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      • Real Gas Effects of Supercritical CO₂ Flow through a Supersonic Nozzle Senthil kumar Raman and Heuy Dong Kim

        Senthil kumar Raman,Heuy Dong Kim 대한기계학회 2016 대한기계학회 춘추학술대회 Vol.2016 No.12

        The unique characteristics of supercritical carbon dioxide (SCO₂) are reason enough to find its use in various engineering applications. But still usability of SCO₂ is not completely explored due to lack of knowledge about its real gas effects. The present study mainly addresses the real gas effects on supercritical CO₂ flow through a supersonic convergent-divergent nozzle. With series of theoretical equations which are based on one-dimensional gas dynamics theory, computer program has been developed to predict the compressible flow characteristics of supercritical CO₂. With the data obtained from the computer program, properties of supercritical CO₂ near critical point is theoretically analyzed with different EOS. Computational analysis also has been carried out to reasonably predict the SCO₂ flows. The deviation in prediction of properties of SCO₂ by a EOS from other one is addressed. Several types of the equations of state were applied to the compressible Navier-Stokes equations. For effective use of available EOS, an attempt is made by coupling ideal gas EOS and real gas EOS to analyze the real gas effect of SCO₂. These results are compared with the computational results of SCO₂ flow through convergent divergent nozzle with a single real gas EOS. The obtained solutions were used to investigate the generic features of supercritical CO₂ flow, in terms of shock wave location, flow choking, total pressure loss, pressure recovery, etc.

      • KCI등재

        A Simple Method for Solving Type-2 and Type-4 Fuzzy Transportation Problems

        Senthil Kumar, P. Korean Institute of Intelligent Systems 2016 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of FUZZY LOGIC and INTELLIGE Vol.16 No.4

        In conventional transportation problem (TP), all the parameters are always certain. But, many of the real life situations in industry or organization, the parameters (supply, demand and cost) of the TP are not precise which are imprecise in nature in different factors like the market condition, variations in rates of diesel, traffic jams, weather in hilly areas, capacity of men and machine, long power cut, labourer's over time work, unexpected failures in machine, seasonal changes and many more. To counter these problems, depending on the nature of the parameters, the TP is classified into two categories namely type-2 and type-4 fuzzy transportation problems (FTPs) under uncertain environment and formulates the problem and utilizes the trapezoidal fuzzy number (TrFN) to solve the TP. The existing ranking procedure of Liou and Wang (1992) is used to transform the type-2 and type-4 FTPs into a crisp one so that the conventional method may be applied to solve the TP. Moreover, the solution procedure differs from TP to type-2 and type-4 FTPs in allocation step only. Therefore a simple and efficient method denoted by PSK (P. Senthil Kumar) method is proposed to obtain an optimal solution in terms of TrFNs. From this fuzzy solution, the decision maker (DM) can decide the level of acceptance for the transportation cost or profit. Thus, the major applications of fuzzy set theory are widely used in areas such as inventory control, communication network, aggregate planning, employment scheduling, and personnel assignment and so on.

      • KCI등재

        A Simple Method for Solving Type-2 and Type-4 Fuzzy Transportation Problems

        P. Senthil Kumar 한국지능시스템학회 2016 INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL of FUZZY LOGIC and INTELLIGE Vol.16 No.4

        In conventional transportation problem (TP), all the parameters are always certain. But, many of the real life situations in industry or organization, the parameters (supply, demand and cost) of the TP are not precise which are imprecise in nature in different factors like the market condition, variations in rates of diesel, traffic jams, weather in hilly areas, capacity of men and machine, long power cut, labourer’s over time work, unexpected failures in machine, seasonal changes and many more. To counter these problems, depending on the nature of the parameters, the TP is classified into two categories namely type-2 and type-4 fuzzy transportation problems (FTPs) under uncertain environment and formulates the problem and utilizes the trapezoidal fuzzy number (TrFN) to solve the TP. The existing ranking procedure of Liou and Wang (1992) is used to transform the type-2 and type-4 FTPs into a crisp one so that the conventional method may be applied to solve the TP. Moreover, the solution procedure differs from TP to type-2 and type-4 FTPs in allocation step only. Therefore a simple and efficient method denoted by PSK (P. Senthil Kumar) method is proposed to obtain an optimal solution in terms of TrFNs. From this fuzzy solution, the decision maker (DM) can decide the level of acceptance for the transportation cost or profit. Thus, the major applications of fuzzy set theory are widely used in areas such as inventory control, communication network, aggregate planning, employment scheduling, and personnel assignment and so on.

      • KCI등재

        Influence of ultrasonication on preparation of novel material for heavy metal removal from wastewater

        Senthil Kumar Ponnusamy,Saravanan Anbalagan,Sundar Rajan Panneer Selvam,Abishek Sankaranarayan,Abhishek Dutta 한국화학공학회 2016 Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering Vol.33 No.9

        The present research introduces a new concept on rapid removal of Pb(II) ions from wastewater using novel agro-based material. The two types of materials such as sulfuric acid modified Caryota urens seeds (SMCUS) and ultrasonic assisted Caryota urens seeds (UACUS) were prepared and performance was compared for Pb(II) ions removal. The functional groups available on the C. urens were discussed by using FT-IR report. Adsorption influencing parameters such as initial metal ion concentration, pH, contact time, adsorbent dosage and temperature were studied to predict the optimum conditions. Several isotherm and kinetic models were applied to examine the experimental data. The present adsorption-adsorbate system best obeys the Freundlich and pseudo-first-order models. Langmuir monolayer capacity of the SMCUS and UACUS for Pb(II) ions was found to be 93.7 and 175.9mg/g, respectively. Thermodynamic parameters explain that the adsorption of Pb(II) ions was spontaneous and exothermic.

