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Field experiment was conducted to find out the chemical characteristics of 12 Korean local varities, Local varities were compared with oriental, flue-cured and burley tobacco. Among tested varities, Hyangcho and Matskawa were desirable in respect of flavor, leaf color and texture. Hyangcho and Matskawa were higher in the content of nicotine and petroleum ether extract. Gajacho, Byeolcho and Kukjuo were higher in the content of reducing sugar, but lower nicotine, total nitrogen and petroleum ether extract. The nicotine and total nitrogen content of Kwangcho, Daruma and Catterton were lower than that of Br. 21. In the content of volatile organic acid which were major characteristic component of oriental tobacco, the Korean local varities were lower in the content of 3-methyl butanoic and 3-methyl pentanoic acid, but hirities, Hyangcho, Matskawa and Daruma were higher in the content of volatile organic acid. Korean local varities, especially small leaf group, were higher in the content of benzyl alcohol and furfural than any other type tobacco.
Field experiment was conducted to find out the cause of calcium deficiency of burley tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.), Liming materials and application rate were CaSO4 : Ca 35kg/10a, CaCO3 : 35kg/10a and agricultural lime : Ca 142kg/10a. The breakdown in tissues at tips and margins of upper leaves was developed at maximum growth stage. If complete breakdown and death does not occur and growth takes place later, giving the leaf a scalloped appearance. Upper leaves contained lower calcium content than other leaves. The stem and midvein of calcium deficient plants contained lower calcium and calcium minus oxalic acid, but higher oxalic acid contents than those of normal plant. Fresh leaves of limed plot contained higher calcium and oxalic acid, but not significant increment of calcium minus oxalic acid than those of unlimed plot. Since calcium oxalate is insoluble, it could precipitate within the culls if the calcium and oxalic acid are accessible to each other. It suggest that high level of oxalic acid in stem and midvein could be interfering with translocation of calcium to upper leaves.
This study was carried out to analyze chemical components in burley tobacco using near infrared spectroscopy(NIRS). Samples were collected in '96 and '97 crop year. Calibration equations were developed by modified partial least square. The standard error performance(SEP) of '96 crop year samples between NIRS and standard laboratory analysis were 0.25% for nicotine, 0.18% for total nitrogen, 0.59% for crude ash, 0.32% for ether extracts, and 0.14% for chlorine, respectively. The analytical results of '97 crop year samples were similar to those of '96 crop year samples. The analytical result of '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 calibration equation was more inaccurate than that of '96 crop year samples. The SEP of '96 or '97 crop year samples applying calibration equation derived from '96 plus '97 crop year samples was similar to that of '96 or '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 or '97 calibration equation, respectively. The SEP of '97 crop year samples analyzed by calibration equation derived from '96 plus '97 crop year samples was more accurate than that of '97 crop year samples analyzed by '96 calibration equation. To improve the analytical inaccuracy caused by the difference of crop year between calibration and prediction samples, we need to include the prediction sample spectra which were different from calibration sample spectra in recalibration sample spectra, and then develop recalibration equation. The NIRS can apply to analyze burley leaf tobacco, leaf process or tobacco manufacturing process which were required the rapid analytical result.
This experiment was conducted to reduce the cost of orient leaf using izmir, samsun and basma scraps in cigarettes manufacturing process. We manufactured rolled and paper sheet tobacco using orient scraps and substituted orient leaf in Pine tree to the rolled and paper sheet tobacco using orient scraps. Orient scraps were lower in total sugar, total sugar/nicotine and total nitrogen/nicotine, higher in nicotine and crude ash than those of orient leaves. Izmir and basma scraps were higher of 2-methyl butanoic, 3-methyl butanoic and 3-methyl pentanoic acid, but the chemical contents in samw scraps were lower than those of orient leaves. The specific gravity thickness, flness index, filling value were similar between orient scraps blended sheet tobacco and present sheet tobacco. The physical characteristics of orient scraps blended sheet tobacco were within Present sheet tobacco quality specification. The sheet tobacco using orient scraps was higher 2-metal butanoic, 3-methyl butanoic and 3-methyl pentanoic acid than those of present sheet tobacco. The rolled processed sheet tobacco using orient scraps was higher 2-methyl butanoic, 3-methyl butanoic and 3-methyl Pentanoic acid than those of paper sheet tobacco using orient scraps. The sample cigarettes using orient scraps sheet tobacco were lower 2-methyl butanoic, 3-mettwl butanoic and 3-mettwl Pentanoic acid than those of control cigarettes. The result of sensory test showed no great difference compared with sample of orient scraps and control cigarettes. This result shows that we can possible to substitute orient leaf to orient scraps to reduce the cost of orient leaf.
Pot experiment was conducted to find out the effect of lime application on yield and chemical composition of burley tobacco in 1986, Lime increased exchangeable calcium and pH of soil, but decreased Al, Fe and Mn concentrations. Yield was increased by lime application, however lime could not be caused to yield increasing in the soil with high calcium contents. Cored leaves of limed Plot contained higher Mg. K, total nitrogen, NO3-nitrogen, water soluble and insoluble ash, alkalinity number of water soluble and insoluble ash, citric and malic acid, but lower Fe, Mn, protein-nitrogen, NH3-nitrogen, nicotine petroleum ether extract, palmitic and linolenic acid concentrations than those of unlined plot. The linoleic acid and volatile neutral constituents of cured leaves were not affected by liming. Lime increased yield, however it did not affect leaf duality in respect to chemical characteristics, suggesting that liming should be necessary for tobacco cultivation.
