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a) This investigation was carried out in Chung-Buk province in order to obtain the basic data for divising an effective measure of controling tobacco plant pests and insects, and for establishing the cropping system to produce better and more tobacco by thoroughly inquiring into the out break of tobacco plant pests and insects and the suffering conditions. b) Out-break rates of the main diseases and insects. As for the disease, obvious differences were shown among the kinds of disease and among the districts. Rates of out break of tobacco plant diseases were in the following order : brown spot, granville wile and virus for kinds of diseases : and Chungju-Miwon, Eumsong Jinchon, Choongju-Jechon, Poeun, Okchon, and Jeung pyong for districts. Significant differences were recognized between the region of Chongju-Miwon and the region of Poeun, Okchon, Jeungpyong, and between the region of Jinchon-Eumsong, and the region of Okchon, Jeung pyong, while the differences among other regions were insignificant. As for the insects, outbreak rate of tobacco moths amounted to 50. 2% of tobacco plants, and differences were to be seen among regions. There were differences among the region of Chung ju-Miwon, Jinchon-Eumsung and four other regions while no differences were shown among the regions of Okchon, Poeun, Jeung pyong-Choonfiu and Jechon c) Rate of injuries by those plant pests and insects were as follows: i) Diseases : quantity‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥11.52% quality ‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥18.42% ii) Isects : quantity‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥1.53% quality‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥‥1.64% Over all rates of injuries amounted to 13.05% in yields and to 20.06% in quality. d) Tendencies of outbreak and rates of injuries by each plant and insects were as follows: 1) Diseases a) Brown spot Out break-rate of brown spot was the highest, 37.8% among all. No differeances were shown by the number of successive cropping years of tobacco plants on the same land. However, highly significant differences were found among different districts. Districts of Chonaju-Miwon showed highest rate of outbreak 79.5%, As to the rates of injuries in yield by this disease, differences were shown among districts and among kinds of leaves. And same tendencies were to be seen for the rates of injuries in qualities. Especially there were highly significant defferences among kinds of leaves. Rate of injuries both in yield and in quality was highest in medium leaves and in the order of main leaves, low leaves and high leaves. Some of the rates of injuries in different districts are shown below : ◁표 삽입▷ (원문을 참조하세요) The average rails of injuries caused by this disease (Brown Spot) were 1.00% in yield and 1.85% in quality. b) Virus disease Average rate of outbreak of virus was 15.2%, next to brownspot, and was not related with the number of successive cropping years of tobacco on the same land. But each district showed different infection rate of virus; for instance, the outbreak-rate of virus in Jinchon Eumsong district amounted to 29.7%, which was the highest. Rate of injuries in yield by virus showed no obvious difference among districts but there were highly significant differences according to the degrees of infection: highest rate of injuries occured at outbreak index "5." Rates of injuries in quality showed highly significant differences among districts and degrees of infection: Several injuries were found in Jinchon Eumsong district, being 15.57% and at outbreak index "5" The average rates of injuries by this disease were 4.18%, in yield and 8.25% in quality injuries in yield was next to the highest caused by granville wit and injuries in qualities was the highest among the injuries caused by other diseasess and insects investigated. c) Granville wilt It was only granville wilt among the diseases which were investigated that showed sign ificant difference of outbreak rate and of rate of injuries in yield owing to the number of successive years of cropping tobacco on the same land differences in rates of injuries were insignificant in each districts, but the more the years of continious cropping of tobacco the more the outbreak rate and loss in yield were observed. Outbreak rate of this disease was 9.9% and highest rate of injuries in yield was 9.9% found on the land of 20 years successive cropping of tobacco. Average rate of injuries caused by granville wilt were 5.95% in yield, the highest among the diseases and insects, and 7.91% in quality, the next the highest injuries caused by virus. 2. Injuries caused by insects: a) Tobacco moths and Tobacco bug. Outbreak rate of mouths was 50.2% showing no difference owing to the number of successive cropping years of tobacco on the same land. But high differences in outbreak rate were found among districts : for instance, in Chongju-Miwon district, outbreak-rate amounted to 78% which was the highest percentage. Rates of injuries in both yield and quality showed great differences among districts and kinds of leaves. Greatest injuries occured in Chongju-Miwon district being 2.55% in yield and 2.59% in quality. Main leaves suffered the most injuries and next were in the order of medium leaves, high leaves and low leaves. Outbreak rate of tobacco bug was 2.9%, and the rate of injuries was 0.02%, only in quality, very slight, Average rates of loss caused by insects in the whole districts were 1.45% in yield and 1.55% in quality. b) Nematode. This survey was carried out in order to reveal tendency of the inhabitation density of nematode according to successive cropping of tobacco plants on the same land. Inhabitation density of nematode was found to be increasing remarkably with the years of successive of tobacco. In course of 5 to 6 years of successive cropping of tobacco plants on the same land, inhabitation density increased gradually and reached the maximum density at 11 to 20 years of successive cropping. Among districts, difference was found between the new production area and the old production area. As describe above, out break of granville wilt of tobacco plants increased with the number of successive cropping years. And with the same number of successive cropping years, outbreak of granville wilt increased with the inhabitation density of nematode. c) The effect of brown spot, anthracnose, wild fire etc, upon the yield and quality of tobacco plants, which have not studied in this investigation will be studied later. And the later study will also include concrete survey on the time and outbreak conditions of tobacco disease and insects, countermeasures against successive cropping of tobacco, and relation between inhabitation density of nematode outbreak diseases, etc.
