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This dissertation deals with Kim Woo-jin's 「Wild Boar」. Kim Woo-jin became indulged in his art during his University education. What's more, he tried to express the theatre art through a sharp insight of the times and created an optimistic atmosphere for Koreans under Japanese rule. His father, Kim Sung-kyu, was a president of the 'Mokpo Literary Association' and enjoyed writing poems. He also had such a special affection for literature that he contributed lots of money to support the 'Mokpo Literary Association'. And the world of death in Kim Woo-jin's works does not mean a real death. The world suggests the death of Korea traditional and conservative customs and reflects the difficult reality to break the traditional customs. His leaving home to lead a spiritual life carried on the very important meaning. 〈Noon〉 deals with the consciousness of class and nation, and 〈Lee Young-yeo〉 criticizes the defect of masculine centered society through Lee Yong-yeo. According to 「The Disgust of Poet Dooduckee」 and 「Shipwreck」 represent Kim Woo-jin's self conscious drama and the words of disgust and wreck symbolizes Kim Woo-jin's self desire for a new world. 「Wild Boar」 represents the free society for all people and the social awareness for reform. Kim Woo-jin includes the 'Dong Hak movement' in his drama and suggests a uncompromising willingness of social revolution established by young intellectuals and himself who showed only conscious conflict within the predestined yoke of the individual. In the play he changed his dramatic techniques which brought him closer to his readers and audiences but he emphasized intellectuals' awakening in much of his work. In other way, Kim Woo-jin developed a new contemporary drama movement in Korea for the nation which might have expressed real life under Japanese colonial rule. Kim Woo-jin was the representative of Korean drama in the 1920's who lived as a poet and critic as well as a experimental playwriter. Kim Woo-jin was one of the most excellent dramatists and the forerunner of Korean modern literature who led the new theatre movement, developed Korean drama from the early literature stages of the 1920's, and established himself as a leader in Korea literature.
Sung,Kwon,Kim,Ji,Eun,Park,Kyung,Hwan,Kim,Jin,Mo,Cho,문장섭,Wan-Soo,Yoon,김세훈,김영일,김영준,Ho,Sung,Kim,도윤식,Jae-Sung,Park,윤홍인,서영범,Kyoung-Su,Sung,송진호,Chan,Woo,Wee,Se-Hoon,Lee,Do,Hoon,Lim,임정호,장종희,한명훈,홍제범,Kihwan,Hw 대한뇌종양학회 2020 Brain Tumor Research and Treatment Vol.8 No.1
Background: The Guideline Working Group of the Korean Society for Neuro-Oncology (KSNO) conducted the nationwide questionnaire survey for diverse queries facing to treat patients with brain tumor. As part III of the survey, the aim of this study is to evaluate the national patterns of clinical practice for patients with brain metastasis and primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Methods: A web-based survey was sent to all members of the KSNO by email. The survey included 7 questions of brain metastasis and 5 questions of PCNSL, focused on the management strategies in specific situations. All questions were developed by consensus of the Guideline Working Group. Results: In the survey about brain metastasis, respondents preferred surgical resection with adjuvant treatment for patients with a surgically accessible single brain metastatic lesion less than 3 cm in size without extracranial systemic lesions. However, most respondents considered radiosurgery for surgically inaccessible lesions. As the preferred treatment of multiple brain metastases according to the number of brain lesions, respondents tended to choose radiotherapy with increasing number of lesions Radiosurgery was mostly chosen for the brain metastases of less than or equal to 4. In the survey about PCNSL, a half of respondents choose high-dose methotrexate-based polychemotherapy as the first-line induction therapy for PCNSL. The consolidation and salvage therapy showed a little variation among respondents. For PCNSL patients with cerebrospinal fluid dissemination, intrathecal chemotherapy was most preferred. Conclusion: The survey demonstrates the prevailing clinical practice patterns for patients with brain metastasis and PCNSL among members of the KSNO. This information provides a point of reference for establishing a practical guideline in the management of brain metastasis and PCNSL.
Grey field slug, Deroceras reticulatum Muller, is one of the major pests of chinese cabbage, Brassica campestris. To determine the economic thresholds of grey field slug on chinese cabbage, the slugs were inoculated after planting 1 week into chinese cabbages with a density of 0, 2, 4, 8, 16 slugs per 16 chinese cabbages(1㎡) at the plastic house in the spring and autumn of 2008. The rates of damaged cabbages by slug inoculation were 10.7% at 2 slugs and 42.7% at 16 slugs in the spring, and 20.3% at 2 slugs and 59.2% at 16 slugs in the autumn. The linear relationships between the initial slugs density and yield reduction of chinese cabbage were as following ; Y = 286.07x + 548.62, R2=0.9524(in the spring cultivation), Y = 318.91x + 998.05, R2=0.9323(in the autumn cultivation). Based on these results, the economic threshold of grey field slug per 16 chinese cabbages(1㎡) was 2.52 slugs in the spring and 0.86 slugs in the autumn.
