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Two different races of Botryris cinerea were selected by the response of plant leaves to the pathogen infection. Based on lesion size of the pathogen on the leaves, turnip showed susceptible response to 'Grape-01' race, and resistant to 'Orange' race. Turnip leaves infected with resistant pathogen race, "Orange", showed significantly higher content of indole-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (I3M) than those infected with susceptible race, 'Grape-01'. Contents of I3M in the leaves with resistant 'Orange' race was 2.5 times as high as that in uninfected leaves, whereas I3M in the leaves infected with susceptible 'Grape-01' race showed lower content than in untreated leaves. Growth of turnip suspension cells was significantly inhibited by the treatment of MeOH extract or water extract of 'Orange' race as compared with the treatment of susceptible race, 'Grape-01'. Treatment of MeOH or water extract from 'Orange' race to turnip suspension cells, strongly inhibited cell viability up to 22.7% or 16.5%, respectively. However, plant cells treated with MeOH or water extract from resistant race, 'Orange' showed higher I3M content than that from susceptible race, 'Grape-01'. These results suggest that accumulation and degradation of I3M glucosinolate in turnip cells closely related to the resistance and susceptibility of turnip cells to Botrytis cinerea. 8종의 잿빛곰팡이병 균주를 순무잎에 접종하여 병반의 크기를 확인한 결과 가장 강한 감염력을 보인 '포도-01' 균주와 병반의 확산이 가장 적은 '오랜지'를 선발하였다. 순무잎이 저항성을 보인 '오랜지'균주를 처리한 잎이 감수성을 보인 '포도-01'균주를 처리한 잎보다 indole-3-ylmethyl glucosinolate (I3M-GLS) 함량이 무처리 보다 2.5배 이상 높았으나 '포도-01' 균주를 처리한 잎에서는 무처리 보다 낮은 함량을 보였다. 균주의 메탄올 추출액과 물추출물을 식물배양세포에 처리한 결과 '오랜지'균주의 추출물이 '포도-01' 균주의 추출물보다 배양세포의 생장을 더 강하게 억제 한 것으로 나타났는데 '오랜지' 균주의 메타놀 및 물 추출물 처리에서 배양세포의 활력은 각각 22.7% 및 16.5% 감소시키는 것으로 나타났다. 한편 '오랜지'균주 추출물을 처리한 배양세포에서 I3M-GLS의 생합성이 '포도-01' 균주 추출물보다 현저히 높은 것으로 나타났다. 본 결과로 보아 식물체내에 생합성되는 I3M-GLS 함량은 잿빛곰팡이균에 대한 식물세포의 저항성과 밀접한 관계가 있는 것으로 판단된다.
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The purpose of this thesis is to examine a way of improvement of college English program at Korea Polytechnic College. While the Korea Polytechnic College English curriculum focuses on the four skills, this study emphasizes the curriculum, instructional methods, financial support. The finding of the study first indicated that class time allocation be an important factor affecting students’ learning of English: Students who attended daytime classes are more willing to learn and were more satisfied with their learning process than students who attended at night. Second, small size classes with grouped students did much better in learning process than other department students.
Six different size of torch-ignition device were applied in a constant volume combustion chamber for evaluating the effects of torch-ignition on combustion. The torch-ignition device was designed for six different volumes and same orifice size. The combustion pressures were measured to calculate the mass burn fraction and combustion enhancement rate. In addition, the flame propagations were visualized by shadowgraph method for the qualitative comparison. The result showed that the combustion pressure and mass burn fraction were increased when using the torch ignition device. And the combustion duration were decreased. The combustion enhancement rates of torch-ignition cases were improved in comparison with conventional spark ignition. Finally, the visualization results showed that the torch-ignition induced faster burn than conventional spark ignition due to the earlier transition to turbulent flame and larger flame surface, during the initial stage. Finally, the initial flame propagation was affected by torch-ignition volume.
The initial flame development and flame propagation in a constant volume combustion chamber is analyzed by mass burned fraction and combustion enhancement rate. The combustion pressure is measured with a pressure sensor and flame propagation was visualized by shadowgraph method. The mass burned fractions are calculated with combustion pressure. In order to observe the effects of torch-ignition device, five different devices are designed and tested. The result show that the combustion pressure is increased and mass burned fraction is increased when using the torch-ignition device. And combustion enhancement rate is calculated by using combustion pressure. The enhancement rate was improved in comparison with conventional spark ignition. For the result of the visualization, it shows that the torch-ignition cause faster burn than conventional spark ignition. Finally, the visualization showed that the earlier transition to turbulent flame induces the faster burn in torch-ignition.