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      • KCI등재

        미생물제 살포, 농장규모 및 돈사유형별 양돈농장 악취저감 효과 비교

        박태환,하덕민,한정철,김두환 강원대학교 동물생명과학연구소 2022 동물자원연구 Vol.33 No.4

        The present trial verified the effects of spraying microbial agents on odor reduction in commercial pig farms of different operating sizes and barn types. Farms without microbial agent spraying and those sprayed with microbial agents at two different intervals were compared. The treatments included spraying of water alone every day or a mixture of water plus microbial agent at 24 and 72 h intervals. The experimental farms were divided according to size into 1,000-, 3,000-, and 5,000-head farms and according to barn type into gestation, farrowing, nursery, and grower-finisher farms. To compare odor concentration within each housing barn, ammonia and hydrogen sulfide gas levels were measured. The average concentrations of ammonia (p<0.01) and hydrogen sulfide (p<0.05) gas were the lowest in all types of farms sprayed with the microbial agent at a 24 h interval. In farms sprayed with the microbial agent at a 24 h interval, the decrease in ammonia concentration according to barn type was in the following order: farrowing (p<0.01) (11.0 to 1.8 ppm), nursery (p<0.05) (17.0 to 9.2 ppm), grower-finisher (15.3 to 8.8 ppm), and gestation (9.7 to 6.4 ppm) farms. Moreover, spraying the microbial agent at a 24 h interval significantly (p<0.01) decreased ammonia concentration from 19.9 to 10.4 ppm, from 11.1 to 4.1 ppm, and from 8.8 to 5.1 ppm in 5,000-, 3,000-, and 1,000-head farms, respectively. Overall, spraying microbial agents every day may be the most effective method to reduce odor in commercial pig farms. 미생물제 살포가 양돈농장의 악취저감 효과를 검증하기 위하여 1,000두, 3,000두 및 5,000두 규모의 상업적인 양돈농장에서 임신사, 분만사, 자돈사 및 육성비육사로 구분하여 비교하였다. 미생물제를 24시간, 72시간 간격으로 살포하거나 물 만 살포한 돈사 내부에서 암모니아와 황화수소를 측정하였다. 미생물제 24시간 간격 살포가 모든 농장에서 암모니아(p<0.01)와 황화수소(p<0.05)의 평균 농도가 가장 낮게 나타났다. 돈사유형별 미생물제 24시간 간격 살포에 의한 암모니아 농도 변화는 임신사 9.7에서 6.4ppm으로 분만사 11.0에서 1.8ppm으로 자돈사 17.0에서 9.2ppm 및 육성비육사 15.3에서 8.8ppm으로 떨어져 분만사(p<0.01)에서 가장 큰 폭의 저감 효과가 나타났으며, 자돈사(p<0.05), 육성비육사, 임신사 순이었다. 미생물제 24시간 간격 살포는 5,000두, 3,000두 및 1,000두 규모 농장의 암모니아 농도를 각각 19.9에서 10.4ppm으로, 11.1에서 4.1ppm 및 8.8에서 5.1ppm으로 떨어뜨리는 결과를 나타내었다(p<0.01). 결론적으로 양돈농장의 악취저감을 위한 미생물제 살포는 매우 유용한 기술이며, 미생물제는 매일 살포하는 것이 가장 효과적이고 길어도 3일 이내 간격을 유지하여야 할 것으로 사료된다.

      • 특집 - 주택의 미래, 미래주택의 모습들 : 미래주택과 배리어-프리 리빙 ( Future Housing and Barrier-free Living )

        박태환 대한건축학회 1997 建築 Vol.41 No.3

        노인들을 위한 노인계획주거의 필요성이 강조되고 있다. 그러나 그 중요성은 보조받는 독립적인 삶에서 부터 장기간의 의존적인 환경으로 이동하는 것이 아니라는 것이 지적되어야 한다. 많은 노인과 장애인들이 최소한의 주의를 받는 것을 빼고는 독립적인 단위로 살 수 있는 집합주택과 같은 훌륭한 대안들은 확대되어야만 한다. 장애인이나 노년층을 위한 건축설계의 기본은 배리어-프리이며, 많은 다른 개념들도 이 두 부류에게 적용할 수 있으며, 그들의 삶의 질을 향상시켜주도록 의도된 것이다.

