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In this study, the environmental behavior of malodor pollutants (MPs: H2S, CH3SH, DMS, and DMDS) was investigated around areas influenced by strong anthropogenic processes based on observations and modeling study (a CALPUFF dispersion model). The MP emission concentrations were measured from 8 industrial source regions (tire plants (S1-S3), waste water disposal plant (S4), and oil refinery (S5) in an urban center area and paper mill/incineration plant (S6) and livestock feedlots (S7-S8) in Ungsang area) in Yangsan city during a fall period in 2008 (21 October 2008). Overall, the most MPs emitted from the urban center area were found to affect the malodor pollution in their downwind areas during early morning (06:00 LST) and nighttime (18:00 and 21:00 LST), compared with those in the Ungsang area. For malodor intensity, the most MPs in the urban center area (especially S1 and S2) were found to be a significant contributor, whereas CH3SH and H2S in the Ungsnag area (especially S6) were the dominant contributor. The model study showed agreement in the spatial distributions of simulated MPs with those of the observations. The largest impact of MPs in the urban center area on the malodor pollution in its residential areas occurred at S1, S2, and S3 sites during nighttime, while that of MPs in the Ungsang area occurred at S6 and S8 sites. This may be caused mainly by the high MP emissions and in part by wind conditions (prevailing northeasterly winds with low wind speeds of 2-3 m/s).
Temporal variations of optical properties of urban aerosol in Seoul were estimated by the Optical Properties of Aerosols and Clouds (OPAC) model, based on hourly aerosol sampling data in Seoul during the year of 2010. These optical properties were then used to calculate direct radiative forcing during the study period. The optical properties and direct radiative forcing of aerosol were calculated separately for four chemical components such as water-soluble, insoluble, black carbon (BC), and sea-salt aerosols. Overall, the coefficients of absorption, scattering, and extinction, as well as aerosol optical depth (AOD) for water-soluble component predominated over three other aerosol components, except for the absorption coefficient of BC. In the urban environment (Seoul), the contribution of AOD (0.10~0.12) for the sum of OC and BC to total AODs ranged from 23% (spring) to 31% (winter). The diurnal variation of AOD for each component was high in the morning and low in the late afternoon during the most of seasons, but the high AODs at 14:00 and 15:00 LST in summer and fall, respectively. The direct negative radiative forcing of most chemical components (especially, NO₃- of water-soluble) was highest in January and lowest in September. Conversely, the positive radiative forcing of BC was highest in November and lowest in August due to the distribution pattern of BC concentration.
Monthly variations of radiative forcing (RF) and mean temperature changes by greenhouse gases emitted from commercial aircraft were estimated based on the simplified expression at four international airports (Incheon, Gimpo, Jeju, and Gimhae Airports) during the years of 2009~2010. The highest RF and mean temperature change in the study area occurred at Incheon Airport, whereas the lowest RF and mean temperature change at Gimhae Airport. During 2009~2010, the mean RF and mean temperature change estimated from aircraft CO₂ emissions at Incheon Airport were approximately 30.0 mW/㎡ and 0.022°K, respectively. The mean RF and mean temperature changes caused by other greenhouse gas N₂O was significantly small (≪ 0.1 mW/㎡ and ≪ 1×10<SUP>-3</SUP>°K). Meanwhile, CH₄ emissions caused negative mean RF (-4.45×10<SUP>-3</SUP> mW/㎡ at Incheon Airport) and the decrease of mean temperature (-3.83×10<SUP>-6</SUP>°K) due to consumption of atmospheric CH₄ in the aircraft engine.
In this study, spatial and temporal variations of radiative forcing (RF) and mean temperature changes due to greenhouse gases (CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O) emitted from commercial aircraft were examined based on the simplified expression at the airports in Korea during 2009~2010. The radiative transfer model (SBDART) was used to compare with the RF and mean temperature changes calculated from the simplified expressions for greenhouse gas CO₂. The RF simulated by the SBDART was about 67% higher than that of the simplified expression, on average. The highest mean RF (up to 9.0 mW/m² for CO₂) and mean temperature changes (up to 9.7×10<SUP>-5</SUP>°K/day for CO₂) for all GHGs occurred at Ulsan airport during the study period, whereas the lowest RF and temperature changes at Yangyang (for CO₂) and Sacheon airports (for CH₄ and N₂O). In the case of CH₄ and N₂O, their effects to the RF and mean temperature change were negligible compared to CO₂.
