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        조선 초기의 회화 애호풍조

        홍선표 한국미술연구소 2022 美術史論壇 Vol.- No.54

        The trend of penchant for painting in the early Joseon period, including the act of admiring, collecting, and creating paintings, was based on the legacy of late Goryeo period, which inherited the tradition of the royal family, Sarim (lit: Neo-Confucian scholars), and Seollim (lit: Zen Buddhists) since the mid-Goryeo period, and took it even further. The number of Sadaebu (lit: scholar-officials) who left poems on paintings increased more than six times from twenty-three during the late Goryeo period to around 130. Eighty-four scholar-officials were collectors who owned one or more paintings. Eighty literati left their names as a painter. Led by the royal family and Sadaebu—the ruling class— this trend expanded the painting’s transition to its Medieval phase, in terms of both quantity and quality, and by extension, formed the basis for the development of painting in the Joseon Dynasty. Of the royal family, Sejong the Great, his son the Grand Prince Anpyeong, and Seongjong of Joseon were devotees of paintings who inherited and developed the taste of ancestors and thus became the precedent for succeeding monarchs. Sadaebu were the ones who led the culture of Joseon Dynasty while closely responding to the royal family. Whether Hungumunshin (lit: officials from noble families of meritorious achievements) who had a huge presence in Gwan-gak (lit: literary form of offices) literature or Shinjinsaryu (lit: Neo-Confucian scholar-officials) who emerged during the Seongjong period, all of them were related to each other through the academic lineage or bloodline of Yi Saek, the one who headed the trend of penchant for painting during the end of Goryeo period, and the personal networks “which have been tangled like a vine in last 100 years.” Those relationships played a pivotal role in cultivating the culture of Joseon. Hungumunshin’s trend of penchant could be represented by scholars from Jiphyeonjeon (lit: Hall of Worthies), such as Kwon Geun, Shin Suk-ju, Seo Geojeong, and Kim Ahn-ro; the Jinju Kang clan from Kang Seok-deok to Kang Hui-ahn, Kang Hui-maeng brothers; and the Changnyeong Seong clan from Seong Seok-rin to Seong Yim, Seong Gan, Seong Hyeon, Seong Semyeong, Seong Sejeok, Seong Setong, and Seong Sechang. That of Shinjinsaryu could be exemplified by followers of Kim Jongjik, such as Kim Il-son and Yi Jongjun; colleagues or followers of Jo Gwang-jo, including Choi Su-sung, Kim Jeong, Shin Jam, and Yi Mungeon. Yi Hwang and Yi Yi continued their tradition. 그림을 감상하고, 수장하고, 창작하는 조선 초기의 회화 애호풍조는, 고려 중기 이래 왕실과 사림과 선림의 전통을 이어 확산된 고려 말의 경향을 계승하여 훨씬 더 확장되는 양상을 보였다. 제화시를 지은 사대부는 약 130명으로 고려 말기의 23명에 비해 6배 넘게 늘었다. 사대부들 중 1점 이상의 회화 수장자도 84명에 달했다. 창작에 이름을 남긴 문인화가는 모두 80명이었다. 왕가와 사대부들의 지배층에 의해 주도된 이러한 풍조는 고려 중기부터 본격화된 중세회화로의 전환을 양적, 질적으로 확대시키며 조선시대 회화 발전의 토대를 이룬 의의를 지닌다.왕가의 애호풍조는 세종과 그의 아들 안평대군에 이어 성종이 선대의 취향을 증식한 애호 군주로, 후대 군왕들의 ‘전례(前例)’를 이루었다. 왕가와 밀접하게 호응하면서 조선왕조 문화를 주도한 사대부들은 관각문예의 주류를 이룬 훈구문신이나성종조부터 대두된 신진사류 모두 고려 말의 회화 애호풍조를 이끈 이색의 학맥이나 혈맥과 “근래 100여 년을 넝쿨처럼 엉키어 온(樛葛相纏 幾近百歲)” 인맥이 중심역할을 하였다. 권근과 신숙주, 서거정, 김안로를 비롯해 집현전 학사 출신들과, 강석덕에서 강희안, 강희맹 형제의 진양 강씨와, 성석린에서 성임과 성간, 성현, 성세명, 성세적, 성세통, 성세창으로 이어진 창녕 성씨 거족벌열 집안이 훈구문신의 애호풍조를 대표했다. 신진사류는 김일손, 이종준과 같은 김종직의 제자와 최수성,김정, 신잠, 이문건 등, 조광조의 동료 및 문하생이 주도적 역할을 했으며, 이들의전통이 이황(李滉)과 이이(李珥)를 통해 계승된다.