With the aim of surveying soil characteristics of main Y.S.A-producing fields, the results obtained from the soils in the Cheungju-Cheungwon-gun producers' cooperative area are summarized as follows : 1.The results obtained from the present survey of soils were not consistent with the originalgrades designated as A, B and C by the producers' cooperative. 2.Particularly in terms of the relationship between cultivation periods(yrs) and yields, the yields in normal-productive soils decreased gradually with time, whereas no such tendency was observed in the low-productive soils. Pest damages were noticeable in the case of the low-productive fields. 3.Physical properties showed that the depths of surface soils were, on average, over 20cm in both normal and low-productive fields, the former being a little deeper. In soil texture, in general most of them were coarse sandy soils, low-productive fields abounding in clayey soils. 4.Chemical properties indicated that both normal and low-productive soils were strongly acidic, Mostly the latter having lower pH's than the former to be pH 4.6~5.0. Proportionally, exchangeable base and degree of base saturation of low-productive soils were lower than those of normal soils. This seems to be the cause of low-productivity in terms of soil itself. Contents of total nitrogen, available phosphorus, and humus were very low and far below the average contents of field soils of this country. No difference was recognized between normal and low-productive soils.
This paper aims to analyse the general characteristics of tobacco productive circumstances and to suggest attention on mechanization alternatives that are available to build up the infra-structure for tobacco production. The characteristics of tobacco productive circumstances can be summarized as widespread small scale farming, high labor practices, and pit-covered mulching cultivation. Rapid development of economic growth during the last decade has been largely increased farm wages as decrease of the shortage of absoluted rural labors. Accompanying the labor problems have been a continual reducing of tobacco production. Much progress has been made in recent years in the development of new tools and techniques for all phase of tobacco production, form soil preparation to curing. The new developments should be considered both reducing labor and raising operational efficiency toward optimum levels. The improvement of productivity should be effectively produced on mechanization and techiques by float system and direct-seeding of transplants in large greenhouse, integrate work of soil preparation, many-sided machinery for field management, large curing facilities, automation of curing management, and large package of tangled leaf. The management rationalization should be effectively produced on expanding farm size, reforming farm land, specializing the seedling production, manufacturing compost and grouping the curing barn by contract farmers or encouraging group.
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of shading rate of the pipe house covered with transparent plastic during curing on the variation of physical and chemical characteristics in burley tobacco. The results are summarized as follows. The decomposition of chlorophyll and total sugar during curing were insufficient in lower shading rate, particularly in no shading. In the case of higher shading rate, the content of ammonia nitrogen was more increased and that of amino-nitrogen was less increased. Chlorogenic acid was less decreased with lower shading rate. Yellowished and photobleached leaves under higher than 60% shading were markedly decreased, while house-burned leaves was slightly increased. Though yellowished leaves greatly decreased by higher shading rate, but there was insufficient to prevent yellowished leaves. Especially, the treatment of no shading overdried the tobacco leaves during the initial stage of curing as indicated by the 50% abnormal leaves from half of total leaves being marked as yellowish.
The objects of this study were to search ideal dibbling depth and cell size in direct-seeding improved float system. Percentage of dry cell was high in dibbling depth of 0.0mm and 7.5mm in every cell size. Dibbling treatment increased the seed germination rate. Germination power of the 128 cell was high in dibbling depth of 15.0mm or more, and that of the 162 cell and 200 cell was high in the depth of 12.5mm or more. Rate of usable plant of the 128 cell was high in dibbling depth of 15.0mm, and that of the 162 cell and 200 cell was high in the depth of 12.5mm. Compaction and low oxygen levels of media by deeper dibbling depth contribute significantly to spiral root. According to the interacting results of the treatments, dibbling depth of 15mm in 128 cell and that of 12.5mm in 162 cell and 200 cell were recommended to get high seed germination rate and good seedling growth.
