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The aim of this study is to compare several kinds of negation by not and consider their characteristics. We distinguish three types of negator : (a) The clause negator not negates the whole positive finite clause. Instead of NegP by Pollock(1989) and Chomsky(1989), the feature [+Neg] is assumed under T(ense). [+Neg] is realized as not by an overt verb under T. Only the clause negator not can be contracted as n't. (b) The Verb Phrase negator NOT is generated in the VP-adjoined adverb position. There is a special emphatic pause before the VP negator NOT and the stress is on the negator. (c) The local negator not negates a word or phrase, without making the clause negative.
As is suggested by its title, the present study aims at designing an EFL course for Korean colleges and universities. As such, it falls into five chapters, of which the first is of an introductory nature. The second chapter discusses some issues of theoretical relevance that need to be taken into account in designing any worthwhile foreignlanguage course. One of the points made here is that a good course must faithfully reflect the needs of the learner and of the community as well. The third chapter is a critique of the state of college English in Korea today. Among other things, it is claimed that the English course in current ‘vogue’ gives short shrift to the legitimate needs and interests of the learner. The fourth chapter proposes (a set of guiding principles for) an ideal course design for college English in Korea. One of the suggestions made here is that English be adopted as a partial reading medium for all content areas. The final chapter is a general commentary on the course design proposed in the preceding chapter. As such, it touches on some characteristics of the proposed course design and on some problems that we need to tackle if the design is to be implemented successfully.
In this study, I considered the status of "pre-modals" in OE and ME, and the process of grammaticalization of Modern English modals.I argued that there was no "modal" category in OE and OE pre-modals were ordinary main verbs.One crucial reason for this is that pre-modals behave exactly like ordinary, complement-taking verbs in OE.OE pre-modals belong to the inflectional class of "preterite-presents." Auxiliary verbs in Modern English cannot occur independently of other verbs.However, pre-modals occur without other verbs and take direct objects.Furthermore, pre-modals, unlike NE modals, are found in non-finite forms.All these facts show that pre-modals are ordinary main verbs.In ME, pre-modals continued to behave as main verbs.Therefore, pre-modals were able to take direct objects in ME. In Early Modern English, however, pre-modals came to lose their characteristics of main verbs, and they were reanalyzed as a new category, "modal," Lightfoot(1979:101) postulates that this reanalysis took place in the 16th century.He(1979:101-9) argues that the reanalysis of the pre-modals was provoked by a number of apparently unmotivated changes which isolated this particular group of verbs.He also argues that the pre-modals became identifiable as a unique class by virtue of these changes and the grammar reanalyzed it as a new category "modal" rather than retaining a class of verbs with numerous exceptional features.However, I think that the syntactic changes which Lightfoot sees as causes of reanalysis are consequences of the reanalysis of modal. Lightfoot considers that the most remarkable consequence of the reanalysis is the development of "quasi-modals." He notes that the reanalysis of the pre-modals created a vacuum, which the grammar immediately filled by creating a new set of semantically equivalent verbs.But I consider that the quasi-modals represent a second stage of grammaticalization of full verbs - verbs already existing in the language, not newly created.They are selected for grammaticalization because of their semantic equivalency to modals, but because of the later onset of grammaticalization, they have not yet acquired all the syntactic features of auxiliaries which follow from their semantic function.