서양등골나물의 잎 추출액을 미국자리공을 비롯한 5종의 식물에 처리하여 종자발아와 유식물생장을 조사하였고, total phenolic compounds와 중금속 이온을 서양등골나물의 분포에 따라 잎과 토양에서 분석하였다. 서양등골나물의 잎 추출액에 의한 미국자리공의 초기생장은 10%와 25%농도에서 촉진되었고, 토양 추출액의 total phenolic compounds는 잎 추출액의 total phenolic compound 보다 낮았다. 토양의 total phenolic compounds는 대조구와 10%, 25% 농도로 처리된 토양에서 유의한 차이가 없었으며 자연상태에서 잎 추출액 25%가 threshold 농도임을 확인하였다. 서양등골나물의 total phenolic compounds는 신갈나무림 임상에서 1.66 mg/1, 임연에서는 1.09 mg/l로 조사되었으므로 상부식생에 따른 total phenolic compounds는 유의한 차이를 보였으나, 각 토양에서는 상부식생에 따라 total phenolic compounds간에 유의한 차이를 보이지 않았다. 서양등골나 물의 잎 추출액 처리시 애기수영과 강아지풀의 발아율은 50% 이상의 농도에서 현저히 억제되었으나, 차풀의 발아율은 추출액의 농도에 따라 차이가 없었다. 유묘와 유근생장은 귀화종 그룹보다 자생종 그룹이 2배 이상 억제되었으며, 특히 서양등골나물의 추출액 농도 10%와 25%가 처리된 서양등골나물의 종자발아와 건중량은 대조구보다 촉진되었다. 서양등골나물의 phenolic compounds를 HPLC로 분석한 결과 caffeic acid (460.9 mg/1), benzoic acid (109.7 mg/l), protocatechuic acid (7.3 mg/l), ρ-hydroquinone (6.0 mg/l), cinnamic acid (2.7 mg/l), hydroquinone (0.23 mg/1) 순으로 분석되었다. 분석된 서양등골나물의 phenolic compounds 각각에 대한 미국자리공의 발아율은 caffeic acid (460.9 mg/l)치 농도가 높을지라도 이것이 낮은 cinnamic acid와 protocatechuic acid에서 현저한 억제현상을 보였다. 서양등골나물 임상의 토양보다 서양등골나물이 분포하지 않는 토양의 중금속 함량이 전반적으로 높았다. 특히 Al, Fe 및 Mn의 함량이 높았으며 이들 중금속은 total phenolic compound 함량이 높은 잎에 대부분이 축적되었다. Seed germination rate and seedling growth were measured on 6 different species(Phytolacca americana, Eupatorium rugosum, Rumex acetocella, Echinochloa crusgalli, Cassia mimosoides var. nomame, Setaria viridis) treated with leaf extract of E. rugosum. Total phenolic compound and heavy metal were analyzed on leaf and soil with and without E. rugosum. The growth of P. americana seedlings were stimulated by 10% and 25% of E. rugosum water extract treatment. The content of total phenolic compounds in soil was lower than that of leaf extract, and 25% was confirmed as threshold concentration in natural systems because the total phenolic compounds were not significantly different between the control soils and the soil treated with 10%, and 25% extract. Total phenolic compound concentrations of the leaf extracts were highest (1.66 mg/l) with E. rugosum grown under the Quercus forest canopy and lowest (1.09 mg/l) for the plant grown in the mixed forest edge. Leaf extracts of plants selected in different sampling sites (Forest interior, Forest edge, under Pinus Canopy and Quercus Canopy) were significant, while soil extracts were not. Seed germination of R. acetocella and S. viridis were significantly inhibited at over 50% concentrations of E. rugosum, but C. mimosoides var. nomame was not affected at any concentration. The radicle and shoot growth of the native species group were reduced two times more than those of the exotic species group by the treatment of extracts. Especially, the seed germination percentage and dry weight of E. rugosum were greater than those of the control group by treatments with extracts of 10% and 25%. Analysis of aqueous extracts from E. rugosum by HPLC identified 6 phenolic compounds: caffeic acid (460.9 mg/l), benzoic acid (109.7 mg/l), protocatechuic acid (7.3 mg/l), ρ-hydroquinone (6.0 mg/l), cinnamic acid (2.7 mg/l) and hydroquinone (0.23 mg/l). The seed germination of P. americana was also inhibited dramatically by protocatechuic acid and cinnamic acid even though the content of caffeic acid (460.9 mg/l) was the highest among analyzed phenolic compounds. The heavy metal content of soil without A. altissima was higher than that of soil with E. rugosum. Particularly, Al, Fe and Mn was considerably high and most of the heavy metal were accumulated in leaves where a high level of total phenolic compounds was found.