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A study was conducted by the author in September 1968 towards the infants and young children in some underprivileged rural villages of Korea by employing such methods as clinical assessment, nutritional biometry, and biochemical tests, in an attempt to evaluate their nutritional status with possible reference to protein calorie malnutrition (PCM). The infants and young children examined totaled 232 of whom 111 were boys and 121 were girls. The results are as follows: Ⅰ. Clinical Assessment The prevalence rates of the signs suggestive of PCM turned out to be as below : 1) Cases with dyspigmented hair were observed with 4.5% of the 45 infants examined. and 18.8% of the 187 young children examined. Cases with thin and sparse hair were seen with 22.8% of the infants, 14.0% of the young children, and l5.2% of both the infants and young children. 2) Prevalence of the pale conjunctiva rated 28.6% of the infants. 32.3% of the young children, and 30.4% of both the infants and young children. 3) Keratomalacia cases were found in 0.5% of the young children only and they corresponded, in turn, to 0.4% of the whole examined. 4) Cases with angulostomatitis rated 14.0% of the young children only, who constituted 10.0% of the total examined. 5) Those with moon-face were observed only with 2.3% of the infants, rating 0.4% of the total. 6) Cases with flaky-paint dermatosis were observed with 2.3% of the infants, 0.5% of the young children, and 0.9% of both the infants and young children. 7) Those who were found to have such skin lesions as fissure of the ear lobe, tender sores, or moist groin rash rated 15.9% of the infants, 20.4% of the young children, and 19.6% of both the infants and children. 8) Rate of those with muscles wasted was 11.4% of the infants, 25.8% of the young children, and 23.0% of both the infants and young children. 9) Those with edema were observed only with 0.5% of the young children. rating 0.4% of the total. 10) Psychomotor changes (apathetic, miserable, inert, withdrawn, or anorexic) rated 7.0% of the young children only, and 5.7% of the whole examined. 11) Prevalence rate of diarrhea precipitating dehydration and such other conditioning infections as thrush was found to be 20.5% of the infants, 7.5% of the young children, and 10.0% of both the infants and young children. 12) The results of clinical assessment led the author to the following findings: (1) Those corresponding to 29.1% of the whole examined had one or two combined signs suggestive of PCM. (2) Those with three or more signs combined rated 1.3% of the total children examined. (3) No clinically obvious kwashiorkor was found, but each of the component signs which, in constant combination, characterize it (edema, muscle-wasting, and psychomotor changes) was separately observed mainly with the young children as presented in table 2. (4) Those who impressed the author with clinically obvious nutritional marasmus were 6.7% of the infants, 3.2% of the young children, and 3.9% of both the infants and young children. Ⅱ. Nutritional Biometry 1) The mean heights. weights, chest circumference, and head circumference obtained were as shown in table 3. 2) The mean triceps skin-fold thickness, upper mid-arm-circumference. and upper-mid-arm-muscle circumference were as presented in table 4. 3) Distribution of the heights by four levels of 10% intervals indicated underweights in the light of Korean general standard, as shown in table 10. 4) Distribution of the weights contrasted likewise with the Korean general standard were as shown in table 11. 5) The underweights demonstrated by cases of mild-moderate PCM computed at four levels of 10% intervals as against the Korean general standard, rated 42.2% of the infants, 42.8% of the young children, and 42.7% of both the infants and young children. by the criteria Dr. Jelliffe suggested ??. The severe PCM cases were comprised 31.1% of the infants, 7.5% of the young children. and 12.1% of both groups of them. In the light of the above rates, more than a half of the children examined were found to be affected with PCM ascribable to deficiency of both the protein and calorie. 6) The cases with "Chest circumference/Head circumference Ratio being below 1 after the first 6 months of life" suggestive of the wasting of pectoral muscles which is attributable to PCM corresponded to 57.1% of the infants, 25.1% of the young children, and 29.3% of both the infants and young children as shown in table 13. Ⅲ. Biochemical Tests 1) Hemoglobin levels were found to be anemic (level less than 10.8gm%) with 13.8% of the 80 children examined as presented in table 5. 2) Serum total protein and serum albumin levels were as shown in tables 6 and 7, respectively. The serum albumin levels turned out to be normal with 75.9%, and "low"(2.80gm%∼3.51gm%) with 24.1% of the examined. No deficiency level (less than 2.80gm%) was found among the 29 children. 3) Serum iron content and total serum iron-bindin capacity (TIBC) were as shown in table 8. The deficiency levels of serum iron content less than 50 microgram % comprised 33.3% of the 21 children examined. Those corresponding to 25% and 75% of the 16 children examined had values of TIBC within normal range (300 microgram %∼400 microgram %) and values below the normal range (less than 300 microgram %), respectively, and no case exceeded over the range of normality inspite of the low serum iron content, suggesting the possible ascription to chronic protein deficiency ??. 4) "Urinary Urea-nitrogen / Creatinie-nitrogen excretion Ratios" regarded as an approximte index of dietary adequacy related to muscle storage of protein were obtained as presented in table 9. The cases with the ratios "30 or less" (an indication of malnutrition related to dietary adequacy of protein) rated 58.8% of the 34 children examined.
