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● 물류산업은 매출 75조 원으로 약 16만개 업체, 약 55만 명이 종사하는 국내 9위 산업(매출액, 2009년 기준)으로 국토부는 2012년 물류산업을 더욱 발전시키기 위해 녹색물류기업 등 각 분야별 우수업체를 발굴하여 인증을 수여했으며, 창고업 등록제를 도입하고 우리 기업의 해외진출 지원을 강화하는 정책을 시행하였음 ● 국토부는 2013년 21세기 글로벌 물류강국의 실현이라는 비전 아래 물류산업의 경쟁력 강화를 위한 정책으로 경쟁력 강화와 선진화, 신상장동력 육성, 항만인프라 안전시스템 강화를 중점과제로 채택하고 이에 따른 과제를 마련함 ● 또한 2013년 저탄소 녹색성장을 견인하는 녹색물류 강국 실현을 위해 저탄소형 물류산업구조로 개편, 기업의 자발적 온실가스 관리기반 및 역량강화, 온실가스 감축 프로그램 지원 강화, 온실가스 감축을 위한 제도적 기반 마련이라는 4대 중점과제를 선정함 ● 물류업계에서 바라는 최고의 정책 우선순위는 물류산업법(가칭)의 제정으로 물류 관련 법제도가 해운, 육상, 항공 등 분야별로 분리되어 있어 물류분야가 산업으로 제대로 된 대접(체계적인 법적지원 등)을 받지 못하고 있다는 게 물류업계의 가장 큰 애로점으로 이에 대한 개선이 시급함 ● 2013년 물류시장에 대한 전문가 의견을 조사한 결과, 내년 물류시장 전망을 묻는 질문에 올해보다 성장할 것(30.8%)이라는 응답이 위축될 것(19.2%)이라는 응답보다 많았음(올해와 비슷할 것, 50.0%) ● 물류분야별 전망은 택배(76.0%), 복합운송주선(포워딩)(62.5%), 종합물류서비스(3PL)(67.3%), 육상운송(59.6%)은 성장할 것으로, 해상운송(67.3%), 항공운송(51.9%)은 다소 부진할 것으로 보는 의견이 우세하였음. 택배업은 고물가가 지속됨에 따라 가격이 상대적으로 저렴한 온라인 쇼핑몰을 이용하는 소비자가 늘어날 것으로 보여 다른 물류업종에 비해 성장할 것으로 보이고, 항공과 해운 운송시장은 글로벌 경기침체로 인한 수출입 물동량 감소와 운송원가 상승 등으로 어려움을 겪을 것으로 예상하였음
The hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a leading causative agent of acute hepatitis in humans. Zoonotic HEV strains have been isolated from several animal species, including pigs. New HEV variants have been recently isolated from camels in the Middle East. In the present study, fecal samples from fallow deer, formosan deer, alpaca, and guanaco were analyzed for the detection of HEV. One HEV strain was detected from guanaco, a species of camelids. The nucleotide sequence of guanaco HEV was identical to those of deer HEV-3 strains, which implied the cross-species transmission of HEV-3 from deer to guanaco.
<The former period of Yi dynasty> 1. In the former part of Yi dynasty, the legal number of the naval forces was increased greatly due to two times of Construction of the naal ships by the naval forces is recorded to be 48,800. 2. However, the military role of the canal forces was so hard compared with that of the army that most of them evaded to do their obligation. 3. Owing to the reason mentioned above, the naval soldiers were given a special leave and in turn they had to pay reward. This resultd in breaking the military discipline. In this situation it was very hard to maintain the legal number of the naval forces. <The latter period of Yi dynasty> 1. In the latter part of Yi dynasty, it was even hard to find the legal number of the naval forces in the history. The reason is that the naval forces equivalent to the civil forces were used rather in supplying military preparations than in doing the military service. 2. According to the record, There was che legal number of about one hundred thousnads 18 th C. and of about one hundred forty thousands in 19 th C., but it is very hard to believe it as a legal number. 48,800 soldiers as a legal number in the former part of Yi dynasty were uncertain, but they were main forces to repulse the Japanese invasion. The history shows that in the latter part of Yi dynasty, the naval forces never participated in the war activities and were gradually demolished by themselves.
The role of ethics committees or institutional review boards (IRB) is crucial to ensure the scientific and ethical quality of medical research involving human participants. In April 2002, the Korean Association of Institutional Review Boards (KAIRB) conducted a survey to examine the current constitution and operation of IRBs in Korea. Out of 74 IRBs, 63 responded to the survey (85.1% response rate). The survey analysis shows that the number of the IRBs has abruptly increased since 1995, when the KGCP (Korean Good Clinical Practice), the regulation for clinical trials, began to be enforced. The survey shows that IRB membership has a male: female ratio of approximately 80:20, a predominance of male clinicians (60 %) and a lack of community representatives unaffiliated to the institution (less than 10 %). Most IRBs (80%) confine the scope of their review to the clinical evaluation of drugs or devices, leaving the remaining areas of research involving human participants untouched. As their role is limited, the majority of IRBs do not operate actively: 72 % of responding IRBs reviewed less than one protocol per month in 2001. Many IRBs lack detailed standard operating procedures. While 70% of the IRBs review payment and compensation to patient participants and healthy volunteers in sponsored research, 62% of institutions have never discussed the need for insuring research participants risks or making indemnity arrangements. This survey on the current situation of IRBs in Korea reveals many shortcomings and points for improvement by the institutional support bodies, including the need to establish regular education programs for IRB members and investigators.