BACKGROUND: The blood components of priming solution for cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may have opposite roles for tissue perfusion, which are the activation of inflammatory reaction and the improvement of oxygen carrying capacity. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion of priming solution on inflammatory response and tissue perfusion. METHODS: Twenty mongrel dogs randomly allocated and received hypothermic CPB with blood- containing (H group, n=10), or non-hemic (NH group, n=10) priming solution. Gastric intramucosal CO2 concentration (PrCO2), intramucosal pH (pHi), interleukin-8 (IL-8), blood gas and hemodynamic parameters were measured at 1) before CPB, 2) 1 hour during CPB, 3) the end of CPB, 4) 2 hours after CPB, 5) 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was measured. Statistical verification was performed using repeated measures ANOVA and unpaired t-test. RESULTS: PrCO2 increased and pHi decreased during the study without significant difference between the groups. IL-8 increased in both groups and IL-8 of H group increased higher than that of NH group during the study. The difference between PaCO2 and end-tidal CO2 of NH group was higher than that of H group at 4 hours after CPB. The ratio of wet to dried lung weight was not significantly different between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that the allogenic blood in priming solution aggravates the CPB- induced inflammatory reaction, however, the CPB-induced impairment of gastric mucosal perfusion and the pulmonary edema are not significantly affected, compared to non-hemic solution.
This experiment was conducted to prevent the contamination of parasite egg on vegetables for supporting safety production of leafy vegetables. After the chinese cabbages and soil samples were collected at 5 cities of Gyeonggido during 2007-2008, the existence of parasite egg was surveyed. All collected samples had no parasite egg, so the chinese cabbages produced in Gyeonggi area were assumed parasite egg-free. To examine the characteristics of parasite eggs, the pig roundworms, Ascaris suum, were collected from the intestine of infected pig and the parasite eggs were collected from the uterus of A. suum. The eggs of A. suum developed to embryonated eggs, which can infect humans, in 20℃-30℃, but not 15℃ and 35℃, when cultured at different temperatures. The eggs developed to embryonated eggs after drying for 0-24h when cultured after different drying times. Effect of soakage different salt solution and times showed that the eggs developed to embryonated eggs after soakage at 0-25% salt solution for 0-24h. For eliminating the parasite eggs attached leafy vegetables, it was efficient to soak at salt solution for 5 minutes and washing 5 times with water.
Backgrounds/Aims: Aggressive surgical resection for hepatic metastasis is validated, however, concomitant liver and lung metastasis in colorectal cancer patients is equivocal. Methods: Clinicopathologic data from January 2008 through December 2012 were retrospectively reviewed in 234 patients with colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis. Clinicopathologic factors and survival data were analyzed. Results: Of the 234 patients, 129 (55.1%) had synchronous concomitant liver and lung metastasis from colorectal cancer and 36 (15.4%) had metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection was performed in 33 patients (25.6%) with synchronous and 6 (16.7%) with metachronous metastasis. Surgical resection showed better overall survival in both groups (synchronous, p=0.001; metachronous, p=0.028). In the synchronous metastatic group, complete resection of both liver and lung metastatic lesions had better survival outcomes than incomplete resection of two metastatic lesions (p=0.037). The primary site of colorectal cancer and complete resection were significant prognostic factors (p=0.06 and p=0.003, respectively). Conclusions: Surgical resection for hepatic and pulmonary metastasis in colorectal cancer can improve complete remission and survival rate in resectable cases. Colorectal cancer with concomitant liver and lung metastasis is not a poor prognostic factor or a contraindication for surgical treatments, hence, an aggressive surgical approach may be recommended in well-selected resectable cases.
Western flower thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis(Perg.), is one of the major pests of lettuce, Lactuca sativa. To develop the economic thresholds for western flower thrips on lettuce, the thrips was inoculated into two types of lettuce, green deeply lobed leaf lettuce which was harvested every week and red frilled & crinkled leaf lettuce which was harvested one time, with a density of 0, 1, 3, 7, 10 thrips per one lettuce after planting 1 week and 3 weeks at the plastic house in 2006, and 0, 1, 3, 5, 7 thrips per one lettuce after planting 1 week in 2007. There was close correlation between the initial thrips density and the marketable quantity of lettuce : y = -155.36x + 3564.7, r2=0.9724('06), y = -167.82x + 3474.5, r2=0.8897('07) in the green deeply lobed leaf lettuce inoculated the thrips after planting 1 week, y = -109.65x + 3549.1, r2=0.9384('06) in the green deeply lobed leaf lettuce inoculated the thrips after planting 3 weeks, y = -197.09x + 3334.9, r2=0.9707('06), y = -244.08x + 3425.9, r2=0.8914('07) in the red frilled & crinkled leaf lettuce inoculated the thrips after planting 1 week, y = -101.07x + 3457.6, r2=0.7334('06) in the red frilled & crinkled leaf lettuce inoculated the thrips after planting 3 weeks. The economic threshold for western flower thrips on lettuce was ranged 0.20~0.30 thrips per one lettuce in the blue type lettuce and 0.14~0.33 thrips per one lettuce in the red type lettuce.
