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      • 의문문의 DO-Support

        조남호 忠州大學校 2005 한국교통대학교 논문집 Vol.40 No.2

        In this paper I discussed the origin and introduction of periphrastic DO in English questions. I argued that DO X, which was first inrtoduced by the influence of French Italic In the South-Western dialet in the late 13th century, was the origin of Modem English periphrastic DO. The introducton of periphrastic DO is closely related to e loss of Verb Movement in Early Modem English. In Old and Middle English, the main verb raised to INFL or C, but English lost its overt V-raising ability in Early Modem English. The scope of verb Movement is determined by morphological Properties of INFL. Weak INFL cannot attract a heavy element such as a main verb, though it can attract a light element such as an auxiliary, while strong INFL attracts any element. INFL is argued to be strong only if there are plural markings overt and different from singular ones. The loss of V-raising resulted from the changes of morphological features. INFL in OE was rich enough morphologically to attract a hen element such as main verb. Strong features of OE INFL remained unchanged in Middle English. In ME the system of verb morphology was affected by the same changes that affected noun morphology. However, the distinction between singular and plural was retained in ME, although there was a good deal of leveling in the verb paradigms. Therefore, the inflectional system in ME was still rich enough morphologically to attract a "heavy" element. Early in the 16th century, the plural marking disappeared in English verb morphology and INFL became weak. Consequently, V-raising disappeared gradually in the Early Modem Period. We have argued that the development of DO as an auxiliary is closely related to the loss of V-raising. After the loss of V-raising optional DO developed as the Modem English auxiliary DO for questions. In case there is no auxiliary verb, DO is inserted under Tense to support the feature [+Q]. The [+Q] feature of T must move to C in questions, but it cannot move without being supported by an overt element. A carrier is needed for a feature to move. Our basic assumption is that no feature can move alone without being supported by an overt element. In case there is no modal or aspectual auxiliary, DO must be inserted under T as the "last resort" in order to support the feature [+Q].

      • 도시중산층 지역 사회복지계획 수립 사례연구 : 서울시 서초구 사례를 중심으로 an urban middle - class neighborhood

        조남호 가톨릭대학교 사회복지연구소 2004 사회복지리뷰 Vol.9 No.-

        Since the foundation of the Korean government in 1948, social services in Korea were devised mainly for the people in vulnerable situations. However, due to various and complicated reasons such as increase of the number of nuclear family, aging society and etc, demand on the social service has been expanded from the poor, handicapped and elderly to everyone. "Social Welfare Act" has been amended in July 2003, requiring the "Social Welfare Master Plan(SWMP)" at the local government level. All of the local governments are required to implement the SWMP from Aug. 2005. The government has been operating the "Social Welfare Office" since July 2004 in order to deal with the problems of the existing social welfare delivery system. Nine local governments, including Seocho City, have been chosen as sample survey areas. The main expectation from this office is to provide more effective and integrative social services through reorganizing the personnels who are working at the department of social welfare in the local government and formulating the Social Welfare Master Plan through the Local Social Welfare Committee. In conclusion, the Social Welfare Office now provides "one stop service" for the clients. The purpose of this research is to discuss about Seocho SWMP and to develop a guideline to guide the first beginner(local government) the process and method to formulate the social welfare plan. The data collection interview has been surveyed from 200 poor people, 200 women, 200 elderly, 300 youth, 100 handicapped. As a result of this study, the major findings are as follows. 1) SWOT Analysis Matrix ◁표삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) 1) Main principles of the Seocho SWMP ◁그림삽입▷(원문을 참조하세요) Based on the case study on Seocho SWMP, the additional implications drawn are as follows. First, the period of the SWMP should be shown and is required to make it every 4 years. The future plan should be shown by an indicator. Second, financial plan should be shown in the each section. Third, a public hearing system which includes the residents, social work professionals, NGO's and others is needed. Fourth, a scientific format should be developed in order to get regional resources. Fifth, the method of evaluation including expenses should be developed. Sixth, action plan should be shown after formulating the each specific plan. Finally, educational plan to spread the information about plan among the residents should be included. The most important thing is that the clients feel SWMP is useful for themselves.

      • KCI등재후보

        조동사 DO의 기원

        조남호 한국영어학학회 2003 영어학연구 Vol.- No.16

        '스콜라' 이용 시 소속기관이 구독 중이 아닌 경우, 오후 4시부터 익일 오전 9시까지 원문보기가 가능합니다.