      • 濠洲의 老人福祉施設에 關한 硏究(Ⅳ) : 老人療養院을 中心으로 Nursing Homes for the Elderly

        朴泰煥 慶尙大學校 1986 論文集 Vol.25 No.2

        이상의 내용을 요약해서, 老人療養施設의 計劃과 設計에 適用할 수 있는 사항은 아래와 같다. 1. 許可 및 計劃과 設計시에 適用할 規準이 필요하다. 2. 施設의 規模는 看護의 質的水準, 家庭的 분위기 조성을 위해서 小規模이나 수요자의 증가에 따라 大規模일 경우 看護單位를 복수로 해서 大規模로 할 수 있으나(100病床 이하), 單位 看護當 病床數 25∼50이다. 3. 垈地條件은 老人흠의 垈地條件과 同一하게 適用한다. 4. 療養院 施設의 居住者의 個人空間은 침실(병실), 화장실 등으로서 1人用, 2人用, 4人用이 있다. 각 空間規模는 Table. 2와 같으며, 조사대상 시설의 규모는 Table. 3과 같다. 平面上의 配置는 Fig. 3, 4, 5와 같다. 5. 居住者의 社會的 空間은 라운지, 식당, 물리치료실이며, 공간규모는 Table. 5와 같으며, 조사대상시설의 규모는 Table. 6과 같다. 그리고 平面上의 配置는 출입구쪽 또는 중심부이다. 6. 管理空間에는 안내실, 간호원장실, 직원실, 간호원 대기실 등이다. 규모에 대한 규준은 Table. 7이며, 조사대상시설에 대한 규모는 Table. 8과 같다. 7. 機械設備空間은 부엌과 유티리룸이다. (Table. 9, Table. 10 참조) 이들 공간과 거주자의 개인·사회적 공간과의 평면관계는 Table. 7이다. 8. 附屬空間은 주로 창고, 영안실 등으로서 시설의 규모에 따라 창고의 수나 크기는 유동적이나 영안실은 옥외와의 출입이 가능한 위치에 시설당 1개소를 둔다. 9. 老人療養院에는 특히 老人들에게 適合한 환기, 난방, 안전설비에 관한 대책이 필요하다. 10. 建物의 形態는 저층(단층 또는 2층) 中庭式이 가장 이상적이다.(Fig. 7, 8, 9) 老人福祉의 各種 制度와 프로그램을 유럽에서 받아드려 지역환경에 맞추어 새로이 정립, 정착해가고 있는 濠洲의 현단계는 아직 더 발전하고 개선해 가려는 단계에 있는 시점으로, 많은 건축가들과 개발자들이 가장 의미있는 일에 기여하고 있다고 느끼고 있다. The statement that Nursing Homes are designed for the care of those patient who are in need of nursing and treatment that cannot usually be given in their own homes, but who do not the range of costly and highly specialized facilities of a general hospital, does not in itself give extra information about the services rendered by the Nursing Homes. Where general hospitals do not have special arrangements for geriatric patients and have no rehabilitation programs for them. nursing Homes have to file in the gap and will develop extensive rehabilitation programs. Nursing Homes ought to have an environment that is as pleasant and homely as is compatible with nursing care. All means possible should be used to minimise instititional effect. The provision of nursing home care need not inhibit an atmosphere of pleasant informality. Open planning, recreational spaces both indoors and out, decoration, colour and furnishings can all be used to achieve a friendly character. Wards and bedrooms should be larger than those in hospitals and windows should be planned so that each bed can enjoy its fair share of air, light and view.

      • KCI등재

        Validation of Stroke and Trombolytic Terapy in Korean National Health Insurance Claim Data

        박태환,최재철 대한신경과학회 2016 Journal of Clinical Neurology Vol.12 No.1

        Background and Purpose Te claims data of the Korean National Health Insurance (NHI) system can be useful in stroke research. Te aim of this study was to validate the accuracy of hospital discharge data used for NHI claims in identifying acute stroke and use of thrombolytic therapy. Methods Te hospital discharge data of 1,811 patients with stroke-related diagnosis codes were obtained from Jeju National University Hospital (JNUH) and Seoul Medical Center (SMC). Tree algorithms were tested to identify discharges with acute stroke [ischemic stroke (IS), intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), or subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)]: 1) all diagnosis codes up to nine positions, 2) one primary diagnosis and one secondary diagnosis, and 3) only one primary diagnosis code. Reviews of medical records were considered the gold standards. Results Overall, the degree of agreement (κ) was higher for algorithms 1 and 2 than for algorithm 3, and the sensitivity and specifcity of the frst two algorithms for IS and SAH were both >90%, with almost perfect agreement (κ=0.83–0.84) in the JNUH data set. Regarding ICH, only algorithm 1 yielded an almost perfect agreement (κ=0.82). In the SMC data set, almost perfect agreement was found for both ICH and SAH in all three algorithms. In contrast, the three algorithms yielded a range of agreement levels, though all substantial, for IS. Almost perfect agreement was obtained for use of thrombolytic therapy in both data sets (κ=0.91– 0.99). Conclusions Discharge with hemorrhagic stroke and use of thrombolytic therapy were identifed with high reliability in administrative discharge data. A substantial level of agreement was also obtained for IS, despite variation between the algorithms and data sets.

