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國內産 해바라기 種子油를 使用하여 加熱酸化에 依한 變化를 檢討하기 위하여 脂肪酸組成 및 中性脂質成分의 變化와 特性을 測定한 結果는 다음과 같다.<br/> 種子油 중에는 中性脂質, 糖脂質 및 燐脂質의 含量은 各各 94.1%, 3.2% 및 2.7%였다. 脂肪酸組成은 採油直後 oleic acid가 59.84%로 가장 많고 linoleic acid는 29.48%로 그 다음으로 많으며 palmitic 및 stearic acid가 各各 6.21% 및 4.50%였다. 이는 外國에서 生産되는 種子油와 比較하면 linoleic acid가 20~30% 낮은 反面에 oleic acid는 20~30%정도 높았다.<br/> 處理後 linoleic acid 含量은 100℃, 180℃에서 各各 1.48%, 5.32% 減少되었으나, oleic, palmitic 및 stearic acid는 相對的으로 增加하였다. 또한 中性脂質 成分은 triglyceride, diglyceride 및 free fatty acid等의 含量順으로 6個의 成分을 확인 하였고 處理後에 있어서는 triglyceride는 減少한 反面에 diglyceride 및 monoglyceride는 漸次增加하였다. 또한 free fatty acid는 100℃에서 漸次 增加하였으나 180℃ 16時間 以後에는 약간의 減少를 보였다. 沃度價는 處理後 減少하였으며, 過酸化物價는 100℃에서 漸次 계속 增加하였으나. 180℃에서는 16時間 까지는 增加하였으나 그以後 減少現象을 나타내었다. The purpose of this study was to determine effects of thermal oxidation according to heating time and temperature, using sunflower oil from seed grown in Korea.<br/> To investigate these effects, the lipid components, fatty acid compositions, and chemical characteristics of crude oil from sunflower seed were determined.<br/> The content of nonpolar and polar in total lipids was 94.1% and 5.9%, respectively. The fatty acid compositions in the total lipids showed 6.21% palmitic, 4.50% stearic, 59.84% oleci and 29.48% linoleic acid. The concent of linoleic acid decreased during heating. However, the concent of oleic, palmitic and stearic acid increased during heating.<br/> The components of neutral lipid were found 6 fractions, including triglyceride, diglyceride and free fatty acid. The content of triglyceride decreased but diglyceride and monoglyceride increased during heating.<br/> The content of free fatty acid increased during the continuous heating period for 32 hours at 100℃, whereas decreased in 16 hours at 180°.<br/> Iodine value decreased during heating, and peroxide value increased during the continuous heating period for 32 hours at 100℃, whereas decreased in 16 hours at 180℃.
The heterodyne He-Ne laser interferometer is the most widely used system to measure the position error. It measures the positioning error from the displacement of a moving reflector in terms of the wave length. But, the wave length is affected by the variation of atmospheric temperature. Temperature variation of 1℃ results in the measuring error of 1ppm. In this paper, for measuring the position error of the ultra precision stage more accurately, the refractive index compensation method is introduced. The wave length of the laser interferometer is compensated using the simultaneously measured the variation of room temperature in the method. In order to investigate the limit of compensation, the stationary test against two fixed reflectors mounted on the zerodur plate is performed firstly. From the experiment, it is confirmed that the measuring error of the laser interferometer can be improved from 0.34㎛ to 0.11㎛ by the application of the method. Secondly, for the verification of the compensating effect, it is applied to estimate the positioning accuracy of a ultra precision aerostatic stage. Two times of the refractive index compensation are performed to acquire the positioning error of the stage from the initially measured data, that is, to the initially measured positioning error and to the measured positioning error profile after the NC compensation. Although the positioning error of the aerostatic stage cannot be obtained clearly, it is known that by the compensation method, the measuring error in the laser interferometer can be improved to within 0.1㎛ in the practical measurement on ultra precision stage.