본 연구는 지금까지 가설로만 제기되었던 김수영 문학과 월트 휘트먼 문학의 관계를 밝혀내는 것을 목표로 한다. 몇 가지 신빙성 있는 단서들에도 불구하고 아직까지 이 주제에 대해 구체적인 접근시도가 없었던 이유는 양 시인의 작품 세계가 선명히 다르기 때문이다. 휘트먼은 풍요로운 미국의 자연풍경을 찬미하고, 시민들을 향해 사랑과 자유를 노래한 외향적인 시인인 반면, 김수영은 설움과 고독을 주된 정조로 주로 자신의 일상을 정직하게 반성하는 시를 주로 쓴 것으로 판단된다. 하지만 김수영이 초기부터 일관되게 주장하며 실천해온 `자유`나 `육체성`에 대한 강조, 보편세계를 지향하는 `사랑`이라는 주제의식에서는 휘트먼의 영향이 분명히 감지된다. 증언에 의하면 김수영은 그가 읽은 독서목록의 작가들을 최대한 자신의 방식으로 소화하려고 노력한 작가이다. 때문에 김수영은 휘트먼적 주제를 자신의 시대와 상황에 맞게 변용하여 소화했다고 볼 수가 있다. 본고는 김수영 문학에 휘트먼 문학을 겹쳐 읽어봄으로써 김수영 문학에 휘트먼이 끼친 영향과 그 변용양상을 살펴본다. 이를 위해 본고는 통상 휘트먼 문학의 특징이라고 정리된 몇 가지 주제를 통해 김수영 문학을 읽어본다. 첫째, 1인칭 화자강조-성인페르소나의 설정문제와 육체성의 강조문제를 통해 김수영 문학에 끼쳤을 월트 휘트먼의 영향력을 추리해보았다. 물론 각각의 쟁점들은 `너무 헐렁한 양복`이어서 누구나 맞춰 입을 수 있다는 단점을 보였다고 본다. 하지만 1인칭 화자강조-성인페르소나와 육체성의 강조문제는 월트 휘트먼 고유의 개성으로 이 두 요소가 김수영 문학에 동시에 나타나고 있다는 것이 주목할 만하다. 둘째, 분명한 차이점과 유사점을 발견하는 작업을 시도하였다. 주로 자연찬미나 이웃에 대한 사랑을 능동적으로 표현하는 월트 휘트먼에 비해 김수영은 고독이나 설움 같은 현대적인 주제에 열중한 면이 있었다. 반면, `사랑`이라는 주제가 수평적인 이미 저리로 펼쳐지는 양상에서는 양자 간 유사성이 드러났다고 할 수 있다. 카탈로그 식 열거는 월트 휘트먼 고유의 양식이라 할 수 있는데, 이는 단순히 리듬이나 수사적 효과를 위해 도입된 것이 아닌 `사랑`이라는 내용이 형식적으로 구현된 것으로 평가된다. 김수영의 경우도 「사랑의 변주곡」이나 「풀의 영상」, 「거대한 뿌리」 등의 비교적 후기의 걸작들이 이와 비슷한 수법과 주제의식을 보여주고 있다. 본 연구는 양자 간 관계를 실증적으로 추적하지 못했다. 그러나 위와 같은 결론을 통해 김수영이 월트 휘트먼적이라고 평가하는 데에는 모자람이 없다고 주장한다. This paper aims to find out the relationship between Kim Su-young and Walt Whitman on literature, which has been strongly hypothesized. Despite of some reliable clues, there have been no specific attempts to make this clear because their works seem to be different distinctly each other. As Whitman was an extroverted poet who glorified rich scenery of nature in America and sang love and freedom, Kim Su-young wrote poems which reflected everyday honestly, filled with sorrow and solitude. Kim Su-young, however, had constantly empathized and practiced `freedom` and `corporeity` from earlier works and an inquiry into the universality of `love`, which exactly showed an influence of Whitman to him. Some evidences show that Kim Su-young sought to absorb the authors he read. And Whitman was also possibly absorbed into Kim Su-young`s works, modified with the times and conditions in his unique way. This paper plans to examine influence of Whitman and modified aspect to Kim Su-young`s works as read works of Kim Su-young and Walt Whitman together. For that, this paper reads Kim Su-young through Whitman`s thought. Firstly, I payed attention to emphasis on establishment of the first person narrative-that is a saint persona and on corporeity. Each point seems like "loose clothing" so it looks like every answers possible though, it is worth underlying both first person narrative(a saint persona) and corporeity which were the unique aspect of Whitman present in Kim Su-young`s work at the same time. Secondly, I attempt to reveal apparent similarity and distinction. Comparing with Walt Whitman`s work which mainly expressed admiration to the nature and love-thy-neighbour actively, Kim Su-young`s works focused on the modern problems like solitude and sorrow. However, the way of expressing `love`, which is the main theme and is presented horizontal imagery, is apparently similar to each other. Catalog technic is a unique style of Whitman, and it is not simply for a rhythm or rhetorical effect but for an embodiment of `love`. In case of Kim Su-young`s late works, `Sarang-eh Byen-ju-gok`(Love Variation), `Pul-eh Young-sang` (Image of Grass), `Geo-dae-han Puri`(Great root), also show an identical technic and theme. This paper has limitations to look deeper the influential relationship between Kim Su-young and Walt Whitman empirically. But the influential relationship from Whitman to Kim Su-young would come up in the conclusion.