In this paper I describe the change of Verb Movement in English and the diachronic development of Modern English(MnE) periphrastic do. In Old and Middle English, the main verb raised to INFL or C, but English lost its overt V-raising ability in Early Modern English (EMnE).The scope of Verb Movement is determined by morphological properties of INFL. Weak INFL cannot attract a heavy element such as a main verb, though it can attract a light element such as an auxiliary, while strong INFL attracts any element. INFL is argued to be strong only if there are plural markings overt and different from singular ones. The loss of V-raising resulted from the changes of morphological features. INFL in OE is rich enough morphologically to attract a heavy element such as main verb. Strong features of OE INFL remained unchanged in Middle English (ME). In ME the system of verb morphology was affected by the same changes that affected uoun morphology. However, the distinction between singular and plural was retained in ME, although there was a good deal of leveling in the verb paradigms. Therefore, the inflectional system in ME was still rich enough morphologically to attract a "heavy" element. Early in the 16th century, the plural marking disappeared in English verb morphology and INFL became weak. Consequently, V-raising disappeared gradually in the EMnE period. We have argued that the development of do as an auxiliary is closely related to the less of v-raising. After the loss of v-raising, optional do developed as MnE auxiliary do for negatives, emphatics, and questions. In case there is no auxiliary verb, do is inserted under T to support the feature[+Neg]. It is argued that there is no NegP in English. Inserted of NegP, the feature [+Neg] is assumed under T. The emphatic do is also introduced in the EMnE after the loss of v-raising. When the verb cannot move to T, do must be EMnE to support the emphatic feature. The [+Q] feature of T must move to C in questions, but it cannot move without being supported by an overt element. A carrier is needed for a feature to move. Our basic assumption is that no feature can move alone without being supported by an overt element. In case there is no modal or aspectual auxiliary, do must be inserted under T as the "last resort" in order to support a feature of T, e.g.[+Neg],or[+Emp]
Teaching Korean as a Foreign Language, 27, 49∼82. Our discussion here focuses on some major theoretical issues of practical relevance to the teaching of grammar, especially as it relates to English and Korean as non-native languages in the Korean context. Our assumption throughout the paper is that what we have learned from our experience with the teaching of English grammar in Korea can be positively transferred mutatis mutandis to the teaching of Korean grammar to non-native speakers of the language. We lead off with a look at the relevance of contrastive/error analyses and language acquisition research, followed by an examination of other issues posed by such dichotomies as: conceptualized vs. isolated grammar, descriptive vs. prescriptive grammar, inductive vs. deductive grammar, performance vs. competence grammar, spoken-vs. written-language grammar, low- vs. high-intelligibility grammar, and learner- vs. teacher-friendly grammar. Based on our discussion of these issues, we suggest that teachers of(English and Korean grammars as) non-native grammars adopt an eclectic approach, which not only incorporates results of contrastive/error analyses and language-acquisition research but also balances the two opposing sides of each of the dichotomic issues discussed. (Seoul National University)
In this paper I discussed the origin and introduction of periphrastic DO in English questions. I argued that DO X, which was first inrtoduced by the influence of French Italic In the South-Western dialet in the late 13th century, was the origin of Modem English periphrastic DO. The introducton of periphrastic DO is closely related to e loss of Verb Movement in Early Modem English. In Old and Middle English, the main verb raised to INFL or C, but English lost its overt V-raising ability in Early Modem English. The scope of verb Movement is determined by morphological Properties of INFL. Weak INFL cannot attract a heavy element such as a main verb, though it can attract a light element such as an auxiliary, while strong INFL attracts any element. INFL is argued to be strong only if there are plural markings overt and different from singular ones. The loss of V-raising resulted from the changes of morphological features. INFL in OE was rich enough morphologically to attract a hen element such as main verb. Strong features of OE INFL remained unchanged in Middle English. In ME the system of verb morphology was affected by the same changes that affected noun morphology. However, the distinction between singular and plural was retained in ME, although there was a good deal of leveling in the verb paradigms. Therefore, the inflectional system in ME was still rich enough morphologically to attract a "heavy" element. Early in the 16th century, the plural marking disappeared in English verb morphology and INFL became weak. Consequently, V-raising disappeared gradually in the Early Modem Period. We have argued that the development of DO as an auxiliary is closely related to the loss of V-raising. After the loss of V-raising optional DO developed as the Modem English auxiliary DO for questions. In case there is no auxiliary verb, DO is inserted under Tense to support the feature [+Q]. The [+Q] feature of T must move to C in questions, but it cannot move without being supported by an overt element. A carrier is needed for a feature to move. Our basic assumption is that no feature can move alone without being supported by an overt element. In case there is no modal or aspectual auxiliary, DO must be inserted under T as the "last resort" in order to support the feature [+Q].
This paper describes the statistical analysis techniques for the surface roughness assessment of polished surfaces. In experiments, the polishing process of the sample surfaces which are manufactured by ball end mill is consist of two steps; the cusp removal process and the surface finishing process. For the cusp removal process, the criterion of cusp removal was established from the power spectrum analysis to assess the change of the cusp removal rate. For the finishing process, the surface was polished by the rotational CBN tool and vibration wood tool. And the surface quality of polished surface was assessed using the functional parameters based on the statistical values of surface profiles. Consequently, the surface finish performance of the polished surface using the vibration wood tool was improved.