      • KCI등재

        Identifying Target Risk Factors Using Population Attributable Risks of Ischemic Stroke by Age and Sex

        박태환,고용채,이수주,이경복,이준,한문구,박종무,조용진,홍근식,김대현,차재권,오미선,유경호,이병철,윤병우,이진성,이준영,배희준 대한뇌졸중학회 2015 Journal of stroke Vol.17 No.3

        Background and Purpose Estimating age- and sex-specific population attributable risks (PARs) of major risk factors for stroke may be a useful strategy to identify risk factors for targeting preventive strategies. Methods For this case-control matched study, consecutive patients aged 18-90 years and admitted to nine nationwide hospitals with acute ischemic stroke between December 2008 and June 2010, were enrolled as cases. Controls, individually matched by age and sex, were chosen from the 4th Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (2008-2010). Based on odds ratios and prevalence, standardized according to the age and sex structure of the Korean population, PARs of major risk factors were estimated according to age (young, ≤45; middle-aged, 46-65; and elderly, ≥66 years) and sex subgroups. Results In 4,743 matched case-control sets, smoking (PAR, 45.1%) was the greatest contributing risk factor in young men, followed by hypertension (28.5%). In middle-aged men, the greatest contributing factors were smoking (37.4%), hypertension (22.7%), and diabetes (14.6%), whereas in women the greatest factors were hypertension (22.7%) and stroke history (10.6%). In the elderly, hypertension was the leading factor in men (23.7%) and women (23.4%). Other noticeable factors were stroke history (men, 19.7%; women, 17.3%) and diabetes (men, 12.5%; women, 15.1%). In young women, risk factors with a PAR greater than 10% were not found. Conclusions Smoking cessation in young people and hypertension and diabetes control in older people may be effective in reducing the burden of stroke on the population. In the elderly, secondary prevention could also be emphasized.

      • KCI등재후보

        플라스틱 광섬유를 통과하는 녹색광 펄스의 속력 측정

        박태환,김상년 한국현장과학교육학회 2012 현장과학교육 Vol.6 No.3

        고등학교 탐구 활동에 도입할 목적으로 플라스틱 광섬유를 통과하는 녹색광 펄스의 속력을 측정하는 장치를 제작하였다. 녹색 발광 다이오드(LED)와수광 다이오드(PD)를 일정 길이의 광섬유 양 끝에 각각 연결하였다. 녹색 LED에서 출발한 녹색광 펄스가 광섬유를 통과하고 PD에 도착되는 시간을측정하였다. 펄스의 출발과 도착 시간은 PCI-6602 80 MHz 카운터를 이용하여 측정하였다. 측정 데이터는 LabVIEW 프로그램을 제작하여 컴퓨터로처리하였다. 결과적으로, 공기 중의 속력으로 계산한 녹색광 펄스의 속력 (3.001 ± 0.032) × 108 m/s를 얻었다. For the purpose of introducing in classroom inquisitive activities at Korean high school, we developed an optic kit measuring the speed of light pulses propagating in the plastic optical fiber. A green LED and a photo diode were connected at both ends of finite length plastic optical fiber, respectively. We measured the time differences of light pulses between start time at the green LED and arrival time at the photo diode. For start/arrival time recording in computer, we used a PCI-6602 80 MHz 32 bit timer/counter. As a final result, we obtained satisfactory numerical value of (3.001 ± 0.032) × 108 m/s as a speed of green light pulse signal in air.

