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      • KCI등재

        접속문의 독립성과 의존성에 대하여 : On the Independency and Dependency in Korean Connective Constructions

        이은경 서울大學校 人文學硏究所 1996 人文論叢 Vol.36 No.-

        <<Abstract>> This paper is an attempt to clarify the interclausal syntactic relation in Korean connective constructions. The distinction between coordination and subordination in Korean is not always clear-cut, but is often a matter of degree. To investigate the degree of the interclausal relation in Korean more closely, the concept of independency and dependency was introduced. The independency means that the preceding clause in connective constructions has it's own subject and prefinal endings. On the other hand the dependency means that the preceding clause shares one subject or prefinal endings with main clause. The independency degree of preceding clause is said to be the highest when the preceding clause and the main clause share only conclusive ending that is representing illocutionary force. The dependency degree of preceding clause is high when it has neither independent subject nor independent prefinal endings. So the general tendency of interclausal relation in connective constructions is represented as following; The more dependent the preceding clause is on the main clause, the less likely are independently-expressed subject and prefinal endings to appear in the preceding clause. We could conclude that the independency of preceding clause is represented as following on the whole; contrastive clauses > enumerative clauses > selective clauses > background clauses > cause clauses > conditional clauses > concessive clauses > resultative clauses > temporal preceding clauses.

      • KCI등재
      • 半月工業團地의 特性과 安山市의 地域構造 分析

        李恩卿 건국대학교 1989 장안지리 Vol.4 No.2

        This study is aimed to explain the characteristics of Panwoˇl Industrial Complex and to analyze regional structure of Ansan city. Especially this study is focused on the growth of Ansan city related to the construction of Panwoˇl industrial Complex. There by this study can show the effect of new employment opportunity on the growth of population and service industries and the development of transportation system. The characteristics of Panwoˇl Industrial Complex can summarized as followes: First, as planned 1,030 enterprises are located in Panwoˇl Industrial Complex and the operating ratio is almost 85% of total industries. And the major industries in Panwoˇl Complex are metal, chemical, textile industry, which is composed of 82% if total industries. Secondly, in order to minimize the industrial pollution, harmful industries such as dyeing, leather and chemical industries ries are allocated in coastal area and Waste-wafer Treatment was constructed. Thirdly, among those which are located in Panwoˇl Complex, 63% of enterprises have their headquater in Panwoˇl and the rest (37%) are branch plants whose headquaters are located in Buˇchon, Inchoˇn, Anyang. Location of new incustries in Panwoˇl has induced the growth of Ansan city in terms of population, econmy, and social overhead infrastructure. The Changes in regional structure of Ansan city between the period of 1978-1988 are summarized as followes : First, population increased from 20,000 in 1979 to 160,000 in 1987. However distribution of population is highly concentrated on Wongok-dong (元谷洞) , Jungang-dong (中央洞) , Kunja-dong(君子洞), which are the nearest districts of Industrial Complex. Wongok-dong is viewed as the Central Bussiness Distict of Ansan city. Age structure and sex ratio of Ansan city may reflect the characteristics of newly formed industrial city. High ratio of young population and high sex ratio is due to the high demand of male employment in metal and chemical industries. Secondly, transportation system and communication network have developed and extended. Ansan city is connected with national road of 42 and 39, and subway system as opened up, which may increase the accessibility to Seoul. Thirdly, land use pattern has been changed dramatically over the 10 years. In 1978, most of this region were cultivated land and forest land. But in 1983, industrial Complex was built in coast of this region, and along national road of 39 an urban district was arranged in Wongok-dong. In 1988, Industrial Complex is extending toward the east and west and the urban district is extending toward the north, thus chancing cultivated land and forest Land into municipal usage fastly. Forthly, compared with other cities , service industries have not been developed well. Therefore people who live in Ansan city would stop by Seoul, Inchoˇn, Anyang and so on, in order to buy the high goods. Recently, the city of Ansan has been growing very fast. Big Apartment Complex has been builted and transportation facilities has been improved. Still the service function and other public facilities are not good situation. Therefore in order to grow Ansan city as a new industrial city, better public facilities and higher service function should be provided. Further the function of Ansan city should be diversified.