        Cho. Nahmho. 2003. The Origin of Periphrastic DO. English Language and Linguistics 16. 161-188. The origin of NE (Modern English) periphrastic DO has been discussed by many linguists for a long time, but there is a great cleavage of views. The reason is that each argument seems to have big unsolved problems. The OE (Old English) verb DON had three uses. It was used as a full lexical verb, from which the pro-verb usage developed, i.e. anticipative DO and anaphoric DO. It could also be used as a causative verb from OE. Most linguists argue that periphrastic DO developed out of one of these three uses of DON. In this paper the origin of periphrastic DO is discussed in terms of the three uses.

      • 工場새마을 品質管理分任組活動의 現況과 改善方案

        趙南浩,李相鎔 건국대학교 1980 學術誌 Vol.24 No.2

        The Factory-Saemaul movement in Korean industries have grown very rapidly since it began in 1973. By end of 1979 about 43,758 of Factory-Saemaul groups had become active, and the projects worked out by these Factory-Saemaul groups have reached to enormous numbers. The Factory-Saemaul group consist of workers who after training in analyzing failures carry through quality studies and solve quality problems within their working area. The participation in the Factory-Saemaul group activities is voluntary. The size of the group lies between 5 and 20 workers. The objectives of the Factory-Saemaul group activities is not only to improve production efficiency but also to improve company's product quality through spiritual innovation and environmental improvement based on the Saemaul spirits of diligence, self-help and cooperation. The selected projects (the best cases of success) worked out by the Factory-Saemaul groups are made public through the nationwide presentation meeting which is held semi-annually by the Industrial Advancement Administration room 1975. The aim of this Paper is to show how the Factory-Saemaul group activities has been conducted, and to propose the improved way of the Factory-Saemaul group activities by analyzing the 174 projects which has been presented in the nationwide presentation meeting from 1975 to 1979.

