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'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: This study aimed to investigate the diagnosis and severity of patients who were referred to tertiary medical centers according to the type and function of the referral hospitals. Methods: First-visit patients referred from July 2015 to June 2016 were retrospectively reviewed with regard to referral hospital, final diagnosis, treatment necessity, and medical fees for the six months after their first hospital visit. Based on these data, differences in type and function of medical institution were examined. Results: In a comparison of hospitals according to their number of beds, clinics, hospitals and, tertiary hospitals had no differences in the ratio of patients who needed treatment (p = 0.075) and their medical fees over six months (p = 0.372). When hospitals were classified by functional capability in terms of doctors’ medical specialty, increasing ratios of patients requiring medical treatment (p < 0.001) and medical fees for six months (p < 0.001) were found in the order of non-eye specialists, eye specialists, and eye specialists in trainee hospital. Conclusions: Efficient healthcare delivery systems should classify medical institutions by functionality capability based on medical specialties rather than hospital size according to the number of beds.
<P>The direct spontaneous grafting of 4-nitrophenyl molecules onto n-doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) surfaces without external ultraviolet, thermal, or electrochemical energy was invegtigated. Clean n-doped a-Si:H thin films were dipped in a solution of 4-nitrobenzenediazonium salts (PNBD) in acetonitrile. After the modified surfaces were rinsed, they were analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). XPS and AFM results show that the reaction of an n-doped a-Si:H thin film with PNBD self-terminates without polymerization, after 5 h, and the surface number density of 4-nitrophenyl molecules is 4.2 x 10(15)/cm2. These results demonstrate that the spontaneous grafting of nitrophenyl layers onto n-doped a-Si:H thin films is an attractive pathway toward forming interfaces between a-Si:H and organic layers under ambient conditions.</P>
'스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 7시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.
Purpose: This study investigated visual acuity (VA) values and differences depending on optical coherence tomography(OCT) findings in patients with acute central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO). Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on patients with acute CRAO who underwent macular and disc OCT. We evaluated changes in macular thickness and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thickness after acute CRAO onset based on OCT. We also determined the association of thickness changes with VA improvement. Results: This study involved both eyes in a total of 12 patients with acute CRAO. A significant increase was observed in foveal (1 mm) thickness (p = 0.002), parafoveal (3 mm) thickness (p = 0.002), and peripapillary RNFL thickness (p = 0.005) in affected eyes with CRAO, but not in central foveal thickness (p = 0.266). A significant small difference in both eyes (affected eye – fellow eye) was shown in foveal (1 mm) and mean parafoveal (3 mm) thickness in the improved VA group (p = 0.008 and p = 0.004, respectively), but not in central foveal or peripapillary RNFL thickness (both p = 0.283). Conclusions: Both macular and RNFL thickness increased in patients with acute CRAO. RNFL thickness decreased over time with progression of RNFL atrophy. Less macular damage caused by acute CRAO could be predicted by a small difference in macular thickness between eyes (affected eye – fellow eye). In such cases, patients had a greater chance of VA improvement.
Kim, Young-Jin,Park, Junbeom,Jeong, Hyeon Su,Park, Min,Baik, Seulki,Lee, Dong Su,Rho, Heesuk,Kim, Hyungjun,Lee, Joong Hee,Kim, Seung-Min,Kim, Young-Kwan The Royal Society of Chemistry 2019 Nanoscale Vol.11 No.12
<P>The seed-mediated growth strategy of Au nanoparticles (Au NPs) inside carbon nanotube (CNT) fibers is demonstrated to greatly improve their mechanical and electrical properties and provide a function for catalytic applications. The resulting Au NP@CNT nanocomposite fibers exhibit 100% knot efficiency, catalytic activity and considerably enhanced modulus, tensile strength, and electrical conductivity from 7 GPa, 109 MPa and 1300 S cm<SUP>−1</SUP> to 24 GPa, 351 MPa and 3600 S cm<SUP>−1</SUP>, respectively. The enhancement mechanism is also revealed by systematic characterization and theoretical simulations.</P>
<▼1><P>Supplemental digital content is available in the text</P></▼1><▼2><P><B>Abstract</B></P><P>Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are strongly associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. We recently developed and validated a self-assessment score in the Korean population to identify people at high risk for diabetes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether the self-assessment risk score for diabetes can also be used to screen for the presence of NAFLD or NASH.</P><P>The study population included 15,676 subjects (8313 men and 7363 women) over 20 years old who visited the National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital in Korea between 2008 and 2010. Anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data were analyzed during regular health checkups. Fatty liver disease was diagnosed using ultrasound, discrimination capability was assessed based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), and evaluation measures, including sensitivity and specificity, were calculated. Multiple logistic analyses were also performed.</P><P>We calculated a self-assessed risk score for diabetes (range: 0–11), and a cutoff of ≥5 identified 60% (50%) of men (women) at high risk for NAFLD, reflecting a sensitivity of 79% (85%), a specificity of 60% (66%), a positive predictive value (PPV) of 68% (51%), and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 73% (91%), with an AUC of 0.75 (0.82) for men (women). A cutoff point of ≥6 identified 43% (31%) of men (women) at high risk for NASH, reflecting a sensitivity of 80% (86%), a specificity of 64% (75%), a PPV of 30% (28%), and a NPV of 94% (98%), with an AUC of 0.77 (0.86) for men (women). The odds ratios that a 1-point increase in the diabetes risk scores would be associated with an increased risk for NAFLD and NASH were 1.20 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.16–1.25] and 1.57 (95% CI: 1.49–1.65), respectively, in men, and 1.28 (95% CI: 1.21–1.34) and 1.89 (95% CI: 1.73–2.07), respectively, in women.</P><P>The present study indicates that our self-assessment risk score for diabetes could be an effective primary screening tool for the presence of NAFLD or NASH.</P></▼2>
Objective: Falling is one of main accident to facilitate the physical injuries in order adults. The purpose of the systematic review was to determine the effects of postural balance training whether the recovery of falls in elderly with normal physical function or not throughout summing the selected studies quantitatively. Design: A systematic review Methods: MEDLINE and other four databases were searched up to April 20, 2021 and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating postural balance approaches on fall risks in elderly. The researched studies excluded the double studies, titles and abstract, and finally full-reported study. The selected RCTs studies were extracted characteristics of the studies and summary of results based on PICOS-SD (population, intervention, comparison, outcomes, and setting- study design) model to synthesize the papers qualitatively. Results: The review involved 22 RCT reports with 4,847 community older adults aged 65 years or over. Nineteen of the selected RCT studies reported dual or multimodal exercises show the beneficial effect for older adults compared to one-type treatment or no intervention. All of selected showed low risk in the selection, attrition, and reporting bias. However, detection bias showed low risk at 75% records of the involved RCTs and performance bias was low risk at only three records. Conclusions: The results of the systematic review propose that a standardized therapeutic approach and the intensity are needed for improving risk of falls in older adults.