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A number of different nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) materials have been prepared and compared depending on the desired properties for the particular application, but different physicochemical properties of this prepared nZVI make it difficult to universally compare and standardize them to the same scale. In this study, we aimed to demonstrate a simple microplate-based colorimetric assay using 4-chlorophenol as an indicator with respect to the remediation of real treatment targets, such as trichloroethylene (TCE), 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA), and atrazine. Effect of nickel contents on 4-chlorophenol reduction was successfully investigated by the miniaturized colorimetric assay. In the same manner, the effect of nickel contents on dehalogenation of TCE, TCA, and atrazine was investigated and the pseudo-first-order kinetic constants were compared with the results for 4-chlorophenol. The similar pattern could be observed between 4-chlorophenol reduction obtained by colorimetric assay and TCE, TCA, atrazine reduction obtained by a traditional chromatographic method. The reaction kinetics does not match perfectly, but the degree of reaction can be estimated. Therefore, the colorimetric assay can be a useful and simple screening tool to determine nZVI reactivity toward halogenated organics before it is applied to a particular remediation site.
PURPOSE Over the past years, the adhesion of fiber posts luted with simplified adhesive systems has been a matter of great interest. The aim of this study was to assess the post retentive potential of a self-adhesive resin cement using different adhesive systems to compare the push-out bond strengths of fiber posts. MATERIALS AND METHODS The post spaces of 56 mandibular premolar roots were prepared and divided into 4 experimental groups and further divided into 2 subgroups according to testing time (n=7). The fiber posts (Rely X Fiber Post) were luted with a self-adhesive resin cement (RelyX Unicem) and one of the following adhesive systems: no adhesive, a total-etch adhesive resin (Single Bond), a two-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil SE Bond) and a one-step self-etch adhesive resin (Clearfil S3 Bond). Each root was cut horizontally, and 1.5 mm thick six root segments were prepared. Push-out tests were performed after one week or three months (0.5 mm/min). Statistical analysis were performed with three-way ANOVA (α=.05). RESULTS Cervical root segments showed higher bond strength values than middle segments. Adhesive application increased the bond strength. For one week group, the total-etch adhesive resin Single Bond showed higher bond strength than the self-adhesive resin cement RelyX Unicem applied without adhesive resin at middle region. For 3 months group, the two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond showed the highest bond strength for both regions. Regarding the time considered, Clearfil SE Bond 3 months group showed higher bond strength values than one week group. CONCLUSION Using the adhesive resins in combination with the self-adhesive resin cement improves the bond strengths. The bond strength values of two-step self-etch adhesive resin Clearfil SE Bond improved as time passes.
A new method based on high resolution melting (HRM) analysis was developed for the differentiation and classification of the yeast species that cause food spoilage. A total 134 strains belonging to 21 different yeast species were examined to evaluate the discriminative power of HRM analysis. Two different highly variable DNA regions on the 26 rRNA gene were targeted to produce the HRM profiles of each strain. HRMbased grouping was compared and confirmed by (GTG)5 rep- PCR fingerprinting analysis. All of the yeast species belonging to the genera Pichia, Candida, Kazachstania, Kluyveromyces, Debaryomyces, Dekkera, Saccharomyces, Torulaspora, Ustilago, and Yarrowia, which were produced as species-specific HRM profiles, allowed discrimination at species and/or strain level. The HRM analysis of both target regions provided successful discrimination that correlated with rep-PCR fingerprinting analysis. Consequently, the HRM analysis has the potential for use in the rapid and accurate classification and typing of yeast species isolated from different foods to determine their sources and routes as well as to prevent contamination.
This paper investigates the static buckling behaviours of Functionally Gradient Polymeric Material (FGPM) shells in the form of hemispherical segment. A new FGPM model based on experimental was considered to investigate the buckling problem of thin-walled spherical shells loaded by the external pressure. The spherical shells were formed by FGPM which was produced adding the two types of graphite powders into epoxy resin. The graphite powders were added to the epoxy resin as volume of 3, 6, 9, and 12%. Halpin-Tsai and Paul models were used to determine the elastic moduli of the parts of FGPM. The detailed static buckling analyses were performed by using finite element method. The influences of the types and volume of graphite powders on the buckling behaviour of the FGPM structures were investigated. The buckling loads of hemispherical FGPM shells based on Halpin-Tsai and Paul models were compared with those determined from the analytical solution of non-graphite condition existing for homogeneous material model. The comparisons between these material models showed that Paul model was overestimated. Besides, the critical buckling loads were predicted. The higher critical buckling loads were estimated for the PV60/65 graphite powder due to the compatible of the PV60/65 graphite powder with resin.