The purpose of this study is to examine the actual condition of the literature education of young children in Gyeong Sang Nam Do, The specific problems of this study are as follows : 1. What is the goal of young childrens's literature education? 2. What is the criteria for the selection of young children's literature books? 3. What is trends of use and interest for media of young children's literature? 1) What is trends of use and interest for fairy tales and creative tales? 2) What is trends of use and interest for picture-tales? 3) What is trends of use and interest for kinds of puppets? 4) Have you ever taken a chance of a puppet-show? 5) Have you ever taken a chance of children's drama? 6) Have you ever used the children's verse in a classroom? 4. How many books of young children's literature do they stock in kindergarten and what is the teacher s viewpoint for these? 5. How is YES or NO of the teacher s experience for a creative activity of young children's literature? 6. For fairy tales : 1) What is the title of fairy tale most used in kindergarten? 2) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-boys are most interested in? 3) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-girls are most interested in? 4) What is the title of fairy tale which kindergarten-teachers are most interested in? 7. What do you want in the class allocated for young children's literature in college? 8. What is the problem in young cildren's literature education? For this study 27 nursery schools, 20 kindergarten attached to elementary schools and 78 private kindergarten in Kyeong Sang Nam Do were randomly sampled. The total subject of the study were 125 teachers. The instrument used for this study was a questionnaire. It was distributed to the teachers and filled out by them. Chi-square was used to analyze by the data obtained from the questionnaire. The results of this study are as follows : 1. For the goal of young children's literature education : 'to be helped creative and expressive activities to literature in various ways' was regarded to be the most important in general. 2. For the criteria for selection of young children's literature books ; 'the contents related a unit was regarded to be the most important in general. 3. For the trends of use interest fot the media of young children s literature ; 'picture-tale' and 'picture-books' are the descending order responded. 4. For books of young children's literature and teacher s viewpoint for those ; '100 books and below them' and 101-200 books' are the descending order responded and answered 'proper' for these. 5. For the YES or No of the teacher's experience for a creative activity of youg children's literature ; 'NO' was regarded to be the most in general. 6. For fairy tales and the title of fairy tale most used in kindergartens ; 'Heungbu-Jean', 'Hokburi-younggam' and 'Hae wa Dali Deun O-nui' are the descending order responded by boys. 'Kongzui and patzui' and 'Baek-seol Princess' are the descending order responded by girls. And 'Hae wa dali Deun O-nui' and 'Hokburi-younggam' are by teachers. 7. For the request to the class allocated for young children's literature in college ; 'the manufacture technique for media of young children's literature and communiate method 'and' the guidance of the creative education to the genre of young children's literature' are the descending order responded by teachers. 8. For the problem in young children's literature education ; 'the problem of manufacture technique for media', 'The difficulty of selection for a literary work and the poor of a subject matter' and 'the poor of teaching materials' are the descending order responded by teachers.
