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Purpose: The aim of this study was to construct a structural equation model that would further explain the continuously increasing substance use disorder in Korean adolescents. Methods: Survey visits using a structured questionnaire were conducted with 3,885 students in 2 middle schools and 2 high schools in Busan. A total of 13 instruments were used in this model. The analysis of data was done with both SPSS 14.0 for descriptive statistics and AMOS 5.0 for covariance structure analysis. Results: Based on the constructed model, belief on substance use was found to have a significantly direct effect in influencing adolescent substance use. In addition, other factors such as family environment, satisfaction with school life, self-concept, social support, and personality vulnerability indirectly affected substance use. The final modified model yielded Chi-square=2,987 (p<.001), df=121, 2/df=22.1, GFI=.96, AGFI=.93, NFI=.91, PNFI=.72, PGFI=.72, RMSEA=.07 and exhibited fit indices. Conclusion: This study constructed a model that addresses the factors related to adolescent substance use and explains the relationship of these factors in influencing substance use among Korean adolescents. Findings from this study can contribute to designing appropriate prevention strategies to reduce substance related disorders in adolescents.
Community-based injury prevention under the International Safe Community model is a cost-effective and successful way to reduce injury and increase safety in communities. Safe community programs are important factors influencing overall health and major public health issues around the world. The purpose of this study is to describe and evaluate outcomes and achievements of the Busan Metropolitan International Safe Community program. For this study, we analyzed all data from 13 administrative agencies from 2009 to 2018 and compared each year of injury statistics with injury indicators including core indicator, supplementary indicators, and optional indicators as central data in order to identify outcomes of the Busan Metropolitan Safe Community program. We also evaluated effectiveness of programs through a statistical testing. The Sustainable Busan Metropolitan City Safety Community Program will contribute to realizing the government's goals for the Busan Metropolitan Safety policies and improving the quality of life for Busan citizens. We ultimately plan to contribute to an establishment of the safety culture targeting the whole citizens of all ages, genders, and social classes.
Purpose : This study has been designed to develop and test the theoretical model to explain postpartum depression. A hypothetical model was constructed on the basis of Neuman's system model and review of literature. Method : Data were collected through a survey over a period of 5 months. Subjects who participated in the study consisted of 265 Korean mothers in their postpartum periods. A total of 19 instruments were used in this model. The analysis of the data was done with SPSS PC+ for descriptive statistics and LISEREL 7.16 for covariance structure analysis. Results : 1. The hypothetical model showed a good fit to the empirical data. Chi-square=265.1(P=0.00), df=106, x^(2)/df=2.5, GFI=0.93, AGFI=0.82, RMR=0.036, NNFI=0.89, NFI=0.93 and CN=117. 2 For constructing the parsimonious best fit model, the exogenous variable (preparation for delivery) was excluded from the theoretical model because it did not significantly influence postpartum depression. 5 paths were deleted between the following: relationship to parents and postpartum depression, maternal role strain and stressful life event, postpartum depression and satisfaction to baby, postpartum depression and baby's character, postpartum depression and stressful life event. 11 paths were added between satisfaction to baby and support from others and between maternal role strain and personality trait et al. 3. The final modified model yielded Chi-square=131.59(P=0.02), df=101, x^(2)/df=1.30, GFI=0.94, AGFI=0.90, RMR=0.025, NNFI=0.94, NFI=0.97, CN=225 and exhibited definite improved levels of fit indices. Conclusion : Results of this study show that personality trait, maternal role attainment, marital adjustment, maternal role strain and self-esteem influence postpartum depression. Thus, the most effective prevention strategy against postpartum depression must focus on improving maternal role attainment, marital adjustment and self-esteem, modifying emotional state, and reducing the maternal role strain. By comprehensively addressing the factors related to postpartum depression, and comparing each influence, this study can contribute to designing an appropriate postpartum depression prevention strategy in tune with the particular characteristics and problems of a mother. Finally, the author suggests that this model could be adequately applied to mothers during the postpartum period.