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Mosquitoes have adapted to various environmental conditions. Symbionts with mosquitoes impact this adaptation in different environments. In the field, mosquitoes could get exposed to antibiotics during their developmental period, which could reduce or eliminate their symbiotic microbes. However, the side effects of the antibiotics on the ovary and reproductive physiology of the Asian tiger mosquito, Aedes albopictus remains unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of tetracycline and combinations of rifampicin and tetracycline at environmentally acceptable levels on the reproductive physiology of ovaries in Ae. albopictus. Rifampicin and tetracycline in combination reduced the hatching rate and fertility of Ae. albopictus compared to the untreated control group. These antibiotics induced histopathological damage and reactive oxygen species production in the ovaries. The combination of antibiotics decreased the expression of surface protein of Wolbachia (WSP) in Ae. albopictus. Additionally, the expression of Toll like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Myd88 were triggered by the combinations. The findings demonstrate the detrimental effects of antibiotics, particularly combinations of rifampicin and tetracycline, on the reproductive capacity of Ae. albopictus females.
This study was performed the comparison of physiological function between a sword dance and treadmill running, For the positive factors of sword dance through physical activity and music component on the psycho-hysiological change. Subjects were consisted of 20-aged 16 female sword dancer of 2 groups, as skillful dancer group(n=B) and novice group(n=B), The results were as follow: In graded maximal testing, VO₂max, anaerobic threshold, and recovery capacity after maximal exercise in skillful group showed a higher than novice group. Change of heart rate during a sword dancing is almost similar level to optimal intensity in aerobic exercise program, so sword dance could be suggested an effective exercise program Physiological stimulus to cardiopulmonary function is different response as the different career of sword dance, because novice group showed a significant(p<.05) higher heart rate in sword dance than treadmill running. Blood lactate concentration showed a similar response between sword dancing and treadmill running in both 2 groups. Novice group showed a higher RPE in sword dancing than treadmill running, but skillful group showed a lower RPE in sword dancing than treadmill running. These results mean that the acquainted level of sword dance affected to the psychological response during sword dancing In these result, hypothesis of the similar blood lactate change between sword dancing and treadmill running could be accepted, but RPE is different response as the different career of sword dance.
An aqueous extract of oriental herbal composition named Onchengyeum and curcumin, an antioxidant isolated from turmeric (Curcuma longa Linné) reduced hepatotoxicity induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl_(4)). Improved liver function was observed by measuring the activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (CRE), total cholesterol (TCHO), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-CHO), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-CHO), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB) and total bilirubin (BIL) in serum. Hepatic parameters monitored were levels of cholesterol (CHO), triglyceride (TG), malondialdehyde (MDA) and content of cytochrome P450 (CYP), level of glutathione (GSH), activities of NADPH-CYP reductase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx). The histopathological examination showed that the treatment of Onchengyeum and curcumin relieved the ballooning degeneration of hepatocytes which had been generated by CCl_(4). The results suggested that hepatoprotective effects of Onchengyeum and curcumin possibly are due to their promising antioxidative activity.
Analysis of acyl lysophosphatidic acids(LPAs) has clinical importance as a potential biomarker for ovarian and other gynecological cancers or obesity in the aspect of prevention. Here we report simple sample preparation and analytical method developed with high sensitivity and specificity for the early detection of gynecological cancers to improve the overall outcome of this disease. We established a novel quantification method of acyl-LPAs in plasma by electrospray negative ionization tandem mass spectrometry (MS-MS) using multiple reaction monitoring mode without conventional TLC step. Protein-bound lipids, acyl-LPAs in plasma were extracted with methanol : chloroform (2:1) containing LPA C14:0 as internal standard under acidic condition. Following back extraction with chloroform and water, centrifuged lower phase was evaporated and reconstituted in methanol and then analyzed. Using ESI-MS-MS with negative ionization MRM mode, all the species of LPAs were completely separated from plasma matrix without severe interferences. For MRM mode, Q1 ions selected were m/z 409, 433, 435, 437 and 457 which corresponds to molecular mass [M-H]- of C16:0, C18:2, C18:1, C18:0 and C20:3 LPA, respectively. Q2 ions selected for MRM was m/z 79, phosphoryl product. Using MS/MS with MRM mode, all the species of LPAa were completely separated from plasma matrix without severe interferences. This method allowed simultaneous detection and quantification of different species of LPAs in a plasma over a linear dynamic range of 0.01 - 25 (mol/L. The method detection limit was 0.3 pmol/ml with correlation coefficient of 0.9983 in most LPAs analyzed. When applied to the plasmas with normal and gynecological cancer patient, this new method differentiated two different groups by way of total LPA level.
