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Polygala tenuifolia (PT) is one of the most well-known traditional herbal medicines in Korea which is commonly used for the treatment of cardiovascular symptoms. The anti-ischemic effects of PT in isolated rat heart was investigated by analyzing changes in blood pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output. And, its underlying mechanism was examined by quantitating intracellular calcium content in rat neonatal cardiomyocytes. Rats were divided into two groups: an ischemia-induced group without any treatment, and an ischemia-induced group treated with PT. Ischemia of isolated heart was induced by stopping the supply of oxygen and buffer for 10 min. The isolated heart was exposed to PT for the first 5 min of 10 min ischemia. PT treatment significantly prevented the decreases of perfusion pressure, aortic flow, coronary flow, and cardiac output under ischemic conditions. In addition, hemodynamics (except heart rate) of the PT-treated group was significantly recovered 60 min after reperfusion compared to the control group (systolic aortic pressure: 83.3% vs. 64.9%, aortic flow volume: 69.5% vs. 48.7%, coronary flow volume: 77.7% vs. 58.4%, and cardiac output: 71.6% vs. 51.2%, p<0.01). As for the underlying mechanism, PT significantly prevented intracellular calcium increase which was induced by isoproterenol (p<0.01), suggesting that the anti-ischemic effect of PT is mediated by inhibition of intracellular calcium increase.