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수학 학업성취도에 영향을 미치는 요인은 매우 다양하며, 요인들은 끊임없이 변화하면서 수학 학업성취도에 복합적인 영향을 미치기 때문에 그 성장을 예측하고 분석할 수 있는 종단연구가 필요하다. 본 연구는 서울교육종단연구의 2014년도(중학교 2학년)부터 2017년(고등학교 2학년)까지의 학생에 대한 종단자료를 활용하여 수학 학업성취도의 다양한 종단적인 변화양상과 수학수업(태도, 분위기, 만족도)이 수학 학업성취도에 미치는 직접적인 영향력에 대해 연구한 김용석(2020b)의 후속연구로서 수학 학업성취도의 종단적인 변화양상이 유사한 그룹에 대해 그룹별 수학수업 분위기, 만족도의 종단적인 변화가 수학 학업성취도의 종단적인변화에 미치는 직⋅간접적인 영향력과 그 경로를 살펴보았다. 연구결과 1그룹(1456명, 68.3%)과 2그룹(677명, 31.7%) 학생들의 수학 학업성취도에 직접적인 영향을 미치는 수학수업 태도는 수학수업 분위기와 만족도에 직접적인 영향을 받는 것으로 나타났으며, 수학수업 분위기와 만족도는 수학수업 태도를 매개로하여 수학 학업성취도에 간접적인 영향을 미치는 나타났다. 그리고 수학수업 분위기와 만족도가 수학수업 태도와 학업성취도에 미치는 직⋅간접적인 영향력과 그 경로는 그룹에 따라서 다르게 나타났다. There are many factors that influence mathematics academic achievement. And since the factors constantly change and have a complex effect on mathematics academic achievement, longitudinal studies to predict and analyze their growth are needed. This study used longitudinal data on students from 2014 (2nd year of middle school) to 2017 (2nd year of high school) of the Seoul Education Longitudibal Study. In addition, this is a follow-up study by Kim(2020b), who studied various longitudinal changes in mathematics academic achievement and the direct influence of mathematics classes on mathematics achievement. For groups with similar longitudinal changes in mathematics academic achievement, the direct and indirect influences and paths of longitudinal changes in mathematics class atmosphere and satisfaction for each group were examined. As a result of the study, it was found that the attitude of mathematics class that directly affects the academic achievement of mathematics students in group 1 (1456, 68.3%) and group 2 (677, 31.7%) is directly affected by the mood and satisfaction of mathematics class. Mathematics class atmosphere and satisfaction were found to have an indirect influence on mathematics academic achievement through the attitude of mathematics class. In addition, the direct and indirect influences of the mood and satisfaction of mathematics class on mathematics class attitudes and academic achievement, and their paths, were different depending on the group.
Purpose: The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family plays a crucial role in the growth of malignant tumors. EGFR and human EGFR 2 (HER2) protein overexpression are associated with an unfavorable prognosis and are important therapeutic targets in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between EGFR and HER2 expression and clinicopathological factors in papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) at a single institution. Methods: A total of 129 consecutive patients with PTC were enrolled in this study and underwent thyroid surgery between October 2013 and February 2015. EGFR and HER2 protein expression was evaluated in the 129 primary tumors by immunohistochemistry, and the results were compared with the clinicopathological features. Results: Of the 129 PTC tumors, 20 (15.5%) were HER2 positive, and 109 (84.5%) were HER2 negative. Moreover, EGFR positivity were observed in 111 (86%) tumors. The mean age of the patients was 46.3±11.9 years (range, 20–74 years), and the mean tumor size was 1.08±0.75 cm (range, 0.2–3.5 cm). Tumor size, extrathyroidal extension, histological subtype, and TNM stage were not significantly associated with EGFR or HER2 expression. Meanwhile, high Ki-67 labeling index was significantly associated with EGFR expression (P=0.002), HER2 expression was significantly associated with younger age (≤45 years) and cervical lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Based on our data, it is not clear whether EGFR and HER2 expression is associated with tumor aggressiveness in PTC.
