppression”, and “emancipation.” The early romantics were in a way or another against slavery system and slave-trade, and especially Coleridge was deeply involved in the British slave-trade abolition campaigns and developed his arguments against the slave-trade in his many works.Trying to cope with the guilty feeling for British government's historical crimes of the slavery and the slave-trade, Coleridge shows what the fundamental causes of such crimes are and how he can be removed from such feeling, which are the backbone of his poetic practice. Through “the Lecture on the Slave-Trade,” Coleridge insists “human imagination capacity” is the only and basic solution to abolish slave-trade because it is rooted in human endless imagination capacity and unnecessary greed, but paradoxically the imagination itself also can be the starting point to express “the natural sympathy” for the others, the oppressed and the black slaves. And in his famous poetry, “The Ancient Mariner”, Coleridge expands his own thinking and theory on human imagination and the slave-trade. His thinking that the most important key point for the abolition of the slave-trade is human “sympathy” which is only possible through the human imagination makes his unique poetics of romantic imagination.
This essay attempts to examine what manners signify in Jane Austen's Emma and how this meaning of manners was formed in history. In the plot of Emma, the issue of how to conceive and practice appropriate manners is presented as a major theme, and Emma tackles this issue by exhibiting various characters who represent a certain aspect of manners and then testing their respective legitimacy as practitioners of manners. Emma's constant self-correction concerning her notion of manners is a result of this process of testing in which the novel engages. In the course of this process, Emma suggests that a formal display of refinement, though necessary, is not a sufficient condition for manners especially when it is motivated by self-interest, and that sincere and sympathetic feelings toward others, as most compellingly exemplified in the character of George Knightley, should be the most essential factor of appropriate manners. This opposition between self-interest and sincerity is related to controversies of eighteenth-century moral philosophy in both historical and conceptual terms. On the issue of the location of a moral domain and the origin of morality, philosophers represented by Hobbes and Mendeville contend that a moral domain does not consist in human nature and that morality derives from a communal pursuit of individuals' self-interest. On the other hand, empiricists such as Hutcheson and Hume foreground sincere and sympathetic feelings of humanity as a source of morality, thus locating a moral domain in sincerity and sympathy immanent in human mind. At these controversies on morality lie the conflicting concepts of manners in Emma, and the connection between these philosophical discourses and Emma's notion of manners attests to the historicity of the novel. Although the story of Emma filters out negative elements immanent in manners for the purpose of finding and suggesting appropriate manners, this work of filtering does not necessarily mean that manners in Emma should be considered to be an exclusive social principle by which only a few desirable qualities are selected as a basis of appropriateness. Rather, manners in Emma act as an inclusive and malleable principle for a society, since a variety of conflicting concepts-i.e., sincerity, artificiality, naturalness, civility, and morality-are incorporated into the notion of manners, as illustrated in the novel's conclusion part where various characters, who embody these conflicting concepts, harmoniously co-exist in the world of manners. With this inclusive feature of manners, this essay ultimately argues that manners are a social apparatus that constantly undergoes self-reflexive modifications in order to sustain and solidify the ascendancy of the dominant class.
Hyeyoung LeeSince its publication Jane Eyre has been read as a psychological bildungsroman. And recently it is a trend to read it as a feminist bildungsroman. The purpose of this article is to analyze Jane Eyre as a Christian bildungsroman. To understand Jane Eyre fully, contextual approach is necessary. And if we consider the Christian background of 19th century England in reading Jane Eyre, many repressed meanings of the novel will surface.To read Jane Eyre from the Christian perspective is, first of all, to focus on the spiritual growth of Jane and Rochester. Both Jane and Rochester go through hardships and come to mature spiritually. The most important part of the spiritual maturity is to learn to put God's love before their ‘passionate' human love. This humility before God is the crucial part of the Christian wisdom. And the other indispensable learning for both of them is to admit the invisible hand of God guiding their lives. In this respect Jane Eyre belongs to the genre of governess novel which was popular in 19th century England and stressed the governing hand of God in human lives. The marriage of Jane and Rochester is one of the best examples of the ‘companionate marriages' in the history of the English novel. However, the happy and equal companionate union is possible only after the achievement of their spiritual equality, not just the economic, social or sexual equality.