본 연구에서는 유아의 기질과 부모의 언어통제 유형이 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향에 대해 살펴보았다. 연구대상은 경기도 수원시와 인천시에 소재한 6곳 유치원에 재원 중인 만 4세 유아 250명과 그들의 부모 250명이다. 유아의 기질을 살펴보기 위하여 정인희와 황혜정(2009)에 의해 개발된 부모용 유아 기질 평정척도를 사용하였으며, 부모의 언어통제 유형을 측정하기 위해서는 Bernstein(1971)과 Gumperz(1973)의 연구를 토대로 도혜숙(1997)이 제작한 도구를 사용하였다. 유아의 리더십을 측정하기 위하여 장영숙과 황윤세(2009)에 의해 개발된 교사용 유아 리더십 측정도구를 사용하였다. 본 연구결과는 다음과 같다. 첫째 유아의 기질과 유아의 리더십의 관계를 살펴본 결과, 유아의 리더십은 유아의 기질의 하위변인 중 반응성, 적응성, 지속성, 전환성과 유의미한 정적 상관을 나타내었다. 둘째, 부모의 언어통제 유형과 유아의 리더십의 관계를 살펴본 결과, 부모의 인성지향적 언어통제와 지위지향적 언어통제는 유아의 리더십과 유의미한 정적 상관관계가 있는 것으로 나타났다. 셋째, 유아의 기질과 부모의 언어통제 유형이 유아의 리더십에 미치는 영향을 살펴본 결과, 아버지의 인성지향적 언어통제, 아버지의 지위지향적 언어통제, 어머니의 지위지향적 언어통제, 어머니의 인성지향적 언어통제, 유아 기질 중 규칙성과 적응성의 순으로 영향을 미치는 것으로 나타났다. 유아의 리더십을 가장 많이 예언하는 변인은 아버지의 인성지향적 언어통제이었다. 본 연구는 유아의 리더십을 발달시키기 위해서는 유아의 기질에 대한 올바른 이해 뿐 아니라 부모가 바람직한 언어통제 유형을 사용해야 한다는 것을 시사한다. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of young children’s temperament and their parents’ verbal control modes on young children’s leadership. The subjects of this study consisted of 250 young children and their parents in six kindergartens of Incheon and Suwon City. In-Hee Jung and Hae-Jeong Hwang’s young children’s temperament scale for parents(2009) was used for the test of young children’s temperament, and Hae-Sook Do’s instrument(1997) was employed for the evaluation of parents’ verbal control modes. In order to evaluate young children’s leadership, young children’s leadership scale for teachers developed by Young-Sook Jang and Yoon-Se Hwang(2009) was used. The results of the study were as follows. First, responsiveness, adaptability, persistence, and transformation among young children’s temperament were positively correlated with their leadership. Second, for both fathers and mothers, human nature-oriented verbal control mode and position-oriented verbal control mode among parents’ verbal control modes were positively correlated with young children’s leadership. Third, young children’s leadership was most significantly explained by fathers’ human nature-oriented verbal control mode followed by fathers’ position-oriented verbal control mode, mothers’ position-oriented verbal control mode, mothers’ human nature-oriented verbal control mode, young children’s regularity and adaptability. Fathers’ human nature-oriented verbal control mode was the most predictable factor in explaining young children’s leadership. This study showed the importance of desirable use of parents’ verbal control mode as well as better understanding of young children’s temperament for fostering young children’s leadership.