      • KCI등재
      • KCI등재

        동아시아 유학의 용서 해석

        조남호 한림대학교 태동고전연구소 2020 泰東古典硏究 Vol.45 No.-

        동아시아에서 춘추전국시기는 사적인 복수가 만연하였던 시대였고, 이에 대해 공자는 복수를 조장하기보다는 용서를 주장하였다. 새로운 윤리가 등장한 셈이다. 나 자신의 처지에서 남의 잘못과 복수심을 이해하여 복수하지 말고 나아가 남에게 손상 또는 손해를 끼치지 말자는 것이다. 공자의 입장은 세대를 이은 지속적인 복수를 끊자는 것이며 복수의 사회적 악순환을 개선하자는 것이다. 물론 공자는 안연에게 극기 방법을 통하여 개인 자신을 구제하여 윤리 사회를 이룰 수 있다고 가르쳤다. 다시 말해 대상에 따라 달리 말하였는데 타자에 대한 서(恕)와 자신에 대한 극기를 나누어 설명하였으나 극기와 서의 상호관계는 자세하게 설명하지 않았다. 주희는 용서의 문제점을 지적하고 추서 즉 동정심 혹은 배려를 주장하였다. 주희는 공자의 서를 용서로 해석하면 자기의 잘못을 쉽게 용서하듯이 남의 잘못도 용서하여 도덕적 해이 또는 방종을 부추기는 가능성이 있음을 지적하고 대신에 자기의 마음을 헤아려 남의 처지를 이해하는 동정심을 주장한다. 그러나 추서도 자기와 남이 동일한 인간이기에 잘못을 저지른다는 것을 전제로 삼았다. 남도 나와 같은 동일한 본성과 욕망을 가졌다는 관점만을 옹호하였는데 이것은 남에게도 동일한 도덕행위를 요구하거나 강요하는 잘못을 범하게 된다. 장구성의 입장은 책망과 용서이다. 그것이 충서이다. 책망에는 극기의 과정이 들어가 있다. 자기의 잘못을 책망하는 것이 자기의 진실성이지만, 책망하는 자기 극복의 수양공부 과정이 어렵다는 것이다. 자기 극복이 쉽다고 이야기하는 것은 범죄에 나약한 인간의 현실을 무시한 것이다. 자기의 수양공부 측면에서도 용서가 필요하다는 것이다. 자기 극복의 기질 변화나 욕망 억제는 성리학에서 중요한 과제이다. 그렇지만 이것은 문제를 이론적으로만 논의할 뿐이며 인간의 현실적인 문제에서 바라본 것은 아니다. 특히 리와 기의 존재론적인 문제가 아니라 실존적인 문제로 들어가서 이해하여야 한다. 장구성은 실존적인 인간의 문제를 가지고 용서를 설명하려는 것이다. 본성을 깨닫는 수양공부는 이러한 실존적인 한계를 돌파하여 개인 스스로 구제를 얻으려는 것이다. 한계적인 인간을 구원하는 길은 나만 쉽지 않은 것이 아니라 모두에게 쉽지 않은 것이다. 장구성은 이 점을 지적하였다. 용서의 관용적 의미는 조선에서는 위백규, 중국에서는 양방, 허형, 나여방에게서 나타난다. 이들은 자기 자신의 잘못은 엄격하게 다스리고 남의 잘못은 용서하자고 주장한다. 이러한 사고는 사회적인 관계에서 도덕적인 원칙만 가지고서는 다스리기 어렵다고 본 것이다. 참고 인내하고 용서하는 길만이 방법이라고 보았다. 기독교에서는 절대자 하나님의 입장에서 사람들의 잘못을 무한히 관대하게 용서하는 관용(寬容, tolerance)을 말한다. 더구나 불교에서는 남의 잘못을 용서하는 단계를 넘어 잘못한 상대방을 구제하는 자비(慈悲)를 주장한다. 관용과 자비는 절대자의 용서를 내세워 개인 자신이 억제하지 못하는 분노와 복수심에서 벗어나려는 자아에 대한 구제가 담겨 있다. 따라서 동아시아 유학의 용서 개념은 불교 또는 기독교와 다르기에 점검할 필요가 있다. 현대 철학적인 관점에서 보자면 부부의 관계는 남이 관여할 수 있는 문제가 아니다. 남에 대한 과도한 관심과 개입은 오히려 개인의 자유와 인권을... The Pre Chin era was a time when private revenge prevailed, and Confucius insisted on forgiveness rather than vengeance. In other words, it was the emergence of new ethics. However, Zhu Xi pointed out the problem of forgiveness and insisted on a compassion on others. Zhu Xi points out that interpreting shu(恕) as forgiveness tends to forgive other people's wrongs, and instead argues for compassion on others(推恕) by understanding their own minds. However, the compassion on others does not deviate from the identity of others. You commit the wrongs of forcing others by defending the view that others have the same desires as you do. The idiomatic aspects of forgiveness appear in Wi Baek-gyu, Yang Bang, Heo Hyung and Na Yeo-bang. They argue that their own faults are strictly enforced and that they should forgive others' faults. These thoughts are difficult to govern in social relationships with moral principles alone. Only the way to endure and forgive is the way. The philosophical aspects of the typewriter of forgiveness appear in Ito Jinsai. From a modern philosophical point of view, the couple's relationship is not a matter for others to be involved in. Excessive interest and intervention in others is rather a problem in Korean society. It appears as an understanding of others. These accidents are well represented by Ito Jinsai. Zhang Jiu cheng's position is reproach and forgiveness. That's chong shu(忠恕). It is true to blame one's own faults, but the process of blaming oneself is difficult. To say that self-overcoming is easy is the result of ignoring the weak human reality. In other words, forgiveness is also necessary in terms of self-discipline. The control of self-abolition substrate change or desire is an important task in Neo-Confucianism. Nevertheless, we only discuss these issues theoretically, not in reality looking at human problems. In particular, when it comes to existential problems, not to the ontological problems of Li and Ki, it is to change the dimension. Jang, Jiu-cheong explains with existential human problems. To say that one realizes nature is to break through these existential limitations. The road to saving marginal humans is not only not easy for me, but for everyone. Zhang, Jiu-cheong points out this point.

      • THAT의 기능과 의미 연구

        조남호 한국교통대학교 2018 한국교통대학교 논문집 Vol.53 No.-

        The English word that has two main kinds of functions: demonstrative and connective. It can be used as a demonstrative pronoun, adjective, or adverb. As a connective, it can be used as a subordinating conjunction, relative pronoun, or adverb. Since it has a lot of functions and meanings, it is important to understand its exact usages. As a demonstrative pronoun or adjective, that is used for referring to somebody or something that is a distance away from the speaker in position or time, or not as near to the speaker as another. It also refers back to an idea or situation that has already been mentioned or is already known about. The demonstrative adverb that can be used to emphasize the degree of a feeling or quality. The subordinating conjunction that introduces noun clauses after some verbs, adjectives and nouns. In spoken and informal written English that is usually left out after reporting verbs and adjectives. It is less often left out after nouns. The subordinating conjunction that also introduces adverbial clauses of the purpose, result, or condition. The relative pronoun or adverb that is used to introduce a part of a sentence which refers to the person, thing, place, time, way, or reason you have been talking about. The relative clause gives more information to help identify the person or thing you are talking about. In spoken and informal written English that is nearly always left out when it is the object of the verb or is used with a preposition. The debate about relative that, henceforth 'R-that', was started by Jespersen(1885). He drew attention to its similarity with the conjunction that. Furthermore, Jespersen(1924:85, 1927:165-8) called R-that a particle or a conjunction. However, Quirk et al.(1985:366) included R-that in relative pronouns. This study has discussed the arguments for the conjunction hypothesis. The present-day R-that is derived from the Middle English subordinator þat, which was a coalescence of the Old English indeclinable relative particle þe and the subordinator þoet. When the form þe dropped out at the end of thirteenth century, its function was taken over by þat. Therefore, the R-that has been changing from the Middle English subordinator þat to the present-day relative pronoun. However, this change has not been completed yet.

