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This thesis studied the current situations of production, infrastructure, distribution, consumption patterns of medicinal herbs through literature survey as well as the first hand knowledge of the industry. The use of medicinal herbs, that have been used mainly as medicine according to the principle of oriental medicine, are rapidly expanding as they are being used as cosmetics and dynamic foods, enabled by the development of the pharmaceutical and manufacturing technology. However, even with the rapid change in the consumption patterns of medicinal herbs, the production, distribution, and quality management of medicinal herbs are still way behind of the time. In conclusion, this study suggests recommendations to improve production, distribution, and quality control systems and practices of the medicinal herbs industry.
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This article, based on the Diary of Asahi Bunzaemon, looks into the content of the story about "Sumptuary Policy" of Dokugawa Tsunarari(德川綱成), the 3rd lord of Owari (藩主) and "Shōruiawareminorei(生類憐みの令) of Tsunayoshi, the fifth Tokugawa shogun. The official duties of Bunzaemon is keeping guard about three times a month and greeting to superiors. He usually enjoyed the artistic performances, such as Ningyojoruri(人形淨瑠璃) or Kabuki, and sometimes studied the scripture of Confucianism, Confucian Analects, and relieved the tedium through fishing, Buduk, banquets and poetry meeting with his colleagues. How did the low-class samurai perceive the civic administration in the late 17th century, the peaceful era? The study about the civic administration perceived by Bunzaemon started from this simple question. The attributes and the significances of low-class samurai's perception about civic administration looked into through the Diary of Asahi Bunzaemon, can be organized as follows. First, Bunzaemon realistically recorded the criticism and the antipathy of ordinary people about the civic administration. It is likely that his attitude of recording the event without any modification, not through personal clandestine feeling and judgement, or his own views is because of his status as samurai. In fact, if his personal evaluation and appreciation about the specific ruling by the lords and shogun became known outside, his life might be in danger. Thus, he recorded the criticism and the antipathy of ordinary people about the lords and the shoguns without any modification, to reveal his official view about the civic administration indirectly. Second, the criticism and the antipathy about Sumptuary Policy and Shōruiawareminorei appeared in his diary did not signify the criticism against the lord and the shogun, his direct superiors. His criticism about Sumptuary Policy that brought the economic depression into the ordinary people could be interpreted as the reflection of the economic situation of low class samurai who sensitively react with the exchange rate between money and the price of rice, and grapple with the stable household economy. His criticism against Shōruiawareminorei resulted from shogun's religious taste and preference was limited to the treatment of Bakufu, not considering the inconvenience in living, not challenging the authority and the public view about shogun. In this respect, the low class samurai's perception about the civic administration through Bunzaemon clearly differentiated from the social consciousness of Oshio Heihachiro(大塩平八郎), a samurai in the end of Bakufu era and Domakupa(倒幕派) warriors. Regarding how the low class samurai's perception about the civic administration accommodating itself to the system and, on the one hand, reacting sensitively with the irrationality in the society could have the consciousness of 'treason', more contemplation and studies are required in the future.
The notion of generalized intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory is proposed. Our generalized intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory is a combination of the generalized intuitionistic fuzzy set theory and the soft set theory. In other words, our generalized intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory is an extension of the intuitionistic fuzzy soft set theory. The complement, “and” and “or” operations are defined on the generalized intuitionistic fuzzy soft sets.