1. The revised provisions of naval forces system in Cholla and Gyungsang provinces during the reign of Sukchong are very deer materials which are helpful to the study of the naval forces system of Yi Dynasty. 2. According to these materials, the naval bases were on the greater increase compared with before the Imjin War(8 bases in Cholla and 15 bases in Gyungasng). 3. The naval ships of the former and the latter periods of Yi Dynasty were almost similar in number, but those of the crew aboard the naval ships was gradually inreased. According to a historical book, Gyungkuk Daejon, the crew of Daemaengsun ship were 80 in number and the crew abboard the large-sized battle ship were 125 during the period of the Imjin war and 170 during the reign of Sukchong. 5. The naval forces seemed to be intensified and arranged well externally in the latter period of Yi Dynasty. But owing to social corruption and relaxation of military discipline, the soldiers' will and capability to fight became nuch weaker than those of the former period.
This paper aims to identify the aspect of cultural conflicts in Hemingway's In Our Time. This novel has been interpreted as the initiation story of Nick. But we must pay attention to cultural context beyond individual sufferings. The first collection interweaves tales of modern life focusing on modern violence. It presents a world of thorough disorientation. Spiritual deadness, aimless wandering and conflicts between genders and cultures - these emerge as Hemingway's concerns in In Our time. The story suggests powerfully that we may understand our time as the communal loss of temporal, geographical, and cultural certainties. While the stories show an exclusively masculine world of war, crime, bullfighting and so on, most of the stories stress the interdependence, however unhappy, between the sexes. We can see in this novel the ability to communicate well is vital to modern society through overcoming cultural conflicts. In Our Time shows the decay of what must once have seemed fundamental values: religion, intimate human relationships, hierarchies of culture and class, masculine authority. The wanderers of Hemingway's stories are at once empty and revelatory of these profound changes; however, Hemingway believes, in the last short stories that we may escape from cultural dilemma. In conclusion, we can say that Hemingway's work is very astonishing in capacity to evoke within its small compass such a rich variety of human predicaments.
This paper aims to identify modern narrative in SL thought surveying Hawthorne`s Romance literary view and analyzing the problem of ambibalance. Hawthorne tried to show spiritual realty immanent in the visible world. Above all, his major concern is with the truth of human heart. In order to fullfill this purpose he used revolutional narrative techniques such as reflexibilty, ambivalance, symbolism and fantasy. Symbolism is literary technique to express something through order mediums because reality is invisible and incomprehensive. In SL there are many symbols : scarelt letter A, names, external feature and setting. Fantasy refers to all the unrealistic, supernatural incidents. This method is not a means of escaping from actual world but a means to act on actual world. He puts much amount of truth into fantasy in the form of dream, superstition, illusion, rumor. Fantasy plays important role in developing many kinds of truths including the central idea. It contributes to the effective reflection of reality because reality of human heart has complex structure incessantly changeing with the follow of time. In conclusion, I argue that Hawthorne depends on uncertainty of reality rather than moral significance in that SL is open text in which his narrative forms resist closure.
박병주,이성임,이영조,김동현,권호장,배종면,신명희,하미나,한상환,Park,,Byung-Joo,Lee,,Sung-Im,Lee,,Young-Jo,Kim,,Dong-Hyun,Kwon,,Ho-Jang,Bae,,Jong-Myon,Shin,,Myung-Hee,Ha,,Mi-Na,Han,,Sang-Whan 대한예방의학회 1997 Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health Vol.30 No.4
To guarantee the inter-reviewer reliability is very important in evaluating the quality of large number of clinical research papers by multiple reviewers. We cannot find reports on statistical methods for evaluating reliability for multiple raters in clinical research field. The purpose of this paper is to introduce the statistical methods focused on kappa statistic and five kinds of loglinear models for, which can be applied when evaluating the reliability of multiple raters. We have applied these methods to the result of a project, in which seven reviewers have evaluated the quality of 33 papers with regard to four aspects of paper contents including study hypothesis, study design, study population, study method, data analysis and interpretation. Among the five loglinear models including Symmetry model, Conditional symmetry model, Quasi-symmetry model, Independence model, and Quasi-independence model, Quasi-symmetry model shows the best model of fitting. And the level of reliability among seven reviewers revealed to be acceptable as meaningful.