      • 어휘론·의미론·사전 편찬학

        조남호 국립국어연구원 1994 국어학 연감 Vol.1994 No.-

        1993년도 어휘론 연구의 최대 성과로는 『국어 어휘론 개설』(김광해)를 꼽아야 할 것이다. 이책에서 저자는 어휘론의 연구 영역을 '분포 연구(어휘의 계량,어휘의 체계,어휘의 위상적 양상,어휘의 화용적 양상),관계 연구(어휘의 공시적 관계,어휘의 통시적 관계),정책 연구(어휘의 교육과 정책)’의 7개의 영역으로 구분하였으며,여기에 광의의 어휘론이라 하여 ‘사전편찬론’을 추가하였다. 영역 구분에 대해서는 이미 저자가 1991년도에 논문으로 발표한 바 있는데 ,다소 손질을 하였다.책의 내용은 ‘제1장 총설’을 제외하고 각 영역을 한 장으로 하여 모두 9장으로 이루어졌다 .다만‘어휘의 양상’은 둘로 나누어 ‘어휘의 양상(1)’에서는 어휘소의 위상적 변이와 화용적 변이를 다루었고,‘어휘의 양상(2)’에서는 어휘의 팽창이라는 관점에서 전문어,신어·유행어를 다루었다 .‘제6장 어휘ㅗ의 공시적 관계 ,제7장 어휘소의 통시적 관계 ,제8장 어휘력과 어휘 교육’등 장 제목에서 약간의 변개가 보인다.

      • KCI등재후보

        『환단고기』와 『삼일신고』

        조남호 국제뇌교육종합대학원대학교 국학연구원 2010 선도문화 Vol.9 No.-

        This paper analyzed <Whuandangogi> and <Samilshingo>. <Whuandangogi>have part of <Daebyungyung>(大辯經), <Dangunsegi>(檀君世紀) and ,<Samilshingo> <Daebyungyung> and, <Dangunsegi> have similar subjects with <Samilshingo>. At first <Samilshingo> has the print of Daechonggyo and of <Whuandangogi>,however they are estimated with different process of transmission. Next the ,<Samilshingo> and <Daebyungyung> getting out of <Whuandangogi>, and Daechonggyo print book are discovered with similarity. <Daebyungyung> and <Dangunsegi> can be estimated as a annotated book. In the situation without any annotated book, the content of <Samilshingo> can be a opportunity to extend of studying <Samilshingo>. The contend of <Whuandangogi> is mainly mentioned of Samjin(三眞), Sammang(三妄), Samdo(三途) with Samshin(三神) as the center. Especially in the <Daebyungyung> it is worthy of notice to define of these relationally. Simply it is conspicuous not to refer about brain. 이 글은 <환단고기>(桓丹古記)에 나오는 <삼일신고>(三一神誥) 부분과 그와 비슷한 내용인 담겨 있는 <대변경>(大辯經), <단군세기>(檀君世紀)를 분석한 것이다. 먼저 <삼일신고>는 대종교본과 환단고기본이 있는데 서로 다른 전승과정을 가지고 있는 것으로 평가된다. 다음으로 <환단고기>에 나오는 <삼일신고>와 <대변경>, 그리고 <단군세기>는 서로 유사성이 발견된다. <대변경>과 <단군세기>는 <삼일신고>에 대한 주석서로 평가될 수 있다. <삼일신고>에 대한 주석서가 별로 없는 상황에서 <환단고기>에 나오는 내용은 <삼일신고> 연구를 확장시킬 수 있는 계기가 된다. <환단고기>의 내용은 주로 삼신을 중심으로 삼진(三眞), 삼망(三妄), 삼도(三途)에 대한 언급이 주로 되고 있다. 특히 <대변경>에서 이들에 대한 정의를 관계론적으로 내리고 있는 점이 주목할 만하다. 다만 뇌에 대한 언급이 되지 않는 점이 눈에 띈다.

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