1.The growth amount of shoot and root was increased by increased amount of watering before and during hardening. 2.In the severe hardening treatment the growth amount of shoot during hardening was increased little, but the growth of root of carbonized chaff plot and compost+soil plot was decreased and that of the compost plot and carbonized chaff+soil plot was increased. 3.During hardening period, root was not elongated but the weight of root was increased. 4.The root length of carbonized chaff plot was shortest among the treatments. There was no significant difference of the weight of root among the media treatments in case of moderate hardening. But in case of severe hardening, the weight of root of carbonized chaff plot was little and showed difference among media treatments. 5.Small amount of watering before and during hardening made large the Root/Shoot Ratio. And the Root/Shoot Ratio was high in the compost plot and compost+soil plot and low in carbonized chaff plot and carbonized chaff+soil plot.
1.Number of leaves, plant height, leaf area, weight of shoot and rout were increased and Root/Shoot Ratio was decreased by increased amount of watering before and during hardening. 2.Plant height root length, leaf area and weight of shoot and root were large in the media contained 75% and 50% of carbonized chaff, and small in the media contained 100% and 25% of carbonized chaff. 3.In moderate hardening treatment, there were little difference of shoot and root weight and Root/Shoot Ratio among the media. In severe hardening treatment, the shoot and root weight was small in the media contained 100% carbonized chaff and large in the media contained 50% and 75% carbonized chaff. 4.Media contained 100% carbonized chaff showed high ratio of root weight/root length and showed little difference of leaf area between the fourth and fifth leaf.
The personal and agronomic characteristics of tobacco famers were surveyed on 482 men randomly selected from main production districts of tobacco in Korea. The average age and tobacco producing career of farmers was 46.8 and 14.8 years, respectively. 69.5% of investigated farmers were completed further the junior high school course, and they averaged 5.6 men in a family but the available hands on forming was 2.21 men. Total culivated acreages per farmer was 284a, and then 34.3% of the acreages was the leased land. 59.7% of the total cultivated acreages was for tobacco, and 28.5% of them was for rice, and the rests were for red pepper and the other plants. The average size of tobacco farmland was 175a, and then 28.4% of them was paddy field. The tobacco farmland was consisted of 5.1 pieces which the size of a farm varied from 38a to 60a. 97.4% of tobacco farmlands was located in a flatness and a gentle slope, and 85.8% of them was distributed within 1.5Km from the house. And then total distances among the tobacco farmlands from the house was estimated 4,852m. The rent of leased land per Pyeong was \548.0 in a year, and the market price of farm varied significantly from \4,000 to \145,000 per Pyeong according to the districts. The agricultural incomes per farmer was estimated yearly \21,334,000, which was consisted of tobacco(66.5%) rice((15.6%), red popper(9.8%), and others(8.2%)
This study was conducted to investigate the effects of fertilizer rates and cell size on the growth of flue-cured tobacco seedlings at Float system. The results are summarized as follows: 1.Leaf area, dry weight of shoot and root, root length, stem length and top/root ratio of floated plants were generally larger than those of over-head watered plants. 2.The growth of tobacco seedlings was good in 100~200 ppm/N plot. Poor growth of seedlings were shown in 50ppm/N and too big seedlings to transplant were produced in 300ppm/N. 3.Leaf area, dry weight of top, stem length, root length and top/root ratio were larger in the seedlings grown in the large cell than in the small cell. 4.The growing characters of tobacco in field performance were not affected by different methods of growing seedlings.
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of curing methods and stalk positions on the variation of tobacco-specific nitrosoamines during air-curing in burley tobacco. The results are summarized as follows. 1.The content of total nitrogen and alkaloid in the cured leaves was higher at priming than at stalk-cutting, which was higher in the upper leaves than in the middle leaves at priming, but had no difference at stalk-cutting. 2.The content of Nitrosonomicotine and Nitrosoanatabine in the middle leaves was increased during the midrib drying stage, after the browning stage. In the case of the user leaves, that was increased from the yellowing stage, the content in the priming was increased more than any other treatments and showed the highest levels in cured leaves. 3.The content of Nitrosoanabasine and 4-(N-methyl-N-nitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl) -1-butanone was slightly increased during curing. The content showed no difference between at priming and at stalk-cutting in the middle leaves, and the content in the upper leaves showed higher levels at priming than at stalk-cutting. 4.The content of Tobacco-specific nitrosoamine was increased during the browning and midrib drying stages, after the yellowing stage. The content in the middle leaves showed no difference between at priming and at stalk-cutting, and the content in the upper leaves increased more at priming than at stalk-cutting.