      • KCI등재
      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재

        조선시대 감로회도의 연희 이미지

        홍선표 서울대학교 규장각한국학연구원 2010 한국문화 Vol.49 No.-

        As Lu Ji (261-303) of the Western Jin period already affirmed, pictures are widely recognized as the best medium for preserving the shape of objects. Similarly, Silla’s Choe Ch’iwŏn (857~?) said “Drawing is preferable to writing,” and Yi Kyubo (1168~1241) of Koryŏsaid that when describing an object, the effect of drawings surpassed the function of poetry because of its ability to express shapes experienced through the visual sense. Also, King Sejong (r. 1418-1450), who believed that drawings that can be seen with the eyes were “truly beneficial” in understanding reality and in moving people’s hearts, said in compiling the Samgang haengsildo that “I was concerned that the simple-minded people wouldn’t comprehend easily, so added shapes in the hope that kids playing on the road and even commoner women living on an alley would easily understand.” He was demonstrating the utilitarian use of drawings for public welfare through preserving and spreading the visual aspect of shapes of objects. Among art pieces that express shapes of objects through drawings, images related to customs and manners are especially important as they serve as detailed visual recordings that show secular and social aspects of the era before photographs appeared. Especially the images of plays and entertainment in the nectar ritual paintings, which deal with Water-Land rituals for the transfer of merit to the deceased, are valuable as visual resources for the Chosŏn Dynasty’s recreation and performance culture, along with the actors performing. What makes them even more valuable is that they deal with subjects that are not even recorded in genre painting of ‘vulgar customs.’Images of plays and entertainment have so far been mentioned only as one motif of the nectar ritual paintings, so that its real significance remains inaccurately explained or unclear. The historical meaning of the changes in the images of plays and entertainment throughout more than 300 years from the 1580s to the first half of the 20thcentury thus remains to be studied. This paper has analyzed the image of plays and entertainment depicted in around 50 of the 66 nectar ritual paintings that are known today to reveal the types of events and actors and study their changes and meaning. Two types of plays and entertainment, focusing on either acrobatics or pole climbing used to be drawn separately but eventually were depicted together in one scene, showing up as part of the performance of itinerant entertainers or shamans. Even the dress changed from the image of actors at governmental events to the various attires of artists of wandering artists who frequented markets and villages. And while at first the performers acted as substitutes for the transfer of merit, being depicted in the original shape of people who later became wandering spirits, later they appeared together with viewers at the Buddhist All Soul’s festival on the full moon of the seventh lunar month and other events as actual performers in events depicted in a kind of genre painting. Such changes are understood as reflecting how the government-centered plays and entertainments were starting to decline, and the performers sought the patronage of merchants and thus moved towards markets and commoners in order to survive.