The characteristics of meteorological conditions related to changes in atmospheric environment on Jeju Island were investigated during recent years (2010-2012). This analysis was performed using the hourly observed data of meteorological variables (air temperature, wind speed and direction) and air pollutants (O3, PM10, SO2, NO2, and CO). Out of 5 pollutants, O3 and PM10 concentrations have frequently exceeded national environmental standards in the study area during the study period, with relatively higher concentrations than the others. The concentrations of O3 and PM10 in 2010 and 2011 were somewhat higher than those in 2012, and their highest concentrations were mostly observed in spring followed by fall. Nighttime O3 concentrations (with relatively high concentration levels) were almost similar to its daytime concentrations, due to less O3 titration by very low NO concentrations in the target area and in part to O3 increase resulting from atmospheric transport processes. The transport effect related to the concentration variations of O3 and PM10 was also clarified in correlation between these pollutants and meteorological variables, e.g. the high exceedance frequency of concentration criteria with strong wind speed and the high concentrations with the westerly/northwesterly winds (e.g., transport from the polluted regions of China). The overall results of this study suggest that the changes in atmospheric environment in the study area were likely to be caused by the transport effect (horizontal and vertical) due to the meteorological conditions rather than the contribution of local emission sources.
Photochemical characteristics of ozone (O₃) and its precursors such as O₃ budget and O₃-NOx-VOC sensitivity were analyzed in different physico-chemical properties of air masses around the Mexico City Metropolitan Area (MCMA) using aircraft observations during March 2006. The physico-chemical properties of air masses were categorized into 5 groups: boundary layer (BL), biomass burning (BB), free tropospheric continent (FTCO) and marine (FTMA), and Tula industrial complex (TIC). Results from the O₃ budget analysis indicated that O₃ production for BL, FTCO, and FTMA (for BB and TIC) was mainly controlled by a photochemical production pathway, a reaction of NO with HO₂ (with RO₂), while the main pathway of photochemical O₃ destruction for BL, FTCO, and FTMA (for BB and TIC) was a reaction of HO₂ with O₃ (of H₂O with O¹(D)). In addition, most of air mass categories (especially FTCO) were estimated to be NOx-sensitive for O₃ production with lower NOy, higher ratios of the other indicator species (e.g., O₃/(NOy-NOx), H₂O₂/HNO₃, etc.), and the lower removal rate of radicals (≤0.5) by the reaction of OH with NO₂ than those of the VOC-sensitive condition.
The chemical and meteorological effects on the concentration variations of ozone (O₃) were evaluated based on the intensive air quality measurement (5 pollutants and aromatic volatile organic compounds (AVOCs)) in and outside an urban valley during spring and summer of 2006. The 5 pollutants measured in the study area include O₃, NO₂, NO, PM10, and CO; the AVOCs include benzene (BEN), toluene (TOL), ethylbenzene (EB), m,p-xylene (MPX), and o-xylene (OX). For the purpose of this study, study areas were classified into two categories: valley area (VA) with a semi-closed topography covering a number of industrial complex, public building, and mountains and nonvalley area (NVA) surrounding the suburban and residential areas. In general, the mean concentration levels of most pollutants (except for PM10) in the VA were higher than those in the NVA. It was found that the average O₃ increase in the VA during spring might result from the combined effects such as the photochemical production from diverse anthropogenic sources and the O₃ accumulation due to geographical features (e.g., the semi-closed topography) and wind conditions (e.g., a low wind speed). In addition, the nocturnal O₃ increase in the VA during spring was primarily caused by local wind conditions (e.g., mountain and valley winds) with the low wind speed (approximately 1~2 m s<SUP>-1</SUP>). On the other hand, the O₃ difference between the two areas during summer might be because of the photochemical production with the O₃ precursors (especially the AVOCs) rather than the contribution of wind conditions.