The extent of snow cover in the Western Indian Himalaya determines the fluctuations in river discharge during the summer months and affects the water supply for hydroelectric generation, agriculture and related socioeconomic systems which further affect the livelihood of the population in the area and downstream. Despite this importance, there is a lack of information about this region primarily due to the complexities of the processes involved in snow hydrology and the lack of snow cover and depth data in the high elevation areas. Periodical monitoring of the snow cover area (SCA) is an indispensable demand for short-term forecasts of the daily river flows and seasonal forecasts of run-off volume. Therefore, this study is an attempt to assess the annual, seasonal and monthly variations in the extent of snow cover of the Western Indian Himalaya. SCA was estimated using the MODIS/Terra Snow Cover 8-Day L3 Global 500 m (MOD10A2) data for the period 2000–2015. Monthly composite maps of SCA were prepared from 8 days composite snow cover area maps for the Kashmir, Himachal and Kumaon Himalaya. The study found a reduction in snow cover in the Indian Western Himalaya. The inter-seasonal variation in SCA was also observed in the study area. The study found an inter-regional variations in the extent of snow cover in the Western Indian Himalaya during the period of analysis. Emerging changes in the extent of snow cover would influence the availability of water in the near future.
본 연구는 크게 두 가지의 과제로 구성되어 있다. 제 1과제에서는 중년 남성 마라톤 동호인 45명과 운동습관이 없는 일반인 30명을 대상으로 체격 및 체력수준을 비교하였다. 측정항목은 신장, 체중, 신체질량지수, 체지방률, 1200m달리기, 윗몸일으키기, 팔굽혀펴기, 앉아 윗몸앞으로굽히기, 제자리멀리뛰기, 그리고 50m달리기였다. 제 2과제에서는 중년 남성 마라톤 동호인 15명과 운동습관이 없는 일반인 8명을 대상으로 최대산소섭취량, 젖산역치 수준에서의 산소섭취량, 젖산역치 수준에서의 심박수, 1초 강제 호기량, 그리고 혈액변인을 비교하였다. 두 집단의 데이터를 비교하여 분석한 결과를 요약하면 다음과 같다. 1. 마라톤 동호인과 일반인의 체격을 비교한 결과 체중, 신체질량지수, 가슴 피부두겹 두께, 복부와 대퇴 피부두겹 두께, 그리고 체지방률은 마라톤 동호인이 일반인에 비해 유의하게 낮게 나타났다. 2. 마라톤 동호인과 일반인의 체력을 비교한 결과 윗몸일으키기, 팔굽혀펴기, 앉아윗몸앞으로굽히기, 제자리멀리뛰기, 50m달리기, 그리고 1200m달리기 모두 마라톤 동호인이 일반인에 비해 유의하게 높은 것으로 나타났다. 3. 마라톤 동호인과 일반인의 호흡순환계 변인을 비교한 결과는 최대산소섭취량, 최대심박수, 그리고 VO2LT에서 유의한 차이가 나타났다. 그러나 HR(LT), FEV1.0은 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 4. 마라톤 동호인과 일반인의 대사관련 변인을 비교한 결과 TG, 그리고 HDL-C는 유의한 차이가 나타났으나, 혈중 글루코스, 인슐린, FFA, TC, 그리고 LDL-C에서는 유의한 차이가 나타나지 않았다. 이상의 결과를 종합해 볼 때, 마라톤 동호인이 일반인에 비해 높은 체력 및 건강수준을 갖고 있는 것으로 나타나 마라톤 동호회 활동이 건강 유지 및 증진, 노화의 지연에 긍정적인 효과가 있을 것으로 판단 되어 진다. 따라서 일반인들이 건강한 삶을 위해 마라톤 동호회의 활동에 적극적으로 참여하기 위한 다양한 방법이 강구되어야 할 것으로 사료된다. The purposes of the study were twofold. The first study was designed to compare physical fitness between 45 marathon club participants(MCP) and 30 general individuals(GI) who have not participated in any systematic exercise training before. Test items in the first study included the standing height, body weight, body mass index, percent body fat, 1200m run/walk, sit-up, push up, sit-and-reach, standing long jump, and 50m dash. The second study was designed to compare maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, oxygen consumption at lactate threshold(VO2LT), heart rate at lactate threshold(HR(LT)), forced expiratory volume in one second(FEV1.0), and blood variables between 15 MCP and eight GI. All data obtained in the two studies were analyzed by independent-t test and the results were as follows: 1) The body weight, body mass index, chest thickness, abdomen thickness, anterior thigh thickness, and percent body fat of MCP were significantly lower than them of GI. 2) Sit-up, push up, sit-and-reach, standing long jump, 50m dash, and 1200m run/walk of MCP were significantly superior than them of GI. 3) There were significant differenced in maximal oxygen consumption, maximal heart rate, and VO2LT between the two groups. However, there was not significant difference in HR(LT), and FEV1.0 between the two groups. 4) There were significant differences in TG, and HDL-C between the two groups, whereas no significant difference was found in blood glucose, insulin, free fatty acid, TC, and LDL-C between the two groups. The aforementioned results indicated that MCP had higher level of physical fitness than them of GI, concluding that the activities in the marathon club could enhance health and physical fitness and prevent aging. The efforts should put for the general individuals into participate sports club activities.
