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Several constraints have been discussed on English resultatives: The Direct Object Constraint, The Single Delimiting Constraint, The Further Specification Constraint and A Semantic/Functional Constraint. This paper reviews these constraints and shows that a semantic constraint is required in order to explain the compatibility between the action denoted by verbs and resultative predicates. The main argument of this paper is based on the analysis of Goldberg's constructional grammar. According to Goldberg, resultatives are supposed to be consisted of constructional subevents and verbal subevents. Goldberg(1997) proposes the Causal Relation Hypothesis which describes the relation between the meaning designated by the verb and the meaning designated by the construction. This hypothesis, however, cannot explain the semantic difference between The vase broke into pieces and The vase broke worthless. Takami(1998) divides resultatives into lexical resultatives and pragmatic resultatives and suggests an elaborate semantic constraint. According to Takami(1998), the verb hammer contains the meaning of resultative flat. The following sentence, however, shows the contradiction that the contained meaning is negated: John hammered the metal, but it didn't become flat. To explain these problems, I suggest a semantic constraint on resultatives: The English resultative construction is acceptable only when the constructional subevents are the direct result of verbal subevents. This constraint means that the English resultatives are described based on the relationship between verbal subevents and constructional subevents.
The purpose of this paper is to provide a proper explanation to the collocational dependency between resultative phrases and verbs of resultative sentences. Resultative sentences describe the state of an internal argument referent resulting from the action denoted by the verb. The analysis of resultative sentences in this paper are based on Goldberg's constructional view. Under the constructional view, resultative sentences are assumed to be composed of verbal subevent and constructional subevent. The verbal subevent and constructional subevent must be intergrated via causal relationship. I suggest two types of resultatives according to the causative meaning that resultatives have: lexical causative resultatives (LCR) which have the causative meaning from an inherent lexical verb and constructional causative resultatives (CCR) which get the causative meaning from constructional subevent. The CCR is analyzed as having a constructional subevent and a verbal subevent. The LCR, on the other hand, is understood as having a constructional subevent only. The CCR shows more restricted collocation dependency between verbs and resultative phrases than the LCR. I propose that the CCR must satisfy a causal relationship constraint in the cause and result relationship between constructional subevent and verbal subevent, whereas the LCR is free from the causal relationship constraint because the LCR is assumed to have only constructional subevent.
This paper deals with two questions related to Korean resultatives. One is about the constructional meaning of Korean resultatives. English resultatives are known to have a constructional meaning of ‘X CAUSE [Y BECOME Z]', which is correspond to the constructional subevent of Goldberg & Jackendoff(2004)'s analysis of resultatives. Compared to this, I suggest a generalized form of ‘X AFFECT Y To CAUSE [Y' BECOME Z]' in addition to the constructional meaning of English resultatives mentioned above as constructional meanings of Korean resultatives. It is derived from the Korean resultatives which have an independent embedded clause in the resultatives. The other issue discussed in this paper is concerned with the Goldberg(1997)'s Causal Relation Hypothesis. I suggest a revised causal relation hypothesis using features which represents a combination of conceptual function and contextual function. The conceptional function reflects the speaker's experience of the world, and the contextual function indicates a relationship between the verbal subevent and the constructional subevent in the sense of Goldberg & Jackendoff(2004)'s analysis of resultatives. With this feature based constraint, I show that a pragmatic explanation is possible on the Korean unergative resultatives.
Goldberg(1995) argues that some constructions have their own meanings, and ditransitive expressions in English typically imply that the agent argument acts to cause transfer of an object to a recipient. The basic sense of this construction is argued to be the successful transfer of an object. Concerning the focus, the ditransitive construction is used when the recipient is nonfocused and the transferred object is focused. On the other hand, the preposition dative constructions is used when the focus is the goal or recipient. The basic sense of the ditransitive construction can be extended to metaphorical expressions such as give a kick in which the focus is given on the action denoted by the nominal, here a kick. This action is new and focused information. I analyzed the middle school English texts and describe the verb class used in ditransitive constructions and the frequency of them. I also pointed out that the basic sense and focus position of ditransitive construction should be considered in teaching ditransitive and preposition dative constructions. It is motivated by the fact that focused information tends to come at the end of the nuclear clause.
