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Purpose: This study aimed to compare muscle activities in the right leg during squatting on an angle-adjustable inclined wooden plate at three different angles. Methods: The subjects were 19 healthy adult men and women. An angle-adjustable inclined wooden plate was used for the experiment, and the subjects performed squatting at three adjusted angles of 0° ankle angle, 10° ankle flexion, and 10° plantar flexion. Squatting was randomly performed without a sequence. The knee angle was set at 45°, and a goniometer was used to measure the angles accurately. Electromyography was employed to measure and compare muscle activity in the right leg in each condition. The measured data were converted to root mean square values to calculate the muscle activities. Results: This study showed no statistically significant difference at a 0° ankle angle, but a statistically significant difference was found in the vastus medialis at 10° of ankle flexion. Moreover, statistically significant differences were observed in the vastus medialis and lateralis at 10° of plantar flexion. Conclusion: This study showed a statistically significant difference in the vastus medialis at 10° of ankle flexion and statistically significant differences in the vastus medialis and lateralis at 10° of plantar flexion. Therefore, it may be effective to perform squatting at 10° of ankle flexion when intending to selectively strengthen the vastus medialis and at 10° of plantar flexion when intending to strengthen both the vastus medialis and lateralis.
In this study, an Wireless Data Transmission Module for Large Spatial Structures has been investigated. An Wireless Data Transmission Mobule was designed with a Zigbee-based wireless communication function and a low-power, a variety of external interface. This was designed using RadioPulse Inc's MG2470-chip with a Zigbee-based wireless communication function, and Power Circuit was designed using Battery. The MG2470-chip is a true 2.4GHz system-on-chip (SoC) designed for low-power, low-cost applications based on the industry standards such as IEEE802.15.4 and RF4CE. The MG2470 involves 8-bit 8051 MCU with internal 64-KB flash memory and 6-KB SRAM. Accordingly, it is possible to development of an optimal firmware.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in muscle thickness and ground reaction force of the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateral oblique muscles during squats at ankle angles of toe 0°, toe in 10°, and toe out 10°. Methods: In this study, 9 male and 17 female students in their 20s participated in a randomized controlled trial and were compared according to the ankle angles of toe 0°, toe in 10°, and toe out 10°. To determine the reliability and measurement of muscle thickness according to ankle angle using ultrasound equipment and muscle thickness, the participants’ ankle angles-toe 0°, toe in 10°, and toe out 10°-were measured three times at the vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis oblique muscles during squats. At the same time, the maximum vertical ground reaction force was measured with a force plate. A total of three measurements were taken and averaged, and two minutes of squat movements were assessed between ankle angles to prevent target action. Results: The results of this study illustrated that the reliability of the vastus medialis oblique muscles and vastus lateralis oblique muscles in ankle angle was high. The difference in muscle thickness was significantly greater in comparing the toe out10° angle with the toe 0° angle than between toe in 10° and toe out 10° in vastus medialis oblique and vastus lateralis oblique (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the ankle angle of toe 0° and toe in 10° (p > 0.05). The maximum vertical ground reaction force was significantly greater at toe out 10° than at the ankle angle of toe 0° and toe out 10° and between toe in 10° and toe out 10° (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in the comparison between toe 0° and toe in 10° (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Squatting at an ankle angle of toe out 10° increases the dorsi flexion; thus, the stability of the ankle and the thickness of both oblique muscles increased to perform more effective squats. In addition, as the base of support widens, it is thought that the stability of the posture increases so that squat training can be performed safely.
