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Fe-based amorphous coatings were fabricated on a soda-lime glass substrate by the vacuum kinetic spray method. The effect of the gas flow rate, which determines particle velocity, on the deposition behavior of the particle and microstructure of the resultant films was investigated. The as-fabricated microstructure of the film was studied by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM). Although the activation energy for transformation from the amorphous phase to crystalline phase was lowered by severe plastic deformation and particle fracturing under a high strain rate, the crystalline phases could not be found in the coating layer. Incompletely fractured and small fragments 100~300 nm in size, which are smaller than initial feedstock material, were found on the coating surface and inside of the coating. Also, some pores and voids occurred between particle-particle interfaces. In the case of brittle Fe-based amorphous alloy, particles fail in fragmentation fracture mode through initiation and propagation of the numerous small cracks rather than shear fracture mode under compressive stress. It could be deduced that amorphous alloy underwent particle fracturing in a vacuum kinetic spray process. Also, it is considered that surface energy caused by the formation of new surfaces and friction energy contributed to the bonding of fragments.
Vacuum kinetic spray(VKS) is a relatively advanced process for fabricating thin/thick and dense ceramic coatings via submicron-sized particle impact at room temperature. However, unfortunately, the particle velocity, which is an important value for investigating the deposition mechanism, has not been clarified yet. Thus, in this research, VKS average particle velocities were derived by numerical analysis method(CFD: computational fluid dynamics) connected with an experimental approach(SCM: slit cell method). When the process gas or powder particles are accelerated by a compressive force generated by gas pressure in kinetic spraying, a tensile force generated by the vacuum in the VKS system accelerates the process gas. As a result, the gas is able to reach supersonic speed even though only 0.6MPa gas pressure is used in VKS. In addition, small size powders can be accelerated up to supersonic velocity by means of the drag-force of the low pressure process gas flow. Furthermore, in this process, the increase of gas flow makes the drag-force stronger and gas distribution more homogenized in the pipe, by which the total particle average velocity becomes higher and the difference between max. and min. particle velocity decreases. Consequently, the control of particle size and gas flow rate are important factors in making the velocity of particles high enough for successful deposition in the VKS system.