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In analyzing the background and features of the US direct election system of the superintendent, this study is intended to present the implications of the US system for the Korean system. This study covers the following: firstly, the background of the US superintendent election system, the progressive era reforms from the late 19th century to the early 20th, and the characteristics of education reforms after 1980s; secondly, concrete contents and cases of the US non-partisan election, which is quite similar to the South Korean system, and the US running-mate system, which is recently considered as an alternative; thirdly, the implications of the US system for the Korean system. This study concludes with the recommendation that like the US current system that the authority of state governors has strengthened in order to enhance consistency and accountability of educational policies, the South Korean superintendent election system should be changed based on educational autonomy’s value and orientation.
사람의 이미지 감성인식은 각기 다른 성향으로 표현된다. 현재는 감성인식을 객관적으로 평가하려는 감성컴퓨팅 연구가 활발하게 연구되고 있다. 그렇지만 기존의 감성컴퓨팅 연구는 실행에 많은 문제점을 갖고 있다. 첫째, 감성인식 면에서 비객관적이고, 부정확하다. 둘째, 감성인식의 상관관계가 불명확한 점이다. 그리하여 본 연구의 필요성으로 이미지 감성의 규칙성을 실험하여 감성컴퓨팅 방식으로 제어하고자 한다. 또한 본 연구의 목적으로 감성인식을 숫자화하고, 객관화하는 이미지 감성컴퓨팅 시스템 방식을 적용하고, 사람의 감성과의 유사 정도를 비교한다. 이미지 감성컴퓨팅 시스템의 주요 특징은 감성인식을 숫자화 된 디지털 형식으로 계산한다. 그리고 감성컴퓨팅의 연구배경은 감성을 디지털화하는 James A. Russell의 핵심 효과(Core Affect)를 활용한다. 핵심 감성으로 쾌정도(X축)인 쾌와 불쾌, 긴장도(Y축)인 긴장과 이완의 감성축이고, 감성컴퓨팅 연구에 적용한다. 감성축은 연관된 대표감성으로 아주 기쁜, 흥분, 의기양양, 행복한, 자족, 고요한, 여유로운, 조용한, 피곤한, 무기력한, 우울한, 슬픈, 화가 난, 스트레스, 불안, 긴장된 감성의 16개로 구분하여 감성컴퓨팅에 적용한다. 본 연구의 과정은 이미지 감성컴퓨팅 계산식의 핵심인 색채 요소를 활용하여 색상, 명도, 채도를 감성속성요소로 적용한다. 감성속성요소는 중요도인 가중치를 적용하여 비율을 계산하고, 쾌정도(X축)와 긴장도(Y축)의 감성점수로 측정한다. 다시 교차된 감성점을 바탕으로 감성원으로 확장하고, 포함된 대표감성크기로 상위 5위인 주요대표감성으로 선별한다. 또한 사람의 이미지 감성을 16개 대표감성점수로 측정하고, 상위 5위의 대표감성으로 구분한다. 연구결과 감성컴퓨팅의 주요대표감성과 사람의 감성인식의 주요대표 감성을 비교하여 일치하는 대표감성수에 따라 감성의 유사 정도를 검증한다. 감성컴퓨팅 유사성 실험 결과 주요대표감성의 평균 일치율은 51%이고, 2.5개의 대표감성이 사람의 감성인식과 일치했다. 본 연구를 통해 감성컴퓨팅 계산 방식과 사람 감성인식의 유사 정도를 측정했고, 감성계산식의 객관적인 평가기준을 제시했다. 향후 연구에서는 좀 더 높은 일치율 향상의 방안과 감성계산식의 가중치 연구가 유지되어야 할 것이다. Emotional awareness is the image of a person is represented by different tendencies. Currently, the emotion computing to objectively evaluate the emotion recognition research is being actively studied. However, existing emotional computing research has many problems to run. First, the non-objective in emotion recognition if it is inaccurate. Second, the correlation between the emotion recognition is unclear points. So to test the regularity of image sensitivity to the need of the present study is to control emotions in the computing system. In addition, the screen number of the emotion recognized for the purpose of this study, applying the method of objective image emotional computing system and compared with a similar degree of emotion of the person. The key features of the image emotional computing system calculates the emotion recognized as numbered digital form. And to study the background of emotion computing is a key advantage of the effect of the James A. Russell for digitization of emotion (Core Affect). Pleasure emotions about the core axis (X axis) of pleasure and displeasure, tension (Y-axis) axis of tension and relaxation of emotion, emotion is applied to the computing research. Emotional axis with associated representative sensibility very happy, excited, elated, happy, contentment, calm, relaxing, quiet, tired, helpless, depressed, sad, angry, stress, anxiety, pieces 16 of tense emotional separated by a sensibility ComputingIt applies. Course of the present study is to use the color of the color key elements of the image computing formula sensitivity, brightness, and saturation applied to the sensitivity property