After the missile is launched, the umbilical connector should be separated from it without any physical interference. The umbilical separation device, for this purpose, was developed by means of new concept. Using the investigation of various methods to separate the umbilical connector, a suitable method was selected and a corresponding device was designed and manufactured. To ensure the performance of the developed device, numerical analysis and performance test were conducted and correction was followed. The umbilical separation device was applied to real system operation test and its operation performance was tested. In consequence, several problems were founded, however, good results were generally obtained.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference in the dynamic balance and leg muscle activity of adults in their 20s with or without shoes. Methods: In this study, seven male and 11 female university students in their 20s were randomized to determine the order of being with or without shoes, and the dominant foot was supported on the central platform of dynamic balance according to the order procedure. Using the opposite foot, the distance of leg stretching in the anterior, posterior medial, and posterior lateral directions and the muscle activity of the supporting leg were measured. Muscle activity measurement sites were attached to the dominant vastus medialis oblique muscle, vastus lateral oblique muscle, tibialis anterior muscle, peroneus longus muscle, and lateral gastrocnemius muscle. Results: As a result of this study, the distance of leg stretching was significantly increased in the anterior, posterior medial, and posterior lateral directions when barefoot rather than when wearing shoes (p < 0.05). The muscle activity of the vastus medial and lateral oblique muscles was significantly increased in all three directions when barefoot rather than when wearing shoes (p < 0.05). The muscle activity of the tibialis anterior was significantly increased in the anterior direction when barefoot (p < 0.05), the peroneus longus muscle was significantly increased when it was barefoot in the posterior medial direction (p < 0.05), and the lateral gastrocnemius muscle activity significantly increased when barefoot in the posterior direction (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The movement of the legs is freed when barefoot as compared to when wearing shoes, and being barefoot can effectively activate muscle activity and improve balance ability.
In this study, an embedded data logger for realtime data transmission and signal storage of the seismic acceleration measurement data has been investigated. A database was planned in order to transform mini-SEED and QSCD20 formats among the data structure required for recording, storage and transmission of data in National disaster prevention system, and the sensor module, Global Positioning System(GPS) module and the power board were integrated by designing a 24bit Analog-Digital Converter(ADC) circuit on the main board. The developed data logger could record, save and transmit the measurement data more sensitively as over-sampled data, where a threshold-type trigger method was applied. The firmware to be installed in the data logger was developed to process time synchronization using GPS, AD transformation and the storage/transmission of multi-format data structure. This was designed to have a high portability to the existing seismic acceleration measurement system along with the web interface for operating environment configuration of the data logger, and the data transformation, storage/transmission and the rate of data transmission according to required specifications were tested, compared and verified. The design of the embedded platform developed in this study is expected to expand the applicability of the existing seismic acceleration measurement sensor and the integrated management system of seismic acceleration measurement data.
The cable-based retractable membrane roof makes it impossible to maintain its shape and stiffness during driving process, unlike the hard-type retractable roof. Consequently, monitoring using a relatively simple wireless video transmission device is required. However, since video data has a bigger transmission rating than other monitoring data in terms of the structure velocity or acceleration, there is a need to develop transmission device that is easy to install and entails low maintenance cost. This paper studies on a real-time video transmission system for monitoring the cable-based retractable membrane roof while driving. A video transfer software, using the mobile network, is designed and the embedded system is constructed. Ultimately, the data transmission server is tested. Connecting a trolley to the system allows testing of the validity and efficiency of the developed system through the video data transmitted in the driving process. Result of the test shows that the developed system enables multi-device data transfer with monitoring via the mobile network.
Purpose: This study examined the effects of wheelchair handle directions on the trunk muscle activity of adult males when climbing ramps. It also evaluated the wheelchair attendant’s physical discomfort during tasks. Methods: Healthy males aged over 20 years were chosen and the direction of wheelchair handle grip was randomly selected. The grips included a general grip with ulnar deviation, a medial grip with wrist pronation, and a neutral grip with a neutral wrist. The trunk muscle activity was measured using surface electromyography. Furthermore, the physical discomfort of wheelchair attendants was subjectively evaluated using the Borg CR-10 Scale, which rates the perceived exertion. In addition, the SPSS 18.0 program was used perform repeated measure ANOVA to compare muscle activity and subjective discomfort during the interventions. The contrast test was also conducted with a significance level (α) of 0.05. Results: There was significant difference between the general grip and the medial grip in the rhomboid major muscle and the lumbar erector spinae muscle (p<0.05). In addition, there was significant difference between the general grip and the neutral grip in the rhomboid major muscle and the lumbar erector spinae muscle (p<0.05). Further, there was significant difference between the general grip and the neutral grip in subjective discomfort (p<0.05). Conclusion: In this study, adult male trunk muscle activity and subjective discomfort were lowest when using the neutral grip while climbing ramps. Accordingly, we suggest that neutral grips will help improve the function of the musculoskeletal system and reduce the subjective discomfort by putting less strain on the trunk muscles and maximizing efficiency with less force.