개구리皮膚의 伸張度와 X-線照射가 이에 미치는 影響을 알기 爲하여 腹部 및 背部皮膚에서 各各 矢狀 및 橫斷切片을 作成하여 길이-張力曲線中 彈性의 限界內에서 Hooke의 法則에 따르는 部位에서 Young率을 求 하고 1,000R의 X-線全身照射를 한 後 1,3,5,7 및 10日에서 各各 皮膚切片의 伸張度를 求하여 서로 比較 하였던 바 다음과 같은 結果를 얻었다. 1. 正常개구리의 腹部皮膚의 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 背部皮膚에서 얻은 矢狀 및 橫斷切片의 Young率은 各各 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠이었다. 2. X-線 全身照射를 한 群에서 腹部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 3日에서 5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그 後는 漸次 낮아지는 傾向을 나타내었고 照射 10日에서는 4.20×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値에 가까워지는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서는 照射 3日 및 5日에서 Young率이 各各 4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 가장 높고 그後는 第10日까지 次次 낮아진듯하나 그 傾向이 矢狀切片에서 처럼 뚜렷하지 않았다. 3. X-線 全身照射로서 背部皮膚에서는 그 矢狀切片의 Young率은 照射 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ 및 4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 높아지는 傾向을 나타내고 그後는 漸次 낮아져서 第10日에서는 正常値와 비슷하게 되는 傾向을 나타내었다. 橫斷切片에서의 Young率도 照射後 第3日 및 5日에서 各各 6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠및 6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠으로서 正常値보다 若干 높은듯 하고 그後는 낮아지는 傾向을 보이나 그 程度가 矢狀切片에서 처 럼 뚜렷하지 못하였다. In an attempt to observe the changes of the distensibility of the frog skin by whole body X-irradiation, the sagittal and transverse strips were excised from the abdominal and back skin of the frog (Rana nigromaculata) following whole body X-irradiation with 1,000R. Young Modulus of the strip was calculated from the length-tension curve of each sample, and a comparison was made with the non-irradiated control group. Experiments were performed on 1,3,5,7 and 10 days after the irradiation, and the results thus obtained are summarized as follows: 1. Young Modulus of the sagittal and transverse strips of the abdominal skin of the normal frog was 4.09×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ and 3.99×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠, respectively. Young Modulus of the back skin of the normal frog was 3.69×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the sagittal strip, and 5.81×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠ in the transverse strip. 2. Young Modulus of the sagittal strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group was the highest (5.38×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) on the 3rd post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease to the normal value on the 10th post-irradiation day was observed. In the transverse strip of the abdominal skin in the irradiated group, the highest values of Young Modulus were observed on the 3rd(4.55×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.50×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day, and a tendency of gradual decrease till 10th day was observed, but the tendency was not as prominent as in the sagittal strip. 3. A tendency of the elevated values of Young Modulus on the 3rd(4.25×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(4.30×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) post-irradiation day with the decreasing values to the normal value on the 10th day was observed in the sagittal strip of the back skin of the irradiated frog. In the transverse strip of the irradiated frog, Young Modulus showed a slight increase on the 3rd(6.02×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) and 5th(6.00×10 exp (7) dyne/㎠) day after the irradiation, but a tendency of decrease was observed thereafter.