N/A Background: Organophosphate and carbamate insecticides have been used extensively in agriculture resulting in serious increases in poisoning. Levels of poisoning by carbamates and organic phosphorus compounds and the severity of associated symptoms are depandent not only on the degree of reduction of acetycholinesterase activity in the nervous system but also on the rate of inhibition and the type of inhibitive action. The most striking differences between the clinical effects of the two groups of compounds are the much more rapid and spontaneous recovery from poisoning by carbamates and the relatively large difference between the lest dosage of any carbamate that will cause mild illness and the lethal dosage of the same compound. The purpose of this study is to compare the clinical characteristics of acute intoxication by organophosphate and carbamate insecticides. Method: We retrospectively analyzed the clinical characteristics of 41patients poisoned with organophsphates and 12patients poisoned with carbamates, who were admitted to the departrrnt of internal medicine, Soonchunhyang Chunan hospital from January 1995to December 1996. Results: 1) The most common organophosphate was EPN(9cases) followed by Dichlorvos(7cases). In the carbamates group, Carbofuran(5cases) was the most common followed by Methomyl(3cases). 2) The main cause of poisoning was ingestion for the purpose of suicide in both groups. 3) The severity of poisoning was more acute in the organophosphate group than in the carbamate group. 4) Altered consciousness and respiratory depression occurred more frequently in the organophosphate group than in the carbamate group. Six cases out of the organophosphate group suffered from respiratory depression 24hours to 96hours after poisoning. 5) The activity of serum cholinesterase showed no significant difference between poisoning with organophosphates and with carbamates. 6) The mortality rate was 22% in organophosphate intoxication and 16.7% in carbamate intoxication, The most common complication of organophosphate and carbamete intoxication was aspiration pneumonia. Conclusion: Carbamate insecticides exhibited less toxicity than organophosphates.
In order to practicalize high precision centerless grinder for machining the ferrule, its feeding system is designed and tested. For satisfying the desired diametric tolerance and cylindricity of the ferrule, the feeding system is designed to have relatively high axial stiffness of 600 N/㎛, high angular motion accuracy of 0.5 arcsec/㎜ in yaw direction and minimum resolution of 0.05 ㎛. A prototype of feeding system is built up with hydrostatic guideway and ballscrew. A linear scale with 0.05 ㎛ of resolution is used for position feedback. Experimental results show that the feeding system has the infinity of axial stiffness within the range of 1000 N and 0.3 arcsec/㎜ of yawing error. Also the feeding system shows obvious step response against 0.05 ㎛/step command without the lost motion or backlash. Although the vertical stiffness is reduced to 440 N/㎛ by the elastic deformation of rail, it is good enough to use for machining the ferrule. From above, it is confirmed that the feeding system is applicable to centerless grinder for machining the ferrule.
동아시아 지역에서의 원자력 수요는 경제 발전을 뒷받침하기 위해 급격히 증가하고 있다. 9.11 사태 이후 전 세계적으로 핵비확산은 세계적인 현안이 되고 있으며 이와 함께 타 지 역과는 달리 동아시아 지역에서는 향후 10년 후 몇몇 국가들이 원자력을 새로이 도입하려는 움직임이 있다. 이와 같은 현안에 대처하기 위해 공급 확약과 핵비확산을 목적으로 새로운 지역적인 다자간 원자력 협력 체제가 제안되었다. 이러한 새로운 제안은 신뢰성 증진, 자발적 참여 및 동기 부여의 원칙을 바탕으로 하고 있다. 또한 동아시아에서 다자간 체제를 실행하기 위해 단계적인 접근 방법을 제안하고 있다. Demand on the nuclear energy in East Asian countries has been grown rapidly to support economic development. After 9.11, nuclear security has become the world wide issue. In addition, unlike to other region, some countries are considering the introduction of nuclear power plants. To meet the challenges a new regional multilateral nuclear approach is proposed aiming at assurance of supply and non -proliferation. The new proposal is based on the principles of confidence building, volunteering, and incentives. The step wise approach is recommended to implement the multilateral system in East Asia.
Design and performance evaluation of a spindle system which was composed of a grinding spindle and a regulating spindle for the centerless grinding of ferrule were performed in this paper. Layout and details of spindle system were designed and hydrostatic bearings for spindles were also designed. Prototype of spindle system was developed and its availabilities to machine the ferrule were discussed using the experimental results on the spindle stiffness of each spindle, loop stiffness, rotational accuracy and thermal characteristics. Loop stiffness of the spindle system was 130 N/㎛, which was enough to machine the ferrule. Rotational accuracies of each spindle were about 0.2 urn at the primary speed of 2,300 rpm(grinding spindle) and 300 rpm (regulating spindle). Temperature rises at the same speed were about 4.4 ~ 4.7 ℃ in the case of grinding spindle and 1.8 ℃ in the case of regulating spindle, which agreed well with the designed value. From these results, it was estimated that the prototype of spindle system had enough performances for the centerless grinding machine to machine the ferrule.