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The delignification, and optical and strength properties were determined to compare the ozone treatment effect in hardwood and softwood CTMPs. During ozone treatment, the delignificantion was much higher in hardwood pulp than in softwood pulp . The optical and strength properties which were very dependent upon the lignin content in pulp were significantly improved in the case of hardwood pulp . The ozone treatment of high yield pulp was more effective in hardwood pulp than that of softwood pulp.
To investigate fiber orientation of Korean traditional paper, Hanji, the fiber arrangements on the surface and cross section of Hanji were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The surface observation showed that the fibers of traditional paper were arranged in vertical and horizontal directions, and those of ssangbal sheet forming were arranged more in vertical direction. The fibers of machine made Hanji and copying paper were usually arranged in vertical direction. As for the observation of cross section of traditional paper, fibers arranged in horizontal direction tended to be increased with the increase of thicknesses. The thick traditional paper have cracks in the middle part of structural section of paper. They were larger in cross section in horizontal direction than in vertical direction. The horizontal arrangement of traditional paper seemed to be about 8% to 14% higher to the vertical arrangement, which is very lower to other papers.
To investigate natural dyeing properties of bast fiber, properties of pre mordanting dyeing of sappan wood, gardenia and gallnut such as K/S values, developed color, and fastness were evaluated. Silk showed the most increased K/S values by pre mordanting treatment when Fe was uses as a mordant. The optimized amount of Fe was 3%. The colors of sappan wood was a series of YR. After pre mordanting treatment with Fe, the colors of bast fiber of mulberry and silk showed a series of RP, and the color of cotton showed a series of Y. The color of gallnut was a series of Y regardless of pre mordant treatment. Sappon wood (YR), gardenia (Y), and gallnut (Y) showed various colors such as YR, R, and RP, respectively. Sunlight fastness was not improved by pre mordanting treatment. The effect of pre mordanting treatment was not good. Especially the treatment with Al showed poor sunlight fastness.
This research was performed to investigate the quality of leaflets provided with newspapers. The leaflets were classified according to business types and regions. The physical and strength properties were analyzed. The sizes of leaflets were 2, 4, 8 jeoljis of crown octavo, A3, A4, A5, and B3, B4, B5. Most of them were color printed and both-sides printing was much more popular than one-side printing. The leaflets about electronics, educations, and clothing showed lower density than restaurant business and other areas. The leaflets of electronics, educations, and clothing, and large stores showed lower tensile strength, and those of restaurant businesses and building trades showed relatively high tensile strengths. No differences on the quality of leaflets except for large stores were found according to business areas. Large markets made the leaflets with various types of papers, and low quality papers were also included.