      • KCI등재

        공생을 위한 학교종교교육의 패러다임 연구 : 공생의 눈으로 종교적 이야기 다시 읽기

        이은경 한국실천신학회 2020 신학과 실천 Vol.0 No.71

        Due to the fact that it has not been long since the viewpoint of human rights has been introduced into socio-political issues in the Republic of Korea, the application of the concept of human rights into religious studies or religious education has not been much fruitful or successful. One of the reasons is that our concern on human rights has arose recently, and the other reason is due to the modern separation of the sacred and the secular, in which it is not comfortable for religious people that the secular notion of human rights becomes a criterion to evaluate religious, especially Christian, communities governed by God only. Also, there is another side of this situation. Christianity has its own pride in God-given rights, which has been developed into the modern concept of universal human rights. Indeed, Christianity has played the key role of a pioneer in improving human rights in human civilizations. Ironically, Christian communities, especially Protestant churches, today are regarded as the most aggressive groups against human rights and humanistic values. On the one hand, religion can justify our obsessive drive of survival when selfish instinct of survival and reproduction takes priority over the idea of living together in a society, in which the ideas of the survival for the fittest, infinite competition, and winner-take-all effect prevail. On the other hand, religion can be an only hope for alternative living of symbiosis, a way of living well with others, to a form of life driven by selfish genes. Our world today has wrestled with a problem of living together with humans, the nonhuman, and also machines as well as those of climate change and ecological crisis. At the center of these problems lies the ignorance of human rights in religious education or Christian education. Just as religious education has been reluctant to deal with human rights in its own area due to the modern division of the sacred and the secular, it also hesitates to deal with the global issues in the coming age. One needs to be remind that religion, especially Christianity, is the one that gave birth to the concept of human rights and thus that the latter is not anti-religious or anti-Christian. In this context, there is an urgent need to consider religious education in the eyes of human rights and vice versa. In this context, this paper examines how the issues of human rights and ecological crisis have been dealt with in the school curriculum of religious education. Based upon the diagnosis of the problematics in religious education with regards to the issues, this paper will propose a need for a new paradigm of religious education, in which one can nurture our empathetic capacity for human rights, which enables us to take social responsibility and to live well with others including the nonhumans and extending over machines. Human life, as a matter of fact, is always already a form of living and entangled with others, and human rights does not only mean individual rights to live but also social responsibility to build up the foundation of co-life. Rereading in the eyes of living-together the Christian stories of creation, wealth and labour that have been quoted as the theological justification for the survival for the fittest, the winner-take-all effect and the social feeling that no one backs you up, this paper will try to reinterpret the image of God, the trinitarian God, in which our relationship with God is extended over our relationship with neighbors and further over the nonhumans and machines. In this way, as this paper argues, one can nurture a symbiotic community in terms of religious education. 우리나라에서 사회적, 정치적 문제를 인권의 시각에서 바라보기 시작한 것은 그리 오래되지 않았다. 그러다 보니 인권의 시각에서 종교를 탐문하고, 종교교육을 검토한 선행연구 역시 거의 이루어진 적이 없다. 인권에 대한 관심이 비교적 최근에 더 활발해진 탓도 있지만, 인권의 잣대로 신에 관한 영역인 종교와 신의 통치를 받는다고 하는 종교공동체를 살피는 일이 다소 불편하기 때문이다. 또한 그동안 보편적 ‘인권’ 개념이 ‘천부인권’이라는 기독교 사상에서부터 유래했다고 여겨졌기 때문이기도 하다. 두말할 필요 없이 그동안 기독교는 ‘인권’의 대표 주자 역할을 톡톡히 해왔다. 그러나 오늘날 한국사회에서 인권적 가치와 지향성을 가장 거스르는 집단 중 하나가 종교공동체, 그중에서도 개신교이다. ‘적자생존’과 ‘무한경쟁’ 그리고 ‘승자독식’의 사회구조를 정당화하는 사회 안에서 더불어 살아간다는 생각보다는 ‘나 먼저 혹은 나만이라도 살아남아야 한다’는 생각이 강박적으로 작동할 때, ‘종교’는 이러한 강박관념을 강화하기도 한다. 그러나 반대로 대안적 공생의 삶, 다시 말해 ‘함께 어울려 살아가는 삶’의 모델을 제시하는 것 역시 ‘종교’일 것이다. 또한 포스트휴먼 시대에 접어든 오늘날에는 인간과 인간, 인간과 생물의 공생뿐 아니라, 인간과 기계의 공생, 그리고 기후변화와 같은 환경 문제도 간과할 수 없다. 그러나 안타깝게도 이제까지 이러한 문제를 종교교육의 영역에서 다룬 선행연구는 미흡한 실정이다. 종교교육이 성과 속을 분리하면서 인권에 대한 논의를 꺼렸던 것처럼, 오늘날 시대에는 글로벌 이슈에 대한 대처에도 주저하고 있다. 그래서 ‘인권’은 모든 종교가 지향하는 의미 지평임에도 불구하고, 우리 사회에서 인권의 가치를 담보한 종교교육은 한 번도 제대로 시행된 적이 없다. 그러므로 인권의 관점에서 종교교육을 고려할 필요가 있으며, 그 반대의 경우도 시급하다. 이런 인식하에 본 논문은 먼저 학교종교교육의 영역에서 인권과 생태 문제가 어떻게 얼마나 다루어지고 있는지를 살펴보았다. 그리고 그 결과와 함께 사회 구성원으로서 져야 할 ‘사회적 책임’과 타자와의 ‘더불어 삶’(共生)을 가능케 하는 세밀한 ‘인권감수성’을 함양하고, 인간뿐만 아니라, 자연과의 공생을 가능케 하는 새로운 종교교육의 패러다임의 필요성을 제기하였다. 마지막으로는 그동안 적자생존, 승자독식, 각자도생 등의 신학적 근거로 사용되었던 기독교의 대표적 이야기인 ‘창조’, ‘부’와 ‘노동’을 공생의 눈으로 다시 읽으면서 ‘하나님의 형상’에서 비롯된 하나님과 나의 관계가 나와 이웃의 관계로 연장되고, 이것을 통해 ‘공생공동체’를 만들어갈 수 있음을 살펴보았다.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        기호자본주의 시대 마음의 오작동과 몸을 통한 치유가능성 - 성육신적 신학과 신앙감수성 -