      • KCI등재

        에도[江戶]시대의 조선화 열기 : 일본 통신사행을 중심으로

        홍선표 이화여자대학교 한국문화연구원 2005 한국문화연구 Vol.8 No.-

        Considerable numbers of chosun paintings have been imported to Japan through diverse channels including the 5,000-plus works produced in Japan by the painters accompanying the Chosun envoys to Japan that were dispatched twelve times during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. These works activated the exchanges of Korean and Japanese paintings at that time, and played a special role in promoting the mutual understanding on and relationships of the paintings from the two countries. In particular, the visit of a large-scale Chosun envoy with more than 400 members provoked the Japanese people to a cultural stimulation along with a great interest in the Chosun culture, since the Tokugawa shogunate adopted the policy of seclusion and denied other cultures in the Edo period. Such interest led to a popularity of chosun paintings, and they made quite contribution to the energy of the Edo period's calligraphy and paintings and to the trial for the self-fortification or reconstruction of the Japanese paintings in the literati artist's style. This essay is a foundational work to prove the influence of chosun arts in the Japanese's acceptance of foreign arts in the Edo period which has been neglected, and deals with the aspects of importing Chosun paintings to Japan where the Chosun envoys plated a crucial role, the Japanese's enthusiasm for the collection of Chosun paintings and their interests and intentions differentiated by the class they were in. 17·18세기에 걸쳐 12회 일본을 왕례했던 통신사절단의 隨行 畵員들에 의해 현지에서 제작된 약 5,000여 점으로 추산되는 작품을 비롯해 여러 경로를 통해 일본으로 건너간 朝鮮畵는 상당량에 이른다. 당시 한·일간 회화교류를 활성화시킨 이들 작품은 雨國 회화에 대한 상호 인식과 관계를 증진시킨 매체로도 각별한 의의를 지닌다. 특히 도쿠가와 막부의 쇄국정책에 의해 異文化로부터의 자극이 제한되었던 에도시대를 통해 400명이 넘는 대규모 한국인 통신사절단의 방문은 근세 일본인들에게 문화적 자극과 더불어 조선문화에 대한 지대한 관심을 불러 일으켰다. 이에 수반되어 조선화 또한 크게 인기를 끌면서 에도시대 書畵文化의 에네르기와 일본 文人書의 자기 보강 또는 재구축 시도에 적지않은 기여를 했다. 이 논고는 에도시대의 외래미술 수용에 있어서 주목 받지 못했던 조선시대 미술의 영향을 규명하기 위한 기초 작업으로서, 총신사행을 중심으로 이루어졌던 조선화의 전래 양상과 당시 일본인들의 조선화에 대한 수집 열기와 계층별 관심 및 의도를 다룬 것이다.

      • SCOPUSKCI등재
      • KCI등재
      • 상업출판 문화와 개자원화전 초집의 편찬내용

        홍선표 이화여자대학교 한국문화연구원 2007 한국문화연구 Vol.12 No.-

        The first edition of Mustard Seed Garden Manual of Painting(Gaejawonhwajeonchojip:芥子園畵傳初集) was the first landscape illustrationmanual printed in multi-color at Jieziyuan, Nanjing, in 1679. This manual, usedas a textbook and illustration for educative and creative purposes in landscapeart, enjoyed high popularity from late 17th century to early 20th century. However, there is not much knowledge on the intentions or the socio-culturalbackground related to the publication of this first edition of Mustard SeedGarden Manual of Painting-a private publication with profit making as itsobjective-nor on the its compiled contents and problems. In particular, there islack of analysis on it from the perspective that it was a planned publicationbased on the increase in demand of such work, due to expansion of market forretro-culture and literary culture in the world of paintings and literature, after theend of Ming dynasty. This thesis takes note of such fact, and aims to look atthe characteristics of publication culture surrounding the first edition of MustardSeed Garden Manual of Painting, as well as the problems related to itscompiled contents. Recently, there is much energy put into research on theeffects illustrative manuals of late Ming and early Qing dynaties had on the artworld of late Joseon. However, these researches tend to focus on identifying thefigurative relationship among the manuals, with lack of understanding on theircharacteristics as commercial publications. Because these manuals acted as models for paintings of late Joseon period, it would be difficult to understandthe reality of art culture of this period without properly comprehending thecharacteristics of these manuals. 국문초록| 개자원화전 초집은 1679년 남경의 ‘개자원’에서 다색 인쇄로 간행된 최초의 산수화보이다. 이 화보는 산수화 학습과 창작의 교본과 화본으로, 17 세기 말에서 20세기 전반경까지 최고의 인기를 누렸던 것이다. 그러나 방각물서방본인 개자원화전 초집의 출판업과 결부된 기획의도 및 사회문화적 배후와 이에 따른 편찬 내용과 문제점에 대해서는 잘 알려져 있지 않다. 특히 명(明) 말기 이후 서화계의 방고문화와 문인문화의 시중 확산에 따른 수요 증가를 겨냥한 기획 출판물이란 관점에서의 분석은 아직 미진하다. 본 논문은 이러한 측면에 주목하여 개자원화전 초집의 출판문화적 성격과 편찬 내용의 문제점을 살펴본 것이다. 최근 한국 미술사학계에서 명말청초 화보들의 조선후기 화단에 미친 영향에 연구가 활기를 띠고 있지만, 상업 출판물로서의 이들 화보 자체에 대한 이해 부족의 상태에서 양식적 관계 규명에 주로 치중되어 있다. 이러한 화보들은 조선후기 회화의 범본 역할을 했기 때문에 이에 대한 올바른 이해 없이는이 시기 미술문화에 대한 실상 파악은 어렵다.

      • KCI등재

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