This thesis proves masochism in the art aspect could be a dynamic power to get over and critique a materialistic and impure world which oppress individual, and it is most likely imaged as overturn writing through Seo Young-en's Story. In the real world of suffering and trial there is hopelessness and loneliness. We can sustain both virtue's of patience and affirmation through bravery and transcendence through Seo Young-en's Masochism is not to escape but to fight against it all. The Masochism in Seo Young-en's story is the power to withstand this real world. Therefore, Seo Young-en's Masochism deepens a solitude because of the coldness against sensual pleasures. And there is criticism, challenge, and sublimation inside. Seo Young-en writes about the women-herself existence and resistance strategy by enlarging self-conscious challenges through patience and not to revenge about the world. In a disguised women outward appearance, it may seem like means of a woman independence following with sexual method to protect herself. However, Seo Young-en's heroins who protect themselves and make desire under the sexual oppression. With this reason, the challenge is not agile or easy. She resembles a warrior fighting bravely against her own destiny. Seo Young-en's writing style, ""crying in the heart, smiling on the face"", is deceiving all people included her colleagues, that is, get out of the real world, but says the truth, and seems like agreeable, but offers a desperately resistance. This point tells us Seo Young-en's novel is the double-faced text looked on both excessively conservative and radical. Seo Young-en's writing through the masochism esthetic finally shows the mainstream of the woman writing which is not passively and dependably escapable masochism but tolerate and making up the independence oneself. This discovery is revaluation about writer Seo Young-en and should be comprehended the recovery about the masochism which was known as supplementary configuration of the Sadism.
영화 <이끼>는 웹사이트에 연재되었던 만화를 영화화한 것이다. 영화에서는 이영지라는 인물에 좀 더 주목하여 원작 만화에는 없던 장면을 추가함으로써 반전의 효과를 높이고자 하였다. 이와 같이 원작에 비해 달라진 결말에 대해서 여러 견해들이 있는데, 감독의 의도가 어찌되었든 달라진 이야 기에서 읽어낼 수 있는 의미를 밝혀서 그것이 우리 삶에 어떤 영향을 줄 수 있는 것인지를 차분히 생각해 볼 수 있어야 할 것이다. 이를 위해 우선 원작과 영화의 차이를 분석해 보고자 하였다. 이때 ‘권력’을 핵심어로 하였는데 그 이유는 논의의 초점이 된 이영지가 원작과 영화에서 결정적으로 달라지는 지점이 권력 획득의 유무를 기준으로 하여 드러나기 때문이다. 따라서 이 글에서는 이영지라는 인물이 권력을 갖추게 되는 과정을 원작과 비교하고, 이를 토대로 하여 영화 <이끼>에서 드러나는 권력이 갖는 의미를 밝혀 보고자 하였다. 이에 영화와 원작의 줄거리를 모두 정리하고 이를 비교하면서 이영지의 행위나 태도가 달라진 부분과 그 양상을 살펴본 결과 원작의 이영지는 조력자의 역할에 불과한 반면 영화의 이영지는 스스로 주도하여 계획을 실행한 결과 권력을 얻은 주체가 되었다는 점을 밝힐 수 있었다. 이것은 영화의 마지막 장면을 통해서 드러난다. 마을에서 절대 권력을 행사하던 이장이 자신의 비리가 세상에 드러나게 되자 스스로 목숨을 끊었고, 이후에 마을에는 새로운 세상이 만들어지게 되었다. 이때 새로 들어선 마을의 지도자가 이영지가 된다는 설정에서 결국 이영지가 새로운 권력의 주체로 떠오르면서 영화가 마무리되는 것이다. 그런데 이때 영화에서 이영지가 획득한 권력이라는 것은 일차적으로는 이영지라는 인물이 갖는 특수성에서 문제를 갖는 것이고, 이차적으로는 이영지에 의해 마련된 권력을 받아들이는 입장에서 제기된다. 이영지는 마을 남자들의 성적 대상이 되어 살아가고 있었는데 이는 이영지가 믿고 따르던 구원의 대상인 류목형의 허망한 삶과, 자신을 농락하고 폭력적으로 지배해온 천용덕에 대해 복수하기 위해 계획적으로 선택한 삶이었다. 그러나 이것이 복수를 넘어선 구원으로 나아가지 못한 것이라는 점에서 문제가 되는 것이 다. 또한 끈질긴 복수를 통해 결국 모든 권력 관계를 뒤엎고 새로운 권력을 생성하는 모습으로 나타남으로써 권력의 부정적인 속성을 드러내는 것이라고 하겠다. 이와 같은 분석 결과를 토대로 했을 때, 영화 <이끼>는 문제를 해결하거나 건강성을 회복하는 이야기와는 거리가 먼 이야기라고 할 것이다. 굳이 마을에서 유일한 여성이었던 영지를 새로운 주체로 내세우고자 했다면 그녀가 이루는 긍정적인 구원을 이루는 방향으로 나아갈 가능성도 충분히 있었던 것이다. 하지만 이러한 이야기를 분석하여, 우선 그것이 갖는 문제점과 의미를 정확하게 파악하고 이해함으로써 문제적 서사라는 점을 인식하는 것은 그 반대편에 있는 건강한 이야기를 찾는 초석이 될 수 있다는 점에서 의의가 있다고 할 것이다. The movie <Moss> is the film organized from a cartoon work serialized on wet site. The movie focuses the character of Lee, Young-Ji more than her in original cartoon work. So the movie added some new scenes to increase the movie"s reverse effect. Concerning the movie"s different ending from the original cartoon work, there are many assumptions. Whatever the movie director"s intention was, we need to identify the different ending"s meaning and to think over what influences it may affect on our lives. For this purpose, I first tried to analyze the movie"s differences from the original work. At analyzing the both works, I set the "power" as the key word. Lee Young-Ji was the target of this study"s discussion, and she decisively changes at the point when she acquire the power. Therefore, this study compares the original work with the movie about the character of Lee Young-Ji"s power possessing way. And based on it, this study tried to identify the power"s meaning in the movie <Moss>. Summarizing and comparing the movie"s synopsis with the original"s, I intensively focused on Lee Young-Ji"s usual behaviors, attitudes and changing parts in them. As the result of investigating her changes, I could find that Lee Young-Ji in the original cartoon work was an assistant, but