      • KCI등재

        안면부 이물 육아종 120례의 치험례

        박태환,서상원,김준규,장충현,Park, Tae-Hwan,Seo, Sang-Won,Kim, June-Kyu,Chang, Choong-Hyun 대한성형외과학회 2010 Archives of Plastic Surgery Vol.37 No.3

        Purpose: As the use of soft tissue fillers becomes more popular, complications such as foreign body granuloma (FBG) are increasing. We report 120 cases of facial FBG and review the available literatures. Methods: 120 patients of facial FBG in our clinic from Mar. 2003 to Feb. 2008 were complied and analyzed. A retrospective chart review was done and patient satisfaction was evaluated with a questionnaire using 5 score scale. Patients with severe inflammation sign or bizarre deformity underwent surgical excision and those with minimal symptoms or a history of hyaluronic acid injection received injection therapy using hyaluronidase. Results: 100 females and 20 males were observed. The average age was 43.7 years (from 16 to 74). 84 patients received surgical therapy and 36, injection therapy. Deformity of facial contour, foreign body sensation and inflammation sign were the three main chief complaints. 84 patients did not know what the injection materials were. The known materials are as follows: collagen, hyaluronic acid, silicone oil, paraffin. 92 cases were performed by unlicensed practitioners, 29 by physicians. Anatomical site most frequently affected by the foreign body granuloma was the cheek (25.8%), followed by forehead (19.2%), lips (15.8%), nose (9.2%), mentum (8.3%), eyelid and eyebrow (4.3%) and temple (0.8%). In 21 patients (17.5%), FBGs were found on multiple sites. Patients with inflammation sign got the highest satisfaction ($3.19{\pm}0.73$) (p=0.001) among 3 chief complaints. And patient satisfaction was statistically higher in surgical therapy group ($3.43{\pm}0.72$) than in injection therapy group ($2.97{\pm}0.88$) (p=0.003). Conclusion: We suggest that it may be beneficial to tailor the type of treatment for FBG relying on wound state and patient's chief complaints. In surgical therapy, resolute approach is necessary to correct facial deformity definitely and to minimize inflammation. Injection therapy could be another option for those with minimal symptoms or a history of hyaluronic acid injection. To prevent foreign body granuloma, not only plastic surgeons but also other physicians should inject soft tissue fillers with great caution and we should warn the public of disastrous consequences associated with illegal medical practice.

      • 편측 A1 분절의 형성저하와 연관된 양측 미상핵의 급성 뇌경색 1예

        박태환,이은희,윤영철,권오상 대한뇌졸중학회 2006 Journal of stroke Vol.8 No.1

        We report a patient with acute bilateral caudate nucleus infarctions. The patient had no past medical history except diabetes mellitus. He presented with sudden inability to comprehend or verbalize and right-sided hemiparesis, which resolved spontaneously within 2 hours after the onset. On initial computed-tomographic angiography, the A1 segment of the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA) was hypoplastic, and the right A2 segment was occluded. Follow-up magnetic resonance images revealed bilateral caudate head infarctions including bilateral anterior internal capsules with a larger lesion on the left, and recanalization of the right A2 segment. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation was detected on 24-hour Holter monitoring. This rare type of cerebral infarction were thought to be caused by cardiac emboli which passed by common A1 segment of the left ACA.

      • KCI등재

        허혈뇌졸중 환자들의 발병 전 약물 순응과 임상적 의의: 일개병원기반 조사

        박태환,장명숙,양미화,한문구,배희준 대한신경과학회 2010 대한신경과학회지 Vol.28 No.4

        Background: Medication adherence (MA) is poor among patients with chronic illnesses, such as those involving the risk factors of stroke. However, the impacts of poor MA on the modifiable risk factors of stroke are not well known. Methods: We evaluated the MA for the control of hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and previous ischemic stroke among consecutive patients with ischemic stroke within 7 days of symptom onset. Nonadherence was defined as taking doctor‐prescribed medications for less than 3 weeks during the previous month. Demographic data, risk factor profile,stroke mechanism, and baseline score on the National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were compared among patients with nonadherence and those without. Results: Among 1133 patients with at least one medicated risk factor, the rates of nonadherence in hypertension,diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and previous ischemic stroke were 18.5%, 15.3%, 30.3%, and 28.1%, respectively. Overall,27.4% of patients with more than one risk factor presented nonadherence, with a predilection toward being male (male,63.9% vs. female, 56.1%, p=0.02) and younger (mean age 64.9 years vs. 66.4 years, p=0.01). Stroke severity according to MA did not differ using either crude analysis (NIHSS score: 5.5±5.9 vs. 5.4±5.5, p=0.71) or multivariable analysis after log transformation. The prevalence of nonadherence was low for large‐artery disease and small‐vessel occlusion, and high for cardioembolism. Conclusions: Prestroke poor MA for the major risk factors was common among patients with chronic illnesses, and was more frequent in younger male patients. Stroke severity was not affected by MA during the month preceding stroke.

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