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본 연구는 어머니의 정서표현양가성이 아버지의 양육참여와 유아의 문제행동과 맺는 관련성을 확인하기 위한 것이다. 이를 위해 만3-5세 유아를 양육하고 있는 어머니를 대상으로 정서표현양가성(AEQ), 아버지양육참여, 문제행동(CBCL1.5-5)을 측정하였다. 연구결과, 어머니의 정서표현양가성은 아버지양육참여, 유아의 문제행동과 높은 관련성이 있는 것으로 나타났다. 즉, 어머니의 정서표현양가성과 아버지양육참여는 부적상관을 보였고, 유아의 문제행동과는 정적상관을 보였다. 반면 아버지양육참여와 유아의 문제행동과는 부적상관을 보였다. 매개효과 검증에서는 아버지양육참여가 부분 매개함을 확인하였다. 이는 어머니의 정서표현양가성이 높을수록 아버지양육참여가 낮고 모든 문제행동(외현화, 내재화, 수면문제, 기타문제)이 높게 나타나는 것을 의미한다. 본 연구 결과를 통해 어머니의 정서표현양가성이 모-자녀관계 뿐만 아니라 공동양육의 책임이 있는 배우자와의 관계에도 영향을 미치고 있는 중요한 변인임을 확인할 수 있었고, 어머니의 정서표현양가성이 아버지양육참여를 매개로하여 유아의 문제행동에 직·간접적영향을 미치고 있음을 확인할 수 있었다. This study aims at figuring out how the mother's ambivalence over emotional is affecting the fathers' participation in child-rearing and young children's behavioral problems. To test a set of hypothesized relationships, a survey was conducted on mothers who raised their young children aged 3-5. The survey instruments include ambivalence over emotional(AEQ), fathers' participation in child-rearing, young children's Behavior Checklist(CBCL 1.5-5). According to the results of survey, mother's ambivalence over emotional has great relations with fathers' participation in child-rearing and young children's behavior problems. In other words, mother's ambivalence over emotional is negatively associated with fathers' participation in child-rearing and positively associated with young children's behavior problems. But, fathers' participation in child-rearing is negatively associated with young children's behavior problems. It showed father's involvement in child-rearing has a partial mediating effect. It means that the higher mother's ambivalence over emotional is, the lower father's involvement in child-rearing is and the more behavioral problems(externalizing and internalizing, sleep, other behavior problems) appear. Based on the results of this study, it confirmed that mother's ambivalence over emotional had an influence on not only relationships between mother and their young children but also relationships between partners having custody of their young children. Also, it confirmed that mother's ambivalence over emotional mediated by father's involvement in child-rearing had an influence both directly and indirectly on young children's behavioral problems.
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Objective Uric acid is a non-enzymatic antioxidant associated with depression. Despite its known protective role in other brain disorders, little is known about its influence on the structural characteristics of brains of patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). This study explored the association between uric acid and characteristics of white matter (WM) in patients with MDD. Methods A total of 32 patients with MDD and 23 healthy controls (HCs) were examined. All participants were scored based on the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory at baseline. All patients were also rated with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. We collected blood samples from all participants immediately after their enrollment and before the initiation of antidepressants in case of patients. Tract-based spatial statistics were used for all imaging analyses. Results Lower fractional anisotropy (FA) and higher radial diffusivity (RD) values were found in the MDD group than in the HC group. Voxelwise correlation analysis revealed that the serum uric acid levels positively correlated with the FA and negatively with the RD in WM regions that previously showed significant group differences in the MDD group. The correlated areas were located in the left anterior corona radiata, left frontal lobe WM, and left anterior cingulate cortex WM. Conclusion The present study suggests a significant association between altered WM connectivity and serum uric acid levels in patients with MDD, possibly through demyelination.
Battery-powered devices has recently become a prevalent platform for which video compression is one of the most important enabling technologies. The H.264/AVC employs many advanced coding tools for high coding efficiency, however, it requires high computational complexity and high energy consumption. It is a major problem in batterypowered devices. In this paper, we analyze power consumption charactersitic of H.264/AVC video encoding tools using the modified simpleScalar and the Sim- Panalyzer.
This paper proposes an efficient architecture of H.264 sub-pixel interpolation circuit. The circuit based on the proposed architecture does not require any input data buffering and processes the horizontal, vertical and diagonal sub-pixel interpolation operations in parallel. The performance of the circuit is further improved by processing the 1/2-pixel and 1/4-pixel interpolations at the same time. In order to reduce the circuit size, we reuse the internal SRAM's to store the intermediate data required for parallel processing and do not use any registers. We described the proposed circuit at register trasnfer level. The synthesized circuit using 130㎚ CMOS standard cell library consists of 9,410 gates and has the maximum operating frequency of 584.8㎒. The total number of SPSRAM bits used in our circuit is 3,232.
Subungual amelanotic melanoma is rare, only 15-25% of subungual melanoma. Since it appears pinkish or reddish, early diagnosis is often delayed causing poor prognosis. It usually occurs in thumbs or great toes. Pathogenesis of amelanotic melanoma is not well elucidated, but lack of tyrosinase and agenesis of melanosomes are possible causes. A 67-year-old male had subungual erythematous papule on his left thumb. It appeared 10 years ago and had increased in size splitting the nail. At the first visit, the lesion had discharge smelling foul odor. The biopsy specimen of nail plate showed several hyperchromatic large cells in epidermis and nail plate. In immunohistochemistry, Melan-A was focally positive and p63 was negative. The specimen of nail bed showed hyperchromatic and pleomorphic cells with positivity for Melan-A and negativity for pan-cytokeratin. He underwent excisional biopsy and the specimen showed atypical melanocytes in epidermis and nests of numerous hyperchromatic cells with mitotic figures in dermis. He was diagnosed with subungual amelanotic melanoma with pathologic stage T3b.
The cache coherency protocol guarantees the validity of the cache block by keeping it with the latest updated contents. In multi-level cache memory hierarchy, the inclusion property enforces the lower layer cache to maintain the superset of its higher layer cache contents. The inclusion property has its benefits for cache coherence, but it may waste valuable cache blocks and bandwidth by invalidating the duplicated contents in the higher level cache. In this paper, a new cache contention management scheme is presented with modified inclusion property to avoid unnecessary cache block invalidation.
Bee pollen is a mixture made by worker bees and consists of pollen, nectar, and salivary secretions. Due to its abundant nutritional and medicinal effects, people are consuming bee pollen increasingly these days. However, some of the elements of bee pollen, such as pollen and fungus, can cause allergic reactions. Bee pollen-induced allergy is a type of food allergy, and anaphylaxis is the most common symptom. Besides anaphylaxis, other symptoms in different organs can also occur. A 29-year-old man presented with erythematous vesicular patches on the lower abdomen 3 months ago. The skin biopsy specimen showed epidermal spongiosis, a subcorneal pustule filled with eosinophilic microabscess, and perivascular eosinophilic infiltration. He was diagnosed with skin allergy caused by bee pollen. He stopped ingesting bee pollen and was treated with oral anti-histamines and topical steroid. We report this case because of its unique clinical and histological appearance.