in the movie, she became the leader getting the power resulting from having led to execute her plan. It is revealed in the final scene of the movie. The village chief had exercised absolute power in the village but he killed himself when his illegal acts were revealed. After his suicide, a new world was created in the village. The movie ends with informing the fact that Lee, Yoing-Ji eventually emerged as a new power"s leader by being the village"s leader. But the power which Lee, Young-Ji acquired was primarily problematic from the terms of her unique condition. Secondarily the power was problematic concerning her attitude accepting the power by set herself. In the village, she had suffered as a sexual partner for the village men. But her miserable life was planned and selected by herself for revenging against Chun, Yong-Duck, the village chief having making her such miserable life and Ryu, Mok-Hyung"s unreal life and death. But the fact that her power"s acquisition didn"t go into the salvation beyond a revenge became a problem. Also the new power"s creation after upsetting all power relationships via a persistent revenge reveals the power"s negative aspect. Based on this analyzing result, the movie <Moss> may not be a story solving problems or recovering moral health. If the movie"s director tried to make Young-Ji, only women in the village as the new leader, he should have had enough possibility to develop the story"s direction for positive salvation which she wanted to achieve. But the movie is meaningful in that we understand its story"s problems and meanings, get aware of the movie as a problematic epic through its analysis, so the movie can be a cornerstone for searching healthy stories from its opposite side.
The purpose of the study was to provide the basic materials of scientific educational program suitable to young children by showing the effects of life science teaching on young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability. Research issue 1. What are the effects of life science teaching on young children's naturalist intelligence? Research issue 2. What are the effects of life science teaching on young children's scientific inquiring ability? 2-1. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to predict of the children's scientific investigation? 2-2. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to observe of the children's scientific investigation? 2-3. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to classify of the children's scientific investigation? 2-4. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to measure of the children's scientific investigation? 2-5. What are the effects of life science teaching on the children's ability to discuss of the children's scientific investigation? The target groups of the study are a class of twelve children of 4 years old who are total 24 students of two different day care centers in Daejeon City. The children of the experimental group, A, in one daycare center have been instructed with the life science teaching for the science activity for 16 weeks, while the control group, B, in a different day care center, have been instructed the standard of child care process for the science activity. The measurement of young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability had been used 'the multiple intelligence test (PMIT-E) for preschoolers' and 'the testing instrument of scientific inquiring ability'. To know the difference of their naturalist intelligence between the experimental group and the control group, the research material collected through such a testing instrument had been verified the corresponding sample, t and to know the difference of their scientific inquiring ability, the significance had been verified through the application of ANCOVA. The crucial result on the study is as follows. Firstly, the children who were instructed with the life science teaching statistically significantly improved the young children's naturalist intelligence more than the children who were not instructed with the life science teaching. Therefore, life science teaching has a positive effect on improving young children's naturalist intelligence. Secondly, the result after the study is that the life science teaching has a considerable effect on scientific inquiring ability. The experimental child group experienced a significantly noticeable point increase statistically compared to that of the opposing group. Therefore, life science teaching has a positive effect on improving young children's scientific inquiring ability. Therefore, life science teaching has an effective class on young children's naturalist intelligence and scientific inquiring ability.
