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The most common type of cancer for a female is breast cancer in the world. Regular checks and effective-timely treatment are noteworthy parameters for patients' survival struggle . Against existing imaging methods, microwave imaging method has been considered more powerful and effective method by many researchers. In this paper, comprehensive design equations and parameters of rectangular microstrip patch antenna (RMPA) are given for microwave breast cancer detection. The layered breast model with a spherical tumor that was placed into the fibro-glandular layer was created by using CST Microwave Studio Software, and it was embedded in canola oil to decrease the distorted signals between the transmitting and receiving antennas. The RMPA has a wideband performance from 3 to 18 GHz. The simulation results show that differences in the electric field and reflection coefficients might more efficiently give a possibility to assign the tumor in the breast model. In addition, in this study, the data obtained from these experiments are classified by using the random forest algorithm from the data mining methods. According to the classification result, the random forest algorithm can diagnose breast cancer by classifying the tumor as 94% accuracy.
Depending on the damage type as well as the level of damage observed after the earthquake, certain measures should be taken for the damaged buildings. In this study, structural repairing of two different types of damaged RC beam-column assembly by carbon fiber-reinforced polymer sheets is investigated in detail as a member repairing technique. Two types of 1:1 scale test specimens, which represent the exterior RC beam-column connection taken from inflection points of the frame, are utilized. The first specimen is designed according to the current Turkish Earthquake Code, whereas the second one represents a deficient RC beam-column assembly. Both of the specimens were subjected to cyclic quasistatic loading in the laboratory and different levels of structural damage were observed. The first specimen displayed a ductile response with the damage concentrated in the beam. However, in the second specimen, the beam-column joint was severely damaged while the rest of the members did not attain their capacities. Depending on the damage type of the specimens, the damaged members were repaired by CFRP wrapping with different configurations. After testing the repaired specimens, it is found that former capacities of the damaged members were mostly recovered by the application of CFRPs on the damaged members.
The effectiveness of the repair scheme for the damaged captive-columns with CFRPs (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) was investigated in terms of response quantities such as strength, ductility, dissipated energy and stiffness degradation. Two 1/3 scale, one-story one-bay RC (Reinforced Concrete) frames were designed to represent the substandard RC buildings in Turkish building stock. The first one, which is the reference specimen, is the bare frame without infill wall. Partial infill wall with opening was constructed between the columns of the second frame and this caused captive column defect. Severe damage was observed with the concentration of shear cracks in the second specimen columns. Then, the damaged members were repaired by CFRP wrapping and retested. For the three test series, similar reversed cyclic lateral displacement under combined effect of axial load was applied to the top of the columns. Overall response of the bare frame was dominated by flexural cracks. Brittle type of shear failure in the column top ends was observed in the specimen with partial infill wall. It was observed that former capacity of damaged members of the second frame was recovered by the applied repair scheme. Moreover, ultimate displacement capacity of the damaged frame was improved considerably by CFRP wrapping.
This study aims at evaluating the performance of repairing technique with CFRPs in recovering cyclic performance of damaged columns in flexure in terms of structural response parameters such as strength, dissipated energy, stiffness degradation. A 2/3 scaled substandard reinforced concrete frame was constructed to represent the substandard RC buildings especially in developing countries. These substandard buildings have several structural deficiencies such as strong beam-weak column phenomenon, improper reinforcement detailing and poor material properties. Flexural plastic hinges occurred at the columns ends after testing the substandard specimen under both constant axial load and reversed cyclic lateral loading. Afterwards, the damaged columns were externally wrapped with CFRP sheets both in transverse and longitudinal directions and then retested under the same loading protocol. In addition, ambient vibration measurements were taken from the undamaged, damaged and the repaired specimens at each structural repair steps to identify the effectiveness of each repairing step by monitoring the change in the natural frequencies of the tested specimen. The ambient vibration test results showed that the applied repairing technique with external CFRP wrapping was proved to recover stiffness of the pre-damaged specimen. Moreover, the lateral load capacity of the pre-damaged substandard RC frame was restored with externally bonded CFRP sheets.
Objectives. To underline the effect of oxidative stress in chronic otitis media with and without cholesteatoma and to compare the oxidative stress values in the serum and tissue specimens in these two forms. Methods. The study included a total of 75 individuals, 35 cases with chronic otitis media (COM; 16 females and 19 males) and a healthy control group of 40 cases (20 females and 20 males). The COM patient group was comprised of 18 patients with cholesteatoma and 17 patients without cholesteatoma. All patients underwent mastoidectomy. Serum specimens were taken prior to surgery and diseased tissue specimens from the ear were obtained during surgery from all patients. Only serum specimens were taken from the healthy control cases. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GHPx) were measured in the serum and tissue samples of the patient group and in the serum specimens of the control group. Results. The age ranged from 14 to 48 years in the patient group (mean age, 20.4±12.2 years) and from 19 to 40 years in the control group (mean age, 26.4±4.64 years). When the serum values of all COM patients were compared with those of the control group, in the patient group MDA, which reflects lipid peroxidation, was found to be significantly higher (P<0.01) whereas the antioxidant enzymes SOD, CAT, and GHPx were found to be significantly lower (P<0.01). When the serum and tissue MDA, SOD, CAT, and GHPx values in patients with and without cholesteatoma were compared, no significant difference was found these parameters (P>0.01). Conclusion. Although oxidative stress plays a role in the pathogenesis of COM with or without cholesteatoma, it may not reflect the severity of the disease. In patients with COM, the evaluation of only serum oxidative stress values without tissue evaluation may be sufficient for assessing oxidative stress.
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Objective Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with underlying pathogenesis and etiological factors not fully understood. We assumed that galectin-3, which is also linked with inflammatory responses, may play an important role in the ethiopathogenesis of ADHD. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether serum galectin-3 levels are related to ADHD in childhood. Methods The current study consisted of 35 treatment-naive children with ADHD and 35 control subjects. The severities of ADHD and conduct disorder symptoms were assessed via parent- and teacher-rated questionnaires. The severity of anxiety and depression symptoms of the children were determined by the self-report scale. Venous blood samples were collected and serum galectin-3 levels were measured. Results The ADHD group had significantly higher serum Galectin-3 levels than the control group. To control confounding factors, including age, sex, and BMI percentile, one-way analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) test was also performed. Analyses revealed a significantly higher serum log- Galectin-3 levels in children with ADHD compared to controls. No association was found between the mean serum galectin-3 levels and sociodemographic characteristics and clinical test scores, except the oppositional defiant behavior scores. Conclusion Our research supports the hypothesis that serum levels of galectin-3 might be related to ADHD.