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수학 학업성취도에 영향을 미치는 요인은 매우 다양하며, 요인들은 끊임없이 변화하면서 수학 학업성취도에 복합적인 영향을 미치기 때문에 그 성장을 예측하고 분석할 수 있는 종단연구가 필요하다. 본 연구는 서울교육종단연구의 2014년도(중학교 2학년)부터 2017년(고등학교 2학년)까지의 학생에 대한 종단자료를 활용하여 수학 학업성취도의 다양한 종단적인 변화양상과 수학수업(태도, 분위기, 만족도)이 수학 학업성취도에 미치는 직접적인 영향력에 대해 연구한 김용석(2020b)의 후속연구로서 수학 학업성취도의 종단적인 변화양상이 유사한 그룹에 대해 그룹별 수학수업 분위기, 만족도의 종단적인 변화가 수학 학업성취도의 종단적인변화에 미치는 직⋅간접적인 영향력과 그 경로를 살펴보았다. 연구결과 1그룹(1456명, 68.3%)과 2그룹(677명, 31.7%) 학생들의 수학 학업성취도에 직접적인 영향을 미치는 수학수업 태도는 수학수업 분위기와 만족도에 직접적인 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났으며, 수학수업 분위기와 만족도는 수학수업 태도를 매개로하여 수학 학업성취도에 간접적인 영향을 미치는 나타났다. 그리고 수학수업 분위기와 만족도가 수학수업 태도와 학업성취도에 미치는 직⋅간접적인 영향력과 그 경로는 그룹에 따라서 다르게 나타났다. There are many factors that influence mathematics academic achievement. And since the factors constantly change and have a complex effect on mathematics academic achievement, longitudinal studies to predict and analyze their growth are needed. This study used longitudinal data on students from 2014 (2nd year of middle school) to 2017 (2nd year of high school) of the Seoul Education Longitudibal Study. In addition, this is a follow-up study by Kim(2020b), who studied various longitudinal changes in mathematics academic achievement and the direct influence of mathematics classes on mathematics achievement. For groups with similar longitudinal changes in mathematics academic achievement, the direct and indirect influences and paths of longitudinal changes in mathematics class atmosphere and satisfaction for each group were examined. As a result of the study, it was found that the attitude of mathematics class that directly affects the academic achievement of mathematics students in group 1 (1456, 68.3%) and group 2 (677, 31.7%) is directly affected by the mood and satisfaction of mathematics class. Mathematics class atmosphere and satisfaction were found to have an indirect influence on mathematics academic achievement through the attitude of mathematics class. In addition, the direct and indirect influences of the mood and satisfaction of mathematics class on mathematics class attitudes and academic achievement, and their paths, were different depending on the group.
Purpose: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a crucial role in the growth of malignant tumors. EGFR and human EGFR 2 (HER2) protein overexpression are associated with an unfavorable prognosis and are important therapeutic targets in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between EGFR and HER2 expression and clinicopathological factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) at a single institution. Methods: A total of 129 consecutive patients with PTC were enrolled in this study and underwent thyroid surgery between October 2013 and February 2015. EGFR and HER2 protein expression was evaluated in the 129 primary tumors by immunohistochemistry, and the results were compared with the clinicopathological features. Results: Of the 129 PTC tumors, 20 (15.5%) were HER2 positive, and 109 (84.5%) were HER2 negative. Moreover, EGFR positivity were observed in 111 (86%) tumors. The mean age of the patients was 46.3±11.9 years (range, 20–74 years), and the mean tumor size was 1.08±0.75 cm (range, 0.2–3.5 cm). Tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, histological subtype, and TNM stage were not significantly associated with EGFR or HER2 expression. Meanwhile, high Ki-67 labeling index was significantly associated with EGFR expression (P=0.002), HER2 expression was significantly associated with younger age (≤45 years) and cervical lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Based on our data, it is not clear whether EGFR and HER2 expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness in PTC.
Kimchi is a representative traditional fod in Korea and a type of vegetable product that is theunique complex lactic acid fermentation in the world. It can be considered as a unique fermented food generated byvarious flavors, which are not included in raw materials, that can be generated by mixing and fermenting variousspices and seasonings, such as red pepper powder, garlic, ginger, and salted fish, added to Chinese cabbages. Func-tionalities in Kimchi have been approved through several studies and the probiotic function that is mainly based onlactic acid bacteria including their physical functions in its contents has also verified. Studies on the verification of thesafety of Kimchi including its physiological functions have ben conducted. In particular, the function of lactic acidbacteria, which is a caused of the fermentation of Kimchi. Although the lactic acid bacteria contributed to the fermen-tation of Kimchi is generated from raw and sub-materials, the lactic acid bacteria attached on Chinese cabages has amajor role in the process in which the fermentation temperature and dominant bacteria are also related to the process.the fermentation process of Kimchi and of other bacteria except for such lactic acid bacteria due to the lactic acid andseveral antimicrobial substances generated in the fermentation process, such as bacteriocin and hydrogen peroxide. Inaddition, the carbon dioxide gas caused by heterolactic acid bacteria contributes to the inhibition of aerobic bacteria.Furthermore, special ingredients included in sub-materials, such as garlic, ginger, and red pepper powder, contributeto the inhibition of putrefactive and food poisoning bacteria. The induction of the change in the intestinal bacteria astaking Kimchi have already verified. In conclusion, Kimchi has been approved as a safety fod due to the fact that theKimchi and the extinction of such bacteria.
Active involvement of anesthesiologists in perioperative management is important to ensure the patients’ safety. This study aimed to investigate the state of anesthetic services in Korea by identifying anesthetic service providers. From the insurance claims data of National Health Insurance for 3 yr, the Korean state of anesthetic services was analyzed. The claims for anesthesia from the medical institutions which hire their own anesthesiologist or with an anesthesiologist invitation fee are assumed to be the anesthesia performed by anesthesiologists. The annual anesthetic data were similar during the study period. In 2013, total counts of 2,129,871 were composed with general anesthesia (55%), regional anesthesia (36%) and procedural sedation with intravenous anesthetics (9%). About 80% of total cases of general anesthesia were performed in general hospitals, while more than 60% of the regional anesthesia and sedation were performed in the clinics and hospitals under 100 beds. Non-anesthesiologists performed 273,006 cases of anesthesia (13% of total) including 36,008 of general anesthesia, 143,134 of regional anesthesia, and 93,864 of sedation, mainly in the clinics and hospitals under 100 beds. All procedural sedations in the institutions without direct employed anesthesiologist were performed by non-anesthesiologists. Significant numbers of anesthesia are performed by nonanesthesiologist in Korea. To promote anesthetic services that prioritize the safety of patients, the standard to qualify anesthetic service is required. Surgeons and patients need to enhance their perception of anesthesia, and the payment system should be revised in a way that advocates anesthesiologist-performed anesthetic services.