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Hog manure amended with sawdust (moisture 56~60% wet basis, C/N 19-21) was composted in pilot-scale vessels using continuous aeration(CA) and intermittent aeration(IA) for 3 and 4 weeks. In two subsequent runs of the same duration, composts resulting from each of the first runs were used as a biofilter on the exhaust gas from newly composting material. Conditions between each of these paired sets appeared to be similar. Ammonia was released from the biofilter material during the first week of stabilization while the compost produced ammonia after the first week of composting. In both cases substantial absorption, 61~96 %, of ammonia production from the composting raw material was achieved in the stabilizing material during the final weeks of operation and indicates the use of the stabilizing hog manure/sawdust compost as a biofilter can reduce ammonia emissions. Total NH<sub>3</sub>-N emissions during run 2 in IA was less than 2/3 of those in CA. Dry solids loss for the stabilized compost (6~8 weeks) was 19~46%
This study was performed to find the recycling performance and to provide design data during recycled solid composting system to reduce bulking agent cost. Dairy manure amended with rice hulls and recycled compost was composted in a laboratory-scale vessel by continuous aeration for 10 days. The temperature and ammonia emission variations according to the r:'ltios of bulking agents during the primary aeration stage were surveyed. Also, the influence of fresh compost quality on the recycling performance were analyzed. While recycled composting system were operated, The temperature in compost was maintained in the range of 40~60℃ needed for biodegradation and death of pathogenic organisms, but the ammonia emission was different by the ratios of recycled compost. The ammonia emission increased due' to the low C/N ratio(17.6), high pH value(8.1) of the recycled compost.
취나물 재배 중 methoxyfenozide 및 novaluron을 살포하고, 0일부터 10일까 총 7회 시료를 채취하였다. Methoxyfenozide와 novaluron은 methanol로 추출한 후 dichloromethane으로 분배하여 HPLC로 분석하였다. 분석결과 0.4 ㎎ㆍ㎏?¹과 2 ㎎ㆍ㎏?¹수준에서 methoxyfenozide의 평균회수율은 102.5±3.03% 및 84.4±2.82%이었고, novaluron은 88.7±2.32% 및 90.6±4.50%이었다. 재배기간 중 methoxyfenozide의 기준량 잔류반감기는 3.99일이고, novaluron은 3.16일 이었다. 증체량에 따른 희석효과를 배제한 잔류감소곡선은 novaluron의 경우 잔류량 감소의 주요인으로 작용하지 않았다. Methoxyfezide와 novaluron을 안전사용기준에 따라 처리시, 최종잔류농도는 MRL이하로 떨어질 것으로 계산된다. Methoxyfenozide and novaluron was sprayed on Aster scaber during cultivation period. Samples were collected 7 times in 0-10 days after spraying. Both methoxyfenozide and novaluron were extracted with methanol, partitioned with dichloromethane and analyzed by HPLC. At the fortified level of 0.4 and 2 ㎎ㆍ㎏?¹, average recovery of methoxyfenozide were 102.5±3.03 and 84.4±2.82%, and novaluron were 88.7±2.32 and 90.6±4.50%, respectively. Biological half-life of methoxyfenozide was 3.99 days and novaluron which was 3.16 days at recommended spray level on cultivation period of the plant. The major reducing factor of novaluron was the increased weight of the plant. In case of application of methoxyfenozide and novaluron following pesticide guide line for safe use, the final residue level was calculated to lower than maximum residue level(MRL).
This paper presents analytic results of energy sequestered for the forcing cultural Cu- cumber and the others production system with the input-output tables method in the suthern parts of Korea. In this study an attempt is made to evaluate input of direct and indirect energy, output of yield energy and net energy in order to achieve increased energy productivity under P E greenhouse. Cultural practices were grouped soil and soilless with perlite for vegetable production. The results from this study are summarized as follows : 1. Total energy inputs in cucumber production were calculated to be 510 GJ/10a(di-rect energy : 480 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 30 GJ/10a) from soil culture and 440 GJ/ 10a(direct energy : 420 GJ/10a, indirect energy : 20 GJ/10a) from soilless culture in perlite hydroponics. 2. Energy outputs from cucumber and biomass were 7 GJ/10a and 120 GJ/10a at a uniform rate respectively. 3. Heating fuel as diesel is a major energy inputs approaching 90% of the total energy requirements for cucumber production. 4. Net energy in cucumber production was calculated to be 503 GJ/10a from soil cul- ture and 431 GJ/10a from soilless culture. Net energy productivity was maintained costantly as 0.98. 5. Energy productivity in cucumber was calculated to be 0.029 kg/MJ from soil culture and 0.043kg/MJ from soilless culture, while energy efficiency was 0.012 and 0.015 respectively. It is expected that a soilless cultural production system seems to be reduc-tive in seguestered energy input by 13%.
퇴비화 과정 중에 암모니아 휘산은 퇴비 내의 질소성분을 유출시키고 있는 동시에 악취를 발생한다는 측면에서 바람직하지 못하다. 아직까지 암모니아 휘산을 방지할 수 있는 방법은 개발되어 있지 않다. 본 연구에서는 퇴비화 과정에서 온도, 암모니아 휘산 및 엔탈피의 변화를 분석하였다. 퇴비화 온도가 높을 때는 암모니아 휘산도 많이 발생하였으나 퇴비화 15일 후 온도가 63℃로 하강함에 따라 암모니아 휘산은 줄어들기 시작하여 온도가 60℃이하로 떨어지는 21일부터는 거의 발생하지 않았다. 퇴비화 온도에 의하여 진행과정과 암모니아 휘산의 추이를 추정할 수 있었다.
Dead animals amended with agricultural rersidues are utilized ai a compost to promote soil fertility and reduce environmental pollution by traditional methods of livestock mortalities. The full-scale bin composting swine mortality in roofed system with three amendments was very successful in reaching sufficient temperature above 55℃ long enough for pathogen kill. The average temperature of tile compost material in dead swine amended with corn stover increased rapidly to 64℃ on the 2nd day after primary composting and dropped to near ambient temperature on the 140th day of composting. The composting temperature of corn stover and wheat straw is more efficient for swine carcass composting than that of sawdust.
Dairy manure amended with crop and forest residues (moisture 69% wet basis, C/N 22) was composted in a 605 L pilot-scale vessel using continuous air flow (56 L/min) for 19 days. Three pilot-scale sawdust biofilters (moisture 63%, pH 5.0) were built to clean biological waste gas from the composting process. For each methods, two replicated experiments were monitored over a period of three weeks. The system was evaluated to determine the biofilter media depth that would be adequate for compost odour reduction. The compost air cleaning was measured based on ammonia gas concentration before and after passing through the biofilter. Ammonia gas removal efficiency over 3 weeks was 42, 75 and 87% at sawdust biofilter media depth levels of 202, 400 and 600 mm, respectively. Each sawdust biofilter was operated at a moisture content in the range of 60~62% (wb), a temperature from 15 to 25℃, an average pressure drop from 240 to 340 Pa and a detention time from 60 to 180 seconds during the biofiltration process.