      • De novo assembly and transcriptome analysis of bulb onion (Allium cepa) during cold acclimation using contrasting genotypes

        Senthil Kumar Thamilarasan,Jeong Suk Hyeon Han,Jong-In Park,Ill-sup Nou 한국육종학회 2015 한국육종학회 심포지엄 Vol.2015 No.07

        Bulb onion (Allium cepa) is one of the second most widely cultivated and consumed vegetable crops in the world. During winter where the temperature can be as low, plant could get cold injury and limit the production of bulb onion. However, the genomic resources available for bulb onion are still very limited. To date, no studies about heritably durable cold and freezing tolerance were carried out in bulb onion genotypes using high-throughput sequencing technology was applied. We sequenced cold (2°C) freezing (-5 and -15°C) treated and control (25°C) samples of contrasting genotypes of A. cepa lines and obtained 4,52,194,370 total high quality reads. After de novo assembly reads were assembled into 54,047 genes finally generated with an average length of 1,331 bp. Based on the similarity search aligning all genes with known public non-redundant (NR) database, including Swiss-prot, KEGG and COG. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were investigated using FPKM method. Overall, 92,862 genes were differentially regulated in all libraries were identified. Additionally, increase our understanding of the DEGs, we performed GO and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. Based on FDR<=0.01 value in cold freezing tolerant line candidate genes were selected and discussed. Finally 25 candidate genes were examined using qRT-PCR were differentially regulated and known to be associated with cold and freezing stresses. Moreover, in silico prediction of putative molecular marker 4,437 SSRs and 6,076 SNPs. Our study is the first to provide the transcriptome sequence resource of Allium spp., for cold and freezing stress. We identified large set of genes to determine its DEGs profile under cold and freezing condition using two different genotypes. These data provides a valuable resource of genetic and genomic studies of Allium spp.

      • Effects of Probiotic Supplementation on Hepato-Protective and Oxidative Stress Indices in Subjects with Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

        ( Senthil Kumar Subramani ),( Rohit Sharma ),( Arjun Yadav ),( Shailendra Raghuwanshi ),( Gbks Prasad ) 대한간학회 2020 춘·추계 학술대회 (KASL) Vol.2020 No.1

        Aims: Liver disease is one of the most common and occurs asymptomatically until disease affects a significant part of the organ. Probiotics are live microorganisms promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed adequate amount, health benefits including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on liver function and oxidative stress biomarkers in Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Liver disease is one of the most common and occurs asymptomatically until disease affects a significant part of the organ. Probiotics are live microorganisms promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed adequate amount, health benefits including antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. This study aimed to determine the effects of probiotic supplementation on liver function and oxidative stress biomarkers in Type II Diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. Methods: In a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial, 60 Subjects with aged 30-65 years were selected from CTR, Jiwaji University and assigned into two groups; Subjects in the probiotic group received a daily capsule containing Lactobacillus acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidium & Saccharomyces boulardii each 0.5 Bn/g and Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus clausii each 0.25 bn/g with 125mg FOS. BD for 12 weeks. (Placebo group only 125mg FOS in a capsule). In the baseline and at the end of the study, physical activity levels, and dietary intakes were assessed. Anthropometric parameters, blood glucouse, Liver function markers malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), reduced glutathione (GSH), and catalase (CAT) activities were measured. Statistical analysis was carried out using a paired t-test and student t- test. Results: There was no significant difference between the two groups for demographic characteristics, anthropometric parameters at the baseline of study. The mean fasting blood glucose levels were reduced by 16.3%.The probiotic supplementation resulted in a significant improvement in bilirubin by 22.3%, 15.9% ALP 17%,10.2% SGOT 27.2, 22.5%, SGPT 17.9, 17.1% GTT 13.9, 11.9% in subjects taken probiotic placebo capsules respectively. It also observed that the significant increase in GSH (P<0.01), SOD (P<0.01), CAT (P<0.01) and decrease in MDA level (P<0.01). Significant difference was observed between-group for these enzymes activities & other parameters at the end of the study. Conclusions: Overall, the results demonstrate that probiotics could improve liver function and oxidative stress factors among T2DM patients.

      • Experimental and Computational Studies on the Reentry Capsule Aerodynamics with a Flap

        Senthil Kumar,J K Prasad,Kim H D 한국추진공학회 2016 한국추진공학회 학술대회논문집 Vol.2016 No.5

        Flow field around a typical reentry capsule has been investigated adopting experiments and computations. The reentry capsule has the flap which could be useful to obtain control force. All the studies have been made at a free stream Mach number of 2 and Reynolds number of 30 X 106. Experiments consisted of schlieren flow visualization and measurement of axial force only. Three dimensional computation has been made using FLUENT and adopting k-ω turbulence model. Effect of angle of attack and flap angle has been obtained. Based on present study, it is observed the flap increases the axial force.

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