Yan, Bing Chun,Park, Joon Ha,Kim, Sung Koo,Choi, Jung Hoon,Lee, Choong Hyun,Yoo, Ki-Yeon,Kwon, Young-Geun,Kim, Young-Myeong,Kim, Jong-Dai,Won, Moo-Ho Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers 2012 Cellular and molecular neurobiology Vol.32 No.8
<P>In the present study, we investigated neuronal death/damage in the gerbil hippocampal CA1 region (CA1) and compared changes in some trophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), in the CA1 between the adult and young gerbils after 5 min of transient cerebral ischemia. Most of pyramidal neurons (89%) were damaged 4 days after ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) in the adult; however, in the young, about 59% of pyramidal neurons were damaged 7 days after I-R. The immunoreactivity and levels of BDNF and VEGF, not GDNF, in the CA1 of the normal young were lower than those in the normal adult. Four days after I-R in the adult group, the immunoreactivity and levels of BDNF and VEGF were distinctively decreased, and the immunoreactivity and level of GDNF were increased. However, in the young group, all of their immunoreactivities and levels were much higher than those in the normal young group. From 7 days after I-R, all the immunoreactivities and levels were apparently decreased compared to those of the normal adult and young. In brief, we confirmed our recent finding: more delayed and less neuronal death occurred in the young following I-R, and we newly found that the immunoreactivities of trophic factors, such as BDNF, GDNF, and VEGF, in the stratum pyramidale of the CA1 in the young gerbil were much higher than those in the adult gerbil 4 days after transient cerebral ischemia.</P>
This Study seeks to manifest the literary realities and meanings of long poems written in 1950s, focusing on the long poems of Lee, Young-Soon. The summary of this study can be shown as the followings. First, the reality recognition of poems written in wartime 1950s can be centered on the historic reality, namely the Korean War and the racial division. In thess situations, the poet Lee, Young-Soon who participated in the Korea war dominates a great position. He was a 'soldier poet', and described the historic situations with the epic-centered poetic techniques. His long poems, Yeon-Hee-Go-Jee and Jee-Ryung, were the products of wartime period. The wartime 1950s was so urgent durations that the condition of composing long poems couldn`t be mature. Nevertheless, long poems were composed at that time, and this was the starting point of this study. Second, Yeon-Hee-Go-Jee is the collection of war experience, and consists of 474 lines. This long poetry advocates the victory consciousness and manifests anti-communism ideology. Jee-Ryung is also the collection of situation poems describing wartime experience. In this poetry, Lee, Young-Soon introduces colloquial expressions and exquisite fictions more frequently than previous poems. Third, the long poems of Lee, Young-Soon written in the war times are composed of oral strategies. The fact that the tense of representation methods consists of the present(not the past) is also the intention of the poet. And through the subjectivity and the tense, readers can understand the vivid historic reality profoundly. This endows him with the reputable position among wartime poets. In short, the advantage of Lee, Young-Soon`s long poems is that he expresses wartime realities adequately without using distortion and exaggeration. The wartime long poems of Lee, Young-Soon unveil the two tendencies of wartime poems at the same time. By describing the urgent situation of wartime experience, the poet reveals the tendency of objective poems which show the hostile feeling for the enemy and promote the victory consciousness and the anti-communism ideology. Additionally, he represents the tragic aspects of war and humanism. It is natural that in Lee, Young-Soon`s poems the former tendency should prevail, but the inner consciousness of him appears vividly through the direct war experience. This aspect has literary meanings in that this shows the sense of Korean War by means of the phenomenal dimension and sympathetic recognition method.