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      • KCI등재

        The Effect of Rootzone Mix and Compaction on Nitrogen Leaching in Kentucky bluegrass

        이상국,Kevin W. Frank,James R. Crum 한국잔디학회 2010 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.24 No.1

        Research on nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) leaching in turfgrass indicates that in most cases leaching poses minimal risk to the environment. Although there have been many studies investigating NO3-N leaching, there has been little research to investigate the effect of compaction level and rootzone mix on nitrogen (N) leaching. The research objective is to determine the effect of compaction level and rootzone mix on nitrogen leaching. The four rootzone mixes are 76.0:24.0, 80.8:19.2, 87.0:13.0 and 93.7:6.3 % (sand: soil). The four levels of compaction energies are 1.6,3.0, 6.1, and 9.1 J cm-2. Nitrogen was applied using urea at a rate of 147 kg ha-1 split among three applications. Rootzone was packed into a polyvinylchloride pipe with a perforated bottom to facilitate drainage. Rootzone depth was 30 cm over a 5 cm gravel layer. Each column was sodded with Poa pratensis L. Hoagland solution designed for coolseason grasses, minus N, was used to ensure adequate nutrition in the rootzone. Turf grass quality and clipping yield were recorded from each tube at two-week intervals. The clippings were oven-dried at a temperature of 67oC for 24 h and weighed. At the end of the study, root dry weight was determined by washing and oven-drying samples at 67℃ for 24 h. Leachate solution was collected weekly for analysis. More than 6.1 J cm-2 of compaction energy increased possibilities of surface runoff. The compaction energy between 3.0 and 6.1 J cm-2 produced more clipping dry weight and less N leaching than 9.1 J cm-2.

      • KCI등재

        Irrigation and Nitrogen and Potassium Effects for Two Turfgrass Species and a Common Lawn Mixture

        이상국,Kevin W. Frank 한국잔디학회 2021 Weed & Turfgrass Science Vol.10 No.2

        Water requirements for turfgrass have been estimated on water use rates, and irrigation frequency and quantity. However, these parameters do not always provide adequate guidance for the efficient irrigation management. Research was conducted for 2005 and 2006 to determine recommendations for irrigation and nitrogen and potassium program for two turfgrass species and a common lawn mixture. The irrigation treatments were precipitation only, 0.5 cm of water every other day, and 1.8 cm of water once per week. The nitrogen (N) treatments were 98, 156, and 208 kg N ha-1 yr-1. The low, medium, and high N treatments were applied over 2, 4, and 6 applications, respectively. No phosphorus (P) was applied as a soil test indicated a high soil P level. Treatments were evaluated on Kentucky bluegrass, tall fescue, and the lawn mixture of Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, creeping red fescue, and Chewings fescue. Research indicated that all turfgrass species without irrigation had turfgrass quality lower than the acceptable turfgrass quality rating of six during a portion of the growing season and significant differences were found among irrigation treatments. However, the precipitation only treatment had acceptable quality ratings on 8 of 12 sampling dates for two years. If water resource is limited, and turfgrass quality for low maintenance in July and August are not important, the precipitation only treatment would be accepted under the environmental conditions which occurred in regions similar to the area where the research was conducted.

      • The Effect of Rootzone Mix and Compaction on Nitrogen Leaching in Kentucky bluegrass

        이상국,케빈 프랭크,제임스 크럼,Lee, Sang-Kook,Frank, Kevin W.,Crum, James R. Turfgrass Society of Korea 2010 한국잔디학회지 Vol.24 No.1

        환경문제를 야기 시킬수 있는 질소의 용탈에 관한 문제는 수많은 연구를 통해 그 결과를 문헌에서 찾아볼 수 있다. 그러나 대부분의 연구가 질소의 토양내 용탈에 관해서 이루어진 반면에 토양의 답압과 토양의 종류에 따라 질소의 용탈 정도에 관한 연구는 그 결과를 문헌에서 찾아 보기가 어렵다. 본 연구는 토양의 종류와 답압의 정도가 질소의 용탈에 미치는 영향 그리고 토양에 잔류된 질소가 켄터키블루그래스의 성장에 주는 영향에 대해서 알아보기 위하여 수행 되었다. 질소는 총 147 kg $ha^{-1}$이 12주 동안 3회에 걸쳐 나누어 시비되었다. 토양의 종류는 성분비율에 따라 76.0:24.0, 80.8:19.2, 87.0:13.0 그리고 93.7:6.3% (sand:soil)의 4가지로 구성이 되었다. 토양은 PVC 파이프에 30 cm 깊이로 조성이 되었으며 토양층 밑에 5 cm의 자갈층으로 구성되었다. PVC 파이프 밑부분의 구멍을 통해 질소용탈수의 수집을 용이하게 하였으며 질소외 영양성분을 위해 Hoagland solution에서 질소만 제외하여 사용되었다. 켄터키블루그래스의 질과 예초량이 매주 측정이 되었으며 예초물은 건물량 측정을 위해 예초후 67도에서 24시간 동안 건조되었다. 질소용탈수는 매주 PVC 파이프의 밑부분을 통해 매주 수집이 되었다. 6.1 J $cm^{-2}$ 이상의 답압에너지는 더 많은 표면배수의 가능성을 야기 시킬 수 있다. 3.0과 6.1 J $cm^{-2}$ 사이의 답압에너지는 다른 처리구에 비해 더 많은 건물량이 측정이 되었고 적은 질소가 용탈이 되었다. Research on nitrate-nitrogen ($NO_3-N$) leaching in turfgrass indicates that in most cases leaching poses minimal risk to the environment. Although there have been many studies investigating $NO_3-N$ leaching, there has been little research to investigate the effect of compaction level and rootzone mix on nitrogen (N) leaching. The research objective is to determine the effect of compaction level and rootzone mix on nitrogen leaching. The four rootzone mixes are 76.0:24.0, 80.8:19.2, 87.0:13.0 and 93.7:6.3 % (sand:soil). The four levels of compaction energies are 1.6, 3.0, 6.1, and 9.1 J $cm^{-2}$. Nitrogen was applied using urea at a rate of 147 kg $ha^{-1}$ split among three applications. Rootzone was packed into a polyvinylchloride pipe with a perforated bottom to facilitate drainage. Rootzone depth was 30 cm over a 5 cm gravel layer. Each column was sodded with Poa pratensis L. Hoagland solution designed for coolseason grasses, minus N, was used to ensure adequate nutrition in the rootzone. Turf grass quality and clipping yield were recorded from each tube at two-week intervals. The clippings were oven-dried at a temperature of $67^{\circ}C$ for 24 h and weighed. At the end of the study, root dry weight was determined by washing and oven-drying samples at $67^{\circ}C$ for 24 h. Leachate solution was collected weekly for analysis. More than 6.1 J $cm^{-2}$ of compaction energy increased possibilities of surface runoff. The compaction energy between 3.0 and 6.1 J $cm^{-2}$ produced more clipping dry weight and less N leaching than 9.1 J $cm^{-2}$.

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