본 논문에서는 무인 항공기에 이용되는 영상기반 목표물 위치추정에 있어 정확도를 향상시키기 위한 방법의 일환으로 편향치를 추정하고자 한다. 이를 위해 편향치 추정 문제를 짐벌 각도들에 대한 위치추정 오차의 분산을 최소로 하는 최적화 문제로 변환하였다. 짐벌 방향각과 상하각에 따른 오차의 분산을 2차 다항식으로 근사함으로써 짐벌의 방향각과 상하각에 대한 편향치 추정을 수행하였다. 수치 시뮬레이션을 통해 편향치가 잘 추정되는 것을 확인하였으며 추정된 편향치를 보상해줌으로써 목표물 위치추정 정확도를 향상시킬 수 있었다. In this paper, bias estimation is conducted to improve the accuracy of the object geo-location for an UAV. The bias estimation problem is converted to an optimization problem, which is a minimization problem of the variance of the geo-location error subject to the gimbal angles. As the variance of the error is approximated by the 2nd order polynomial regression, the biases of the gimal azimuth and elevation angles are estimated. The performance of the proposed bias estimation method is evaluated using numerical simulations and the results show that the accuracy of the object geo-location is improved by compensating the estimated bias.
Schachter(1984) and Brass(1995) tried to explain auxiliary reduction and to-contraction uniformly. Schachter, for example, made advantage of different sentence boundaries in the framework of GPSG. If a clause has a full subject, contraction is impossible because it has a sentence boundary S which blocks government from the main verb. On the other hand, if the subject is missing in a clause, it has a boundary VP, not S, then the main verb can govern the head of a subordinate clause and the contraction is allowed. Structural adjacency as well as string adjacency is required for auxiliary reduction and to-contraction. The government between the host noun or verb and the target auxiliary or to is necessary for structural adjacency. The structural adjacency condition is, however, obligatory only for to-contraction. Auxiliary reduction shows that it is not directly concerned with the structural adjacency condition. Thus, the unified theory for auxiliary reduction and to-contraction is not helpful. It is suggested in this article that to-contraction has to be treated syntactically and auxiliary reduction phonologically, as Klavans(1980) offers a theory of cliticization in which a word may be syntactically proclitic but phonologically enclitic.
In this paper, I have tried to describe the structure of small clauses. Following Chomsky & Lasnik (1991) in which the predicate of adjunct small clauses can also assign a theta-role to an argument. I have argued that complement and adjunct small clauses have the multi complement structure which is represented as Larson's shell structure along with an empty V position under the Single Complement Hypothesis. To derive a sentence containing small clauses from the multi complement structure, the verb has to move to the empty V position. We adopt Yang's morphological feature of V, the selectional feature. to make the V-Raising satisfy the Principle of Greed. The selectional feature of a predicate is the syntactic specification of the external and internal arguments of the predicate. After V-raising, the two complements are interpreted as being in a predication relation because the trace of V is assumed to be a kind of light or dummy verb, and the predication relation is captured structurely. I have also accounted for the thematic phenomena where the subject of small clause predicates alway get the-theta-role Theme in terms of a general principle.
Tenny(1987, 1994) argues that it is aspectual component of thematic roles that governs their linking to syntax. That is, only aspectual structure is visible to syntax so that syntax needs to see not the thematic roles but the aspectual structure only. Tenny(1987) proposes 'The Aspectual Interface Hypothesis' saying that 'the universal principles of mapping between thematic structure and syntactic argument structure are governed by aspectual properties relating to measuring-out'. For measuring events, Tenny(1987, 1994) suggests that the internal direct argument be a measurer delimiting events, whereas Wyngaerd(2001) insists that resultative phrases delimit events. In this paper, I assume that all the resultative phrases have an aspectual role, and suggest the constraint on resultatives: resultative phrases have an aspectual role TERMINUS. With this constraint, I expect to constrain the possible resultative phrases and also substitute another constraint on resultatives such as Further Specification Constraint. I also suggest that the verbs of resultative construction have an aspectual structure [MEASURE, TERMINUS] or [PATH, TERMINUS]. In a sentence Kim ran into the room, for example, the scale for measuring out would be the path into the room. This exactly means that the measurer of the event described by the verb run is the implicit path and explicit terminus. Thus, I conclude that the measurer of events is the resultative small clauses rather than direct internal arguments or resultative phrases.
The analysis of resultative sentences in this paper is based on Goldberg's (1995) constructional view. Under the constructional view, resultative sentences are assumed to be composed of verbal subevent and constructional subevent. Accoring to Goldberg and Jackendoff's (2004) Causal Relation Hypithesis, the verbal subevent and constructional subevent must be integrated via causal relationship. For the causal relationship, I suggest two types of causal relationship, direct and logical cause-result relationship and indirect and phenomenal cause-effect relationship, and describe the causal relation by the combination of features, [logical] and [phenomenal]. I also revise Goldberg and Jackendoff's (2004) Causal Relation Hypothesis, saying that the verbal subevent and the constructional subevent must be integrated via a [+logical, +phenomenal] causal relationship. With the revised causal relation hypothesis, I can give an explanation for the various grammaticality on the resultatives, and provide a unified account for the semantic constraints between verb and argument and between arguments. The revised causal relation hypothesis also suggests that the whole sentences should be considered in deciding the grammaticality of resultatives rather than the categories which cause a conflict in meaning.