JIN,WOOK,BAEK,Sung-Chul,Jin,Sung,Tae,Kim,Young,Jin,Heo,Ji,Yeon,Han,Jung,Hwa,Seo,Sung,Hwa,Paeng,Jung,Soo,Kim,Hae,Woong,Jeong,Young-Gyun,Jeong 대한뇌혈관외과학회 2019 Journal of Cerebrovascular and Endovascular Neuros Vol.21 No.1
Objective : Selecting an appropriate guiding catheter to provide both sufficient supportability for working devices and sufficient distal navigability is essential for ensuring the success of a procedure. This study aimed to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using the ENVOY 6F distal access (DA) guiding catheter in coil embolization of anterior circulation cerebral aneurysms. Methods : We included 98 patients (72 [73.5%] women, median age: 63 [range: 25-84] years) who underwent endovascular coiling with the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter from May to November 2016. We analyzed data on patient demographics and the number of co-axial techniques to position the guiding catheter, initial and final location of the catheter, and complications related to the catheter. Results : The co-axial technique was used to position the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter in the internal carotid artery (ICA) in 20 cases (20.41%). The initial position of the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter involved the cervical ICA (79.6%), horizontal petrous ICA (17.3%), and vertical petrous ICA (3.1%). Final control angiograms after endovascular coiling showed proximal change in the final, compared to the initial, position of the ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter in 25 cases (25.51%). Procedure-related complications were observed in nine patients (9.18%), involving vasospasm in all cases; however, there was no symptomatic case. Conclusion : The ENVOY 6F DA guiding catheter had relatively sufficient distal navigability without symptomatic procedural complications. However, the change in the catheter position after endovascular coiling denoted insufficient supportability.
Propylea japonica is small ladybug(approximately 4-5mm) and is met with everywhere in Korea. When there was no aphid, the survival rate of P. japonica was 0% among another instar bugs and 26.7~32.8% among same instar bugs after 48 hours. When there were sufficient aphids, the cannibalism of P. japonica was low, so the survival rate of P. japonica was 78.6~95.8% among another instar bugs and 80.6~100% among same instar bugs after 48 hours. In the comparison of the number of eggs at different oviposition site, P. japonica preferred the corrugated cardboard. In experiment using T-tube, the rate of decoy was 81% at cotton aphid compared with pepper leaf and 62% at cotton aphid compared with artificial diet. In the artificial diet using shrimp and chicken liver, the developmental period from egg to adult was 17days and the survival rate from egg to adult was 66.7% but the vitality was not good. These data suggest that P. japonica can be used effective natural enemy for control of aphids and is needed to research about artificial diet, mass rearing system and control effect in field.
Jin,Min,Jin,Kim,Ji,Sun,Lee,Ho-Sung,Kwon,Young,Joon,Shim,Se,Hoon,Choi,Bum-Sung,Lee,Dong-Woo,Paik,Jong-Woo,Lee,Boung,Chul,Jung,Sung-Won,Lee,Hwa-Young 대한신경정신의학회 2020 PSYCHIATRY INVESTIGATION Vol.17 No.11
Objective The objective of the present study was to explore causal pathways to understand how second traumatic experiences could affect the development of emotional exhaustion and psychiatric problems.Methods A total of 582 workers who had jobs vulnerable to secondary traumatic experiences were enrolled for this study. Emotional exhaustion, secondary trauma, resilience, perceived stress, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems were evaluated. A model with pathways from secondary traumatic experience score to depression and anxiety was proposed. The participants were divided into three groups according to the resilience: the low, middle and high resilience group.Results Resilience was a meaningful moderator between secondary traumatic experiences and psychiatric problems. In the path model, the secondary trauma and perceived stress directly and indirectly predicted perceived stress, emotional exhaustion, depression, anxiety, and sleep problems in all three groups. Direct effects of perceived stress on depression and anxiety were the largest in the low resilience group. However, direct effects of secondary trauma on perceived stress and emotional exhaustion were the largest in the high resilience group.Conclusion Understanding the needs of focusing for distinct psychological factors offers a valuable direction for the development of intervention programs to prevent emotional exhaustion among workers with secondary traumatic experiences.