이 논문에서는 뒷채움이 부실한 묻힌기초 위에 세워진 건축물의 지반증폭계수에 대한 기초묻힘으로 인한 저감계수를 산정하기 위한 연구를 비선형 의사 3D 수평지진해석이 가능한 P3DASS 유한요소 프로그램으로 수행하였다. 지반은 30m 두께로 균질하고탄성과 점성이 있는 등방성 지반으로 단단한 암반 위에 놓인 것으로 가정하였고, 기초는 반경이 10-70m인 등가원형 강체기초로 기초묻힘은 0, 10, 20, 30m인 경우를 고려하였다. 지진해석은 노두에서 실측한 7개 지진기록의 유효지진가속도를 0.1g로 조정한 후 연약지반밑 암반에서의 지진기록을 생성하여 수행하였다. 연구 결과에 의하면, 매우 연약한 지반에 깊게 묻힌 뒷채움이 부실한 소형기초인 경우를제외하고는 지반증폭계수가 기초묻힘비가 깊어 질수록 점진적으로 감소하고 기초크기에 따른 편차는 크지 않은 것으로 평가되었다. 따라서 뒷채움이 부실한 묻힌기초의 지반증폭계수를 설계기준에 주어진 지표면기초의 지반증폭계수에 곱해서 구할 수 있는 표준저감계수를전단파속도와 지반종류에 따라 제안하였다. 이 표준저감계수는 지반의 평균전단파속도에 따라 보간하여 사용할 수도 있다. In this paper, the reduction factors to calculate the site coefficients of an embedded foundation are estimated, considering the effect of a poor backfill for the seismic design of a building built on an embedded foundation. This is determined by utilizing in-house finite element software, P3DASS, which has the capability of horizontal pseudo 3D seismic analysis with nonlinear soil. The 30m thick soil on stiff rock was assumed to be homogeneous, elastic, viscous and isotropic, and equivalent circular rigid foundations with radii of 10-70m were assumed to be embedded 0, 10, 20, and 30 m in the soil. Seismic analyses were performed with 7 bedrock earthquake records de-convoluted from the outcrop records; the scaling of the peak ground accelerations were to 0.1 g. The study results show that the site coefficients of a poor-backfilled foundation are gradually reduced as the foundation embedment ratio increases, except in the case of a small foundation embedded deeply in the weak soft soil. In addition, it was found that the deviation of the site coefficients due to the foundation size was not significant. Therefore, the typical reduction factors of an embedded foundation with poor backfill are proposed in terms of the shear wave velocity and site class. This is in order to find the site coefficients of an embedded foundation by multiplying the reduction factor by a site coefficient of a surface foundation specified in the design code. They can then be interpolated to determine the intermediate shear wave velocity.
목적: To evaluate whether is hemostasis by hemostatic sealant superior to that achieved by bipolar coagulation in preserving ovarian reserve in patients undergoing laparoscopic ovarian cystectomy. 방법: Participants were randomized to undergo hemostasis by use of either hemostatic sealant (FloSeal and Tachosil) or bipolar coagulation during laparoendoscopic single-site (LESS) ovarian cystectomy. Of the total 100 patients were participated in the study. 50 patients were in bipolar coagulation group and 50 patients were in hemostatic sealant (27 in FloSeal and 23 in Tachosil) group. The primary end point was the rate of decline of ovarian reserve calculated by measuring serum AMH level preoperatively and three months postoperatively. The outcome measure was the rate of decline in AMH level from before surgery to three months post-surgery : decline rate (%) = 100 × [preoperative AMH level - postoperative AMH level]/preoperative AMH level. 결과: Age, parity, preoperative AMH level, and histologic findings were similar between the two groups of patients. There were also no differences of AMH decline rate between the FloSeal and Tachosil group. In both(bipolar and hemosealant) groups, postoperative AMH levels were lower than preoperative AMH levels (all p<0.001). The rate of decline of AMH levels was significantly greater in the bipolar coagulation group than the hemostatic sealant group (median value, 41.7% [IQR, 17.0-55.8%] and 16.5% [IQR, 9.7-42.3%], respectively, p=0.008). 결론: Postoperative ovarian reserve by determining serial serum anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) level was significantly less diminished after ovarian hemostasis when hemostatic sealant was used rather than bipolar coagulation.