본 연구는 재난으로 인한 국민과 피해자의 분노를 언론이 얼마나, 어떻게 전달하는지를 확인하려는 시도이다. 분석대상은 1970년부터 10년을 주기로 해서 인명피해가 가장 컸던 인적재난 6건이다. 언론의 분노표출 빈도가 시대에 따라서 달라졌는지, 분노는 누구를 통해 또 누구를 향해 표출됐는지, 신문의 정치적 성향이 분노표출에 영향을 미쳤는지를 알아보기 위해 조선일보와 경향신문의 기사 1739건을 비교했다. 분석결과를 보면 첫째, 인적재난을 다룬 기사의 건수는 물론, 분노를 담은 기사가 1990년대 이후에 크게 늘었고 둘째, 분노의 대상은 정부가 절반 이상을 차지했으며 셋째, 신문의 정치적 성향에 따라 정부를 향한 분노의 빈도는 차이를 나타냈다. 비슷한 방식으로 수행된 영국의 연구와 비교하면 한국신문은 피해자를 분노의 주체로 하는 기사, 그리고 분노의 대상이 분명하지 않은 기사의 비율이 상대적으로 높았다. 국내언론의 재난보도에 대해서는 피해자를 배려하지 않고 선정적이며 심층성이 부족하다는 지적이 많았다. 반면, 국민의 분노를 어떻게 반영하는지에 초점을 맞춘 연구는 거의 없었다. 분노는 감정의 표현이므로 이를 전달하는 보도 역시 감정적 또는 선정적 방향으로 흐를 가능성이 있지만, 분노가 재난의 책임규명과 재발방지에 기여할 수 있다는 점에서 언론의 분노표출 방식에 대한 후속연구와 대안제시가 필요하다고 판단된다. This study attempts to confirm how and how much the media delivers the anger of the people and victims, due to disasters. The subject of analysis were selected interdecadally, the six biggest man-made disasters from 1970s. 1739 articles from Chosun-Ilbo and Kyunghyang-Shinmun were compared in order to examine the expression of anger according to timeline, the subject and the object of such expression, and whether politically diverged media differed during the process. The result of the analysis indicates first, the number of articles and the ones containing the anger has been on the rise from 1990s. Second, the government took up more than half in being the object of anger. And third, the frequency of anger targeting the government were distinctive according to the newspaper's political bias. In comparison with similarly conducted study in Britain, Korean newspapers relatively contained more articles that expressed anger of victims, and that showed ambiguity concerning the object of anger. In case of Korean media, the main criticism was its yellow journalism and superficiality in disaster news. On the other hand, how the articles addressed the people's anger was highly insufficient. As anger is an emotion, therefore there exists a possibility the news delivering it could show negativity. Still, follow-up studies and suggestion of alternatives are necessary, as it can contribute to investigating responsibility and preventive measures.
Emissions of air pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) by aircraft at the Gimhae International Airport (GIA) were investigated using the Emissions and Dispersion Modeling System (EDMS) version 5.1.3. The number of Landing and Take-Off (LTO) at the GIA for aircraft B737 was dominant, accounting for more than 60% of the total LTOs. For air pollutant emissions, CO was the most dominant pollutant by aircraft, followed by NOx, VOCs, SOx, etc. The emissions of CO, NOx, and VOCs in 2009 (and 2010) at the GIA were 974 (968), 447 (433), 118 (122) ton/yr, respectively. The emissions of GHGs such as CO₂, CH₄, and N₂O in 2009 (and 2010) were 110,795 (111,114), -0.157 (-0.151), and 1,989 (1,998) ton/yr, respectively. The negative number in CH₄ emission represents the consumption of atmospheric CH₄ in the engine. In addition, the emissions of most air pollutants (except for PM₁?) and GHGs were estimated to be high in Taxi-Out and Climb-Out modes.