elements. Property and calculating the rate sensitivity factors are applied to the importance weight, measured by free-level sensitivity score (X-axis) and the tension (Y-axis). Emotion won again expanded on the basis of emotion crossed point, and included a representative selection in Sensibility size of the top five ranking representative of the main emotion. In addition, measuring the emotional image of a person with 16 representative emotional score, and separated by a representative of the top five senses. Compare the main representative of the main representatives of Emotion and Sensibility people aware of the sensitivity of the results to verify the similarity degree computing emotion emotional emotions depending on the number of representative matches. The emotional similarity computing results represent the average concordance rate of major sensitivity was 51%, representing 2.5 sensibilities were consistent with the person"s emotion recognition. Similar measures were the degree of emotion computing calculation and emotion recognition in this study who were given the objective criteria of the sensitivity calculation. Future research will need to be maintained weight room and the study of the emotional equation of a higher concordance rate improved.
Te1misartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and chlorthalidone is a thiazide-like diuret-ics. In this study, we report serious adverse events (SAEs) during clinical trial for pharmacokinetic interaction between telmisartan and chlorthalidone in healthy Korean subjects. Two separate, ran-domized, multiple-dose, two-period, one-sequence studies were conducted at Kyungpook National University Hospital. In part A, 43 volunteers received telmisartan for 7 days, and then chlorthali-done for 14 days (days 8-21). Telrnisartan was co-administered during day 15-21 to evaluate the effects of chlorthalidone on the pharmacokinetics of telmisartan at steady state. A healthy 36-year-old male in part A was referred to the emergency room due to severe nausea and vomiting developed about 3 h after administration of chlorthalidone on day 9. Hypokalemia and QT prolongation were observed during his initial laboratory examination and electrocardiogram (ECG) monitoring in the emergency wilt. Nausea and vomiting improved after conservative management with hos-pitalization for 9 days. We consider that the episodes of excessive nausea and vomiting resulted in hypokalemic state which was potentiated by chlorthalidone. And the hypokalemic state caused the lengthening of the QT interval on ECG.
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Adolescents" risk behaviors have been studied in may ways. Unique developmental characteristics of adolescence and rapidly changing social environment have drawn attention to explore factors that influence adolescents" risk-taking behaviors. This study examined how stress and stress coping strategies of high school students influence their problem behavior such as internet abuse, smoking, drinking, running-away attempts, and suicidal thinking. Two hundred sixty eight self questionnaires were finally analyzed using SPSSWIN 10.0. Results showed that adolescents" internet abuse rate(using internet for game and viewing pornography, covert use) was rather high among male adolescents. 23.7% of respondents have experienced smoking, 16.4% current smokers, 85.2% are drinkers with 33.6% binge drinkers, 18.8% have ever actually ran-away, 36.3% have thought about suicide, the data presented Avoidance coping and self-related stress are factors to influence adolescent smoking; family related stress, peer-related stress, and avoidance coping to running away; and elevation of overall stress is a factor to explain suicidal thinking among adolescents. Limitations of the present study and ideas for the further research are suggested.