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Object : The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of fungal infection and ulcer on the feet of diabetic patients and the existence of correlation between ulcer and fungal infection. Methods : A total 21,693 outpatients diagnosed as diabetes mellitus at the department of endocrinology of 32 hospitals were examined. The diabetic patients with foot problems were consulted to the department of dermatology. Physical examination and KOH preparation were performed. Results : 13,271 patients had certain kinds of foot problem, accounting for 61.2% of 21,693 diabetics examined. Of these, fungal foot disease were found in 10,403 that constituted 78.4% (48.0% of the entire diabetic population). Tinea pedis was the diagnosis in 6,496 (29.9%), onychomycosis in 7,783 (35.9%), and coexistence was in 3,883 (17.9%). Foot deformity was in 1,346 (6.2% of diabetics; 10.1% of foot disease), non-palpable pulse in 1,051 (4.8% ; 7.9%), and foot ulcer was in 425 (2.0% ; 3.2%), following in a descending order of frequency. Odds ratios for diabetic foot ulcer were 2.5 in patients with the foot deformity, 1.6 with fungal foot disease and 2.2 with non-palpable pulse. Conversely, Odds ratios for fungal foot disease were 2.5 with foot deformity, and 1.6 with foot ulcer. A total of 5,486 patients paid a visit to the department of dermatology. Of these, 4,519 patients were diagnosed with fungal infection through physical examination and KOH smear by dermatologists. The population comprised of 2,272 males and 2,247 females, showing similar prevalence between sexes. However, age did have positive correlation regarding prevalence of fungal foot disease. The number of diabetic patients with toenail problems was 3,847 patients (70%) and onychomycosis was proven mycologically in 3,276. Onychomycosis of distal subungal type was the most common clinical finding, most frequently involving the great toenails. Abnormal skin findings of the foot were seen in 3,885(70.8%) and tinea pedis was found in 3,209 (58.5%), most commonly involving the soles. Conclusion : This study showed that fungal infection might be regarded as a risk factor of foot ulcer. Treatment of fungal infection in diabetic patients might prevent diabetic foot disease such as ulcer and reduce the disability, morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients. (Korean J Dermatol 2003;41(7) : 908~915)
Thin film manufacturing process is placed on the main technology of semiconductor manufacturing process, high resolution technology of hard and laser disk , plate disc player manufacturing process of LCD/PDP. Furthermore, this process is used as general technology. in deposition and electric wave cover of mobile phone cover, reflecting plate of lamps, cosmetic vessel, optics surface coating of camera lens and coating film producing of several goods. In this research, the main purpose is developing in electric heat resistive using as basic material in semiconductor manufacturing process and many industrial processes. The developing process isas follows. Electron beam is emitted by heating of tungsten filament in high vacuum environment. Then electrons are accelerated in high voltage. The electrons are collided into opposite material . The opposite material is coating by producing heat. The first year of research is for mechanical property of filament wire per diameter and computer aided engineering for developing high efficiency electric heat resistive. The second year of research is focused on development of automatic inspection line for mass production. If electric heat resistive is developed through this project the product could be having a product power because of high efficiency , high cost effective and comparing to foreign goods.
Followings are major findings obtained from a study on the socio-medical studus of the manu-facturing workers in the Masan Free Export Zone. This study was planned to find out socio-medical conditions of the workers which seemed to be essential to the better management of the health of the workers and the working environments. For this study, 6978 workers who are equivalent to 26.9% of total workers in Masan Free Export Zone as of the end of 1976 were sampled and they were asked to answer to the pretested questionnaire. 1) General characteristics; (1) 83.9% of sampled workers were female. (2) 84.9% of workers were less than 25 years of age and female workers who entered in this age group were 93.6%. (3) 91.9% of workers had more than junior high school education and those who finished only junior high school occupied the majority with the proportion of 67.7%. (4) 897.1% of workers were un-married and the proportion for the female was 93.2% (5) Majority (89.6%) were from Yongnam area and 5.2% of workers were from Honam area. (6) 49.1% of workers were living separately from their families and 76.9% of them were self-cooking. 2) Working conditions and working history; (1) 78.1% of workers were receiving from 20,000 won 40,000won as their monthly salaries and those who were receiving from 40,000 won to 60,000 won were the next (12.5%). (2) 34.4% of workers had been working in the present plant for from one to three years and those who had been working for less than one year were 31.9%. (3) Most of workers (91.2%) were working 8 hours a day but 25.3% of precision optical instruments manufacturing workers were working about 10 hours a day. (4) Only 6.2% of workers ever changed their working places during the past one year. 89.0% of them changed once and 9.0%, twice. Male workers changed their working places more often (8.7%) than female workers (5.7%). 3) Present and past history of illness; (1) 6.7% of workers had the sick among their family members and cardiovascular diseases were most common (47.8%) (2) Those who had experiences of sickness lasted more than one week were 7.1% and those who had had operations were 3.3%. (3) 42.0% of workers were complainning at least one physical symptom. Those who were complainning "tingling pain on eye ball" were the most (20.5%), and headache, and dizziness were both the next (16.3%). 4) Smoking, drinking habits and drug dependency; (1) Among all workers, 11.7% (male, 69.5%; female, 0.4%) were smoking and 13.1%(male, 71.9%; female, 2.3%) were drinking alchole. Those who were using drug customarily were only 2.3% and the drugs they were using were aspirin (35.0%), antibiotics (12.5%) and others. 5) Present physical conditions found at the periodic physical examinations; (1) Mean height of male workers was 168.3cm and that of female workers was 158.1cm. Mean body weight of male workers was 60.7kg and that of female workers was 51.3kg. (2) Those who had anormal vision were 10.1% and the frequency of self-awared hearing loss was 4.5%.If the visual power of one or both eyes was less than 0.6, we considered this as and abnormal vision. (3) Those who were informed by the physician that they had hypertension were 8.4% and those whe were informed that they had tuberculosis lesion on the chest were only 0.4%.