This paper is not intended to be followed to its logical conclusion, but rather it is a personal essay so that I may present you with some perspectives on traditional and new view of God, especially in regard to the question of how mankind can transcend the barriers of race, nation, religion, culture, etc. Also, in order to unite religion, there is a need for a new comprehensive view of God. The new view of God must be explained in harmony with science.
本硏究では、韓·日の新聞の社會面の記事に使われた、人間を表す語彙が指している對象のジェンダ一的な特徵を考察した。調査の結果、韓國と日本とともに男性を指す語彙が女性を指す語彙より多く、男性を中心とした社會の再現という面で類似した特徵が現れた。次に、語彙を分類語彙表に基づいて意味分野別に分類した結果、中分類で、韓國の場合は男性を指す語彙が<1.24メンバ一>に集中しており、女性を指す語彙は男性に比べて均一した分布を示したが、特に<1.21家族>の項目において多かった。日本も韓國と類した分布を示しており、男性を指す語彙は<1.24メンバ一>に集中する一方、女性を指す語彙は、比較的均一した分布を見せ、特に<1.21家族>の項目において高かった。つまり、韓·日兩國において、男性と女性のジェンダ一イメ一ジは異なっており、韓·日兩國ともに男性は、社會のメンバ一として、女性は家族の一員として示される傾向があり、まだ男性は支配者としてイメ一ジ化される点で共通していた。 In this study, we examined the use of gender of the subjects pointed out by human vocabulary to articles in the social aspects of Korean and Japanese newspapers.As a result of this study, there were more male-centered vocabularies than female-centered vocabularies in both Korea and Japan, and similar characteristics were observed between Korea and Japan in terms of the reproduction of society centering on men.Next, as a result of classifying the vocabulary according to the semantic field based on the classification vocabulary table, in the case of Korea, the vocabulary for male is concentrated in < 1.24 persons >. However, the vocabulary for female showed a balanced distribution compared with that of the male, but the vocabulary for female is especially high in < 1.21 Family > in Korea. In Japan, the use of vocabulary also shows a distribution similar to that of Korea. The vocabulary for male was concentrated on < 1.24 member >, while the vocabulary for female was relatively balanced, but the vocabulary for female is especially high in < 1.21 Family > in Japan.That is to say, in both Korea and Japan, there are differences in the image of gender of male and female; both in Korea and Japan, male tend to be represented as members of society and women as members of the family, and male are imaged as rulers.
This paper assesses the color difference and color strength values (K/S) obtained for eight disperse-dyed polyester fabric samples with different fabric construction parameters (weft yarn type, weft yarn count, weft density and fabric weave) after four sets of abrasion cycles. Warp yarn type and count, warp density, and warp yarn twist are the same for all fabrics. Fabric samples are dyed in a commercial red disperse dye (C.I. Disperse Red 74:1) and four different abrasion cycles (2500, 5000, 7500, 10000) are used. The K/S values of the abraided fabrics and color difference values between the control fabric (dyed but not abraided) and abraded fabrics are calculated. The main differences in the K/S and color difference values are observed between 0-2500 abrasion cycles. The high tenacity of the polyester fibers and continuous polyester yams causes some fuzz but no pilling formation on the fabric surface that lead to increased K/S values and color differences. Fiber dullness, yarn thickness, yarn density and fabric weave are concluded to have different effects on the appearance after abrasion.
The current study determines the knowledge of female course attendees of the "Municipality Cultural Center for Women", located in the city center of Sivas, Turkey, and their attitudes regarding gynecological cancer prevention. The participants of the study include 497 women attending one of the two Municipality Cultural Centers situated in the city center of Sivas. In this study, the sample was not selected; all participants were encompassed within the scope of our research. A total of 418 female course attendees who volunteered to participate in the research were identified as the sample. The data were collected during the months March-June 2011, by a questionnaire developed by the researchers. To compare the distribution of the collected data "Anova", "two independent t test examples" and "chi square test" were used. The research indicates that 45.1% of the women had had gynecological examination as a consequence of a physical disorder. The reason for 54.9% of the women to have gynecological examination is to have been scanned to check for gynecological cancer, 51.2% had a pap smear test. Some 34.9% of them had obtained information about cervical cancer, 39.7% via radio, television or internet and 36.3% from a doctor. Age, education level and marital status of the women participating in this study demonstrated statistically significant correlations (p<0.05) with gynecological examination and undergoing a pap smear test.