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The total astigmatism and corneal astigmatism of the ametropic eyes (aged 22-28, 69 eyes of 69 males and 81 eyes of 81 females, total 150 eyes) were measured by the subjective refraction and keratometry, respectively. The residual astigmatism were estimated from the total astigmatism and corneal astigmatism. The results were as follows: The amount of the eye's total astigmatism by measuring the subjective refraction was from 0 to 6.00D (mean 1.35D). The total astigmatism was with-the-rule for 110 eyes (84%) of the patients, against-the-rule for 12 eyes (9.5%), and oblique for 4 eyes (3.2%). The amount of the corneal astigmatism (or keratometric astigmatism) was from 0.11D to 3.52D (mean 1. 19D). The corneal astigmatism was with-the-rule for 124 eyes (82.7%) of the patients, against-the-rule for 9 eyes (6%), and oblique for 17 eyes (11.3%). It was fo-unded that most of the eye's astigmatism due to the corneal toricity. The mean amount of the residual astigmatism was 0.62D. Except for 21 cyes (under 0.12D of the amount), the residual astigmatism was with-the-rule for 46 eyes (35.7%) of the patients, against-the-rule for 67 eyes (51.9%), and oblique for 16 eyes (12.4%). The total and corneal astigmatism was mainly with-the-rule (84% and 82.7%, respectively), wh-ereas 51.9% of the residual astigmatism was against-the-rule.
We developed a polyclonal antibody based-ELISA system to monitor inocula accurately and rapidly before onset of anthracnose on soybean sprouts. Titer of mouse antisera against conidia of Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, determined by indirect ELISA, was high enough to be detectable up to x25,600 dilutions. Both PAb1 and PAb2 had the highest level of reactivity to Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Absorbance readings exceeded 0.15. Sensitivity of PAb to C. gloeosporioides was precise enough to detect spore concentration as low as 500 conidia/well by indirect ELISA. Both antibodies are very sensitive and highly specific to the target pathogen Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, apparently discriminating other unrelated pathogen, or epiphytes. This kit fulfills the requirements for detecting inocula before infection and onset of anthracnose. Our ELISA system should also be feasible to detect C. acutatum (Mungbean sprouts rot) and G. cingulata (C. gleosporioides), (apple, pepper). It was remarkable that absorbance value was not reduced even after 4 consecutive washings (Fig. 4), suggesting that antigenic determinants are on the surface of conidia. Antigenic determinant was characterized by heating and enzyme treatment: Both PAb1 and PAb2 bind to protein epitope that does not contain residue of amino acid, arginine, and lysine, even though more work needs to be done.
This study intended to develop vertical joint system of modular roadway system for the use in Korea. Preliminary study wasperformed to determine appropriate support conditions for the precast concrete slab. Based on the preliminary analysis results,detailed finite element models were developed for a parametric study. Displacements at the top and bottom edges of the slab werechecked to determine the required capacity of the horizontal sealing between the slabs, and the anchor bolt responses fixing theslab to crossbeams under the slab were also checked. Based on these results, this study proposed optimized slab sizes and supportlocations to minimize displacements and anchor bolt responses. 본 연구에서 국내 모듈러 도로 시스템에 적합한 수직 조인트의 연결부 개발을 목적으로 다양한 조건의 연결부를 유한요소해석을 사용하여 검토하였다. 먼저, 예비해석으로 경계조건에 따른 모듈러 도로 슬래브의 거동과 변위, 지점에서 요구되는 수평반력의 값을 산정하여 최적의 경계조건과 지점의 위치를 결정하였다. 이를 기초로 상세 해석 모델을 개발하여 변수연구를 실행하여 수평 채움재에 필요한 변위허용량의 크기와 앵커볼트에 작용하는 응력의 크기를 검토하여 최적의 슬래브 형태를 제안하였다.