The final research paper is developed a manufacturing technology of molybdenum pin for cold cathode fluorescent lamp electrode of liquid crystal display back light unit. The molybdenum pin is hard to manufacture a specimen precisely and inspect all products. So, it needs to study not only product manufacturing but whole product line. For doing precious things, it needs to develop a new technology as follows; the surface treatment, the development of line treatment, the wire batch and the development of shearing technology, the development of jig and fixture, the development of surface treatment technology of molybdenum pin, the development of technology for all inspection.
Light is a carrier to show the shape of object and space. But in a civilized community. We are using more many "artificial light" rather than "natural light" and ignoring variety and beauty of natural light. And mostly spaces are used in favor of function and concept. The using light of spaces is treated as an aesthetic value beyond a practical role. Because it plays only roles of lighting apparatus and heating. The aim of this study is to suggest an way of using light in the field of architecture to get the aesthetic value of light in places. Recently lots of traditional crafts museums which is designed of closed space has forced to put people off attraction of the crafts. So to solve this problem we try and plan to design exhibition of traditional crafts that is adopted a concept of light to use for open space. As the result of this study, the methods of using light as the architectural tool are concentrating, penetrating, filtering and reflecting. Therefore working with the idea, we are able to make special equipment to meet conditions of traditional crafts exhibition and ultimately obtain an artistic value of light in exhibition spaces.
In domestic sewer rehabilitation works, the numerical weighting based on number of sewer defect is used to determine the propriety of rehabilitation order. In case of the decision standard in each defect contents of inside and outside of the country, the weight for determining sewer rehabilitation order is composed of several distribution of marks, not considering the weight in each sewer defects. In this study, the fifteen defect contents are determined suitable for domestic situation based on the sewer defect data of inside and outside of the country. Also, we select persons in charge of the business to calculate the detail weight and pose questions about important level of each sewer defect contents. The results of using Delphi method which is a question survey method apply the AHP and calculate the weight in each sewer defect. The appropriate marks matrix of sixteen sewer defects is made for laying precise decision standard of sewer condition through the result of analysis. The marks matrix of sixteen sewer defects can solve the complicated decision making problems of sewer rehabilitation works.
The purpose of this study is to estimate deterioration factors and weighting factors in pipe network which each local self-governments takes rehabilitation and replacement work present time. Deterioration factors in pipe network are able to effected of specific province or location related with water supply. Most of water supply pipes are laid under the ground, it is hard to quantify deterioration degree of water system. Moreover, the timing and economic limitation and insufficient information on the spot survey gives a difficulty to look over how old water supply system is. Accordingly, this study collects and analyses five data as the laying environment, visual analysis, analysis of soil contents, analysis of pipe material, and questionary survey data in water pipe of A city. The deterioration factor estimates 14 factors with excavation and experimental analysis and 9 factors without excavation and experimental analysis. Also, the weighting factors are estimated by using the multiple linear regressions and the linear programming. The estimated deterioration factor and weighting results are compared the analysis result of visual, pipe material, and soil contents with the Probabilistic Neural Network Model. Consequently, the model results of estimated 9 factors in this study and 14 factors show the 1-2% difference. The result show that the proposed model could be used to decide the deterioration condition of pipe line with real excavation and experimental analysis.
Building integrated photovoltaic(BiPV)systems can from a cohesive design, construction, and energy solution for the built environment. The benefits of building integration are well documented and are gaining significant public recognition and government support. PV cells, however, convert only a small portion of the incoming isolation in to electricity. The rest is either reflected or lost in the form of sensible heat and light. In order to judge of the Integration capability to the BIPV system, energy efficiency, capacity and integration capability is studied by considering the production quantity of electric power and U-value of PV system.
N-(tert-Butoxycarbonyl)-O-(dicyanoethylthiophosphono)-L-tyrosine(7), the key intermediate for the synthesis of thiophosphotyrosine-containing peptide derivatives, was prepared. For the phosphorylation, we used t-Boc-tyrosine and phosphoramidite in the presence of 1H-tetrazol. For the protection of thiophosphate moiety, cyanoethyl protecting group was used. Thiophosphotyrosine-containing peptides could be used as tools fur the elucidation of mechanism of signal transduction pathway and also prepared as PTK inhibitors. PTPase inhibitors and cytosolic protein binding blockers. It may be contributed for the development of potential anticancer agents.