        이은경 한국실천신학회 2022 신학과 실천 Vol.- No.79

        The social structures and environments surrounding us today have very serious and critical impacts upon our mental abilities and capabilities. The evolution of capitalism into a form of semiocapitalism has turned the age of contact into that of connection. Along with it, the meaning of meeting has changed from face-to-face or body-to-body to neural connection via digital virtual networks. Commensurate with changes in our social relationships, the changes of our social structures have brought out the changes of the inner structure of personal mind. Antonio Negri and Michael Hardt is relatively optimistic about the potency of digital network and its impact upon human condition in that the global digital network can become the condition and stimulus for global liberation, while it clearly has functioned as the condition of the global oppression. However, Franco ‘Bifo’ Berardi criticizes them for their failure to notice the most radical aspect of the changes taking place in our contemporary world. In the so-called age of connection, disembodiment accelerates, and the mind working on the basis of our biological constitution is exposed to the high risk of mental diseases. Then, one may find some therapeutic alternatives in our bodily constitution even in this the semiocapitalistic and posthuman social structures today. In this context, religions needs to find new understandings of the body by reinterpreting the traditional structure of bodily meanings. Christian theology of incarnation pays attention to our bodily practice of faith and the sense of the integrated wholeness of being along with our bodily existence seeking for Christian values. Religious education in this context should lose its sight of bodily correspondence with nonhuman environments such as memory, tradition, smell, temperature, humidity and so on, because they can offer some chances for religious education in the so-called post-body age. 오늘날에는 우리를 둘러싼 사회의 구조와 환경이 우리의 정신적 능력뿐 아니라, 역량을 발휘하는데 중대하고 심원한 영향을 미치고 있으며, 특히 기호자본주의로의 진화는 접촉의 시대에서 접속의 시대로의 전이를 촉발하였다. 이로 인해 면대면 혹은 몸과 몸의 만남 대신 가상 네트워크를 통한 신경접속으로 만남의 의미가 바뀌고 있으며, 이러한 만남이 일으키는 사회구조적 변화는 개인의 마음 구조에도 변화를 야기하고 있다. 안토니오 네그리와 마이클 하트는 이런 지구적 네트워크 경제가 범지구적 억압의 조건이기도 하지만, 다른 한편으로 모두가 연결된 네트워크 환경이 범지구적 해방의 조건과 동력이 될 수도 있다는 낙관론을 펴기도 한다. 그러나 이와 달리 이탈리아의 철학자 프랑코 베라르디는 이러한 시각들이 현재 일어나고 있는 변화의 가장 근본적인 측면을 놓치고 있다고 비판한다. 이러한 접속의 시대에는 특히 ‘탈육체화’의 경향이 눈에 띄며, 이로 인해 여전히 생물학적 환경에 익숙한 몸을 기반으로 하는 우리의 마음이 오작동을 일으키고, 정신적 질병과 같은 결함들이 지속적으로 야기되고 있다. 그렇다면, 그 치유적 대안은 오늘날의 기호자본주의적, 포스트휴먼적 사회구조 안에서 몸과 육체성의 의미를 새롭게 구축하는 것에서부터 시작되어야 할 것이다. 그리고 이것은 종교 안에서도 자연스럽게 몸에 대한 전통적 이해와 더불어 새로운 이해들을 동반한다. 그중에서도 기독교의 성육신적 신학은 몸을 통해 신앙적으로 행동하고, 몸과 더불어 충만하게 살아가는 존재, 그리고 기독교적 가치를 추구하는 몸적 존재로서 그리스도인의 책임을 강조하고 있다. 이러한 인식하에 본 논문에서는 먼저 육체성을 벗어던진(bodiless) 채로 접촉이 아닌 접속을 지향하는 시대에 여전히 몸을 기반으로 살아갈 수밖에 없는 우리가 직면한 정신질환의 문제, 마음의 오작동 문제를 살펴보고자 하며, 이어서 이러한 문제의 원인이 우리의 뇌와 마음이 모두 우리의 몸, 즉 신체를 기반으로 생각하고 존재하기 때문이라는 것을 드러내고자 한다. 그리고 마지막에는 몸과 마음 사이의 간극을 메우고, 해결하기 위해 기독교의 성육신적 신학과 신앙감수성을 통해 우리의 몸과 마음의 육체성에 대해 재성찰하고자 한다.

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