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In 1930's, capitalism gradually became established in Chosun. As Chosun's economy was incorporated into the global capitalistic system, the domestic economy became dependent on the international market. During this time, Kyeong-Seong was transformed into a capitalistic city. Various forms of modern facilities appeared, while urban consumerism constituted the city life. Thus, the everyday life in Kyeong-Seong demanded the acceptance of modern culture in order to adapt to the changing environment. Inside the city, people experienced modern civilization and urban consuming life, and came to adjust their form of living and their viewpoint of the world. This thesis examines the advertisement and text that appears in the newspapers, magazines, and other journalistic material of the thirties in order to determine how the commercials, romance, hobby or entertainment, and the newly discovered "pastoral" influenced the contemporary life and mind. Also, we intend to reveal how these factors took form in the contemporary literature. The contemporary Korean writers were inevitably surrounded by the popular and urban sensibility mentioned above. Even though unconsciously, or sometimes through negative criticism, this sensibility was included in their text. Even the nature that was considered to be a replacement of the desolate and inhuman city life was in fact a filtered form of nature - an image constructed by the popular culture and advertisements. Also, the romance described by the sensitive authors often took the form of a consumer love. Meanwhile, judging from the penetration of commercial statements which appears in several works, there was a growing desire to consume the image. Along with the newly adapted hobbies and leisure culture, the Korean life style went through a significant change, and so did the content of the contemporary novels. The urban sensibility formed in Kyeong-seong during the nineteen thirties can be defined as the common popular sensibility attained by people living in a capitalistic consuming culture. It is attitude of setting the commercial image as a model of life, and is the search of individual life in the standardized and uniform life style of the popular culture. Whether they chose to criticize it or saturate themselves in it, the contemporary writers were unavoidably related to this sensibility and life style.
Towards the end of the Joseun Dynasty, Seoul had extended itself outside the capital boundaries due to increased population and commercial development. Within such change of urban space, there were 6 methods in which it was divided. First, based on the physical facilities of the capital, the city was divided into sections 4km inside and outside the capital. Second as an administrative zonal division, the city was divided into 5 directional zones of east, west, south, north and central, which was, then each given an administrative body called "Bang". Third as a division according to the city function, the space was divided into the royal palace in which the king resided, the district in which the 6 government offices were located, the "Unjongga" in which the market and various handicraft merchants were located and the memorial services and civilian residential districts in which the Royal Ancestor's Tomb and judiciary offices were located. Fourth, as a division reflective of the residents' social standing and disposition in each district, the city was divided into the northern town, southern town, central town, upper town and lower town. Fifth, dividing the city into district along the river and 4 separate districts surrounding the mountains. Sixth as a division relative to military and judiciary concerns, the city was divided into a district bordering the police bureau and the 3 capital protection districts according to the military. Methods in which to recognize Seoul on ancient maps include the theory of divination based on topography, method in which divides are determined based on the kingdom and recognition according to traffic and commercial districts. The ancient map was drawn generally along the late 17th to late 19th centuries. Despite this, the reason for the varied recognition is due to the transitional nature inherent in the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty. This period, while being a society ruled by traditional ideology and notions, was at the same time a period in which dynamic movement was present in preparation for the new society. These 3 cognitive attitudes, though a recognition of space during the same period, are each representative of the regression, authority and progression of the times.
The `borderline based(國境中心) defense strategy' in early Chosun evolved into a `capital region based(首境圈中心) defense strategy' after Imjin-Waeran and Byeongja-Horan. Until the early 18th century, the `capital region based defense strategy' was mostly centered around the King' s refuse place(保障處), however through the reconstruction of the capital city(都城), the construction of Bukhansan fortress(北漢山城)-Tanchundae castle(春臺城), and Musin-Ran(戊申亂), the `capital-city based defense strategy' took place as the key strategy during King Youngjo' s reign. Since then, through the equipment of king' s loyal guard, restoration of the capital city, announcement by the King and policy guide on the capital-city defense, the `capital-city based defense strategy' concretely took place as the `capital region defense strategy' Through the 17th and 18th century, as the area around Han river developed itself from a supporting area of the capital to a distribution center of the country and also resulting in a sharp increase of resident population, there were numerous voices on the necessity to reinforce the defense system around Han river. The propositions included building a castle in the outward city and predicting potential invaders that could cross Han River. The government sent commanding officers to the ferries to reinforce the management of ferries and built command posts to improve the defense function. In addition, they designated responsible numbers of ferries and vessels per army and defined the patrol area of police bureaus and training centers to reinforce the security and defense around Han river. As such, the evolvement of the defense strategy from a borderline based defense to a capital city based defense and the reinforcement of the government' s supervision around Han river throughout the 17th and 18th century, reflects the concentration of the economic power in the capital-city, Seoul, and the environs of Han river.
베를린, 파리, 런던, 로마 등 유럽 역사도시들의 현대화 과정과 특징을 비교 검토하고, 거기에 나타난 문제점들을 고려하면서, 베를린의 예를 통해 앞으로의 도시발전 전망에 대한 여러가지 견해를 피력하였다. 도시의 매력이란 그 도시에 대한 충성심을 가지고 도시의 역사성을 소중히 할 때 생기는 것이지만, 이러한 역사성은 개발의 과정이나 또는 유지·보수의 어려움이 있을 때는 문제가 될 수 있기 때문에 여기서 갈등이 나타난다고 보았다. 그런 점에서 도시의 소프트적인 요소나 이미지 가치들을 조화롭게 계발할 수 있는 도시계획의 수립이 중요하다는 것이다. 이 점을 밝히기 위하여 먼저, 도시의 발전에서 하드적인 위치요소와 소프트적인 위치요소의 역할을 살피고, 베를린, 파리, 런던, 로마의 역사성을 비교하여 그 차이점을 찾아보고, 베를린을 예로 들어 그 역사성을 현대적으로 표현하기 위한 노력들이 어떤 것들인가를 제시하였다. 독일의 분할, 베를린 장벽의 건설, 경제적인 의존성과 정치적인 역할의 상실 등으로 인하여 발전이 저해되었던 베를린이 통일 이후 도시개발의 새로운 시작을 전개하면서 지켜야 할 임무로 제시하고 있는 '선택된 결론'들은 역사적인 지역의 갈등과 조화의 논의가 집중적으로 나타나는 현장의 구